International Development Planning Review

‘Environment’ as an evolving concept in China's urban planning system

International Development Planning Review (2014), 36, (4), 391–412.

Abstract

This paper provides an interpretation of the nature of ‘environment’ as a growing concept in China's urban planning system. It argues that environment takes on three properties in planning: (1) a policy area operating within a complex web of state bodies, regulated by acts of different sectoral actors, (2) an aggregate of scaled spaces, each with their own operational strategies and environmental understanding and (3) a concept in proliferation, bounded up with a temporality of past, present and future. These arguments are elaborated through a discussion of the changing environmental discourses in the planning of Shenzhen, 1980 to 2010.

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ABRAMSON, D. B. (2007), ‘The dialectics of urban planning in China’, in F. Wu (ed.), China's emerging cities: The making of new urbanism, Oxon, Routledge, pp. 66-86. China's emerging cities: The making of new urbanism 66 86 Google Scholar

ANDONOVA, L. B. and MITCHELL, R. B. (2010), ‘The rescaling of global environmental politics’, Annual Reviews of Environment and Resources, 35, 255-82. ‘The rescaling of global environmental politics’ Annual Reviews of Environment and Resources 35 255 82 Google Scholar

BRADBURY, I. and KIRKBY, R. (1996), ‘China's Agenda 21: A critique’, Applied Geography, 16, 97-107. ‘China's Agenda 21: A critique’ Applied Geography 16 97 107 Google Scholar

BROWDER, G. (2007), Stepping up: Improving China's urban water utilities, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Stepping up: Improving China's urban water utilities Google Scholar

BRUTON, M. J., BRUTON, S. G. and LI, Y. (2005), ‘Shenzhen: Coping with uncertainties in planning’, Habitat International, 29, 227-43. ‘Shenzhen: Coping with uncertainties in planning’ Habitat International 29 227 43 Google Scholar

BULKELEY, H. (2005), ‘Reconfiguring environmental governance: towards a politics of scales and networks’, Political Geography, 24, 875-902. ‘Reconfiguring environmental governance: towards a politics of scales and networks’ Political Geography 24 875 902 Google Scholar

BULKELEY, H. and BETSILL, M. (2005), ‘Rethinking sustainable cities: multilevel governance and the "urban" politics of climate change’, Environmental Politics, 14, 42-63. ‘Rethinking sustainable cities: multilevel governance and the "urban" politics of climate change’ Environmental Politics 14 42 63 Google Scholar

CAI, Y. N., TANG, Y., YI, X. F. and JIN, W. L. (2010), ‘Eco-construction for Turpan New Town’, in China Urban Science Research Society (ed.), China low-carbon eco-city development report 2010, Beijing, China, China Construction Industry Press, pp. 474-82. [in Chinese] Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, S. (1996), ‘Green cities, growing cities, just cities?: Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 62, 296-312. ‘Green cities, growing cities, just cities?: Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development’ Journal of the American Planning Association 62 296 312 Google Scholar

CHE, X., ENGLISH, A., LU, J. and CHEN, Y. D. (2011), ‘Improving the effectiveness of planning EIA (PEIA) in China: Integrating planning and assessment during the preparation of Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan’, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 31, 561-71. ‘Improving the effectiveness of planning EIA (PEIA) in China: Integrating planning and assessment during the preparation of Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan’ Environmental Impact Assessment Review 31 561 71 Google Scholar

CHIEN, S. (2013), ‘Chinese eco-cities: A perspective of land-speculation-oriented entrepreneurialism’, China Information, 27, 173-96. ‘Chinese eco-cities: A perspective of land-speculation-oriented entrepreneurialism’ China Information 27 173 96 Google Scholar

DANIELS, T. L. (2009), ‘A trail across times: American environmental planning from city beautiful to sustainability’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 75, 178-92. ‘A trail across times: American environmental planning from city beautiful to sustainability’ Journal of the American Planning Association 75 178 92 Google Scholar

DAVOUDI, S. (2012), ‘Climate risk and security: New meanings of "the environment" in the English planning system’, European Planning Studies, 20, 49-69. ‘Climate risk and security: New meanings of "the environment" in the English planning system’ European Planning Studies 20 49 69 Google Scholar

DOWNS, E. S. (2004), ‘The Chinese energy security debate’, The China Quarterly, 177, 21-41. ‘The Chinese energy security debate’ The China Quarterly 177 21 41 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. and SHAW, T. (1993), The treatment of environment by planners: Evolving concepts and policies in development plans, Working Paper No.31, Centre for Research in European Urban Environments. The treatment of environment by planners: Evolving concepts and policies in development plans Google Scholar

HILLS, P. and ROBERTS, P. (2001), ‘Political integration, transboundary pollution and sustainability: Challenges for environmental policy in the Pearl River Delta Region’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 44, 455-73. ‘Political integration, transboundary pollution and sustainability: Challenges for environmental policy in the Pearl River Delta Region’ Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 44 455 73 Google Scholar

HODSON, M. and MARVIN, S. (2010), ‘Urbanism in the anthropocene: Ecological urbanism or premium ecological enclaves?’, City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action, 14, 298-313. ‘Urbanism in the anthropocene: Ecological urbanism or premium ecological enclaves?’ City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action 14 298 313 Google Scholar

HOPWOOD, B., MELLOR, M. and O'BRIEN, G. (2005), ‘Sustainable development: Mapping different approaches’, Sustainable Development, 13, 38-52. ‘Sustainable development: Mapping different approaches’ Sustainable Development 13 38 52 Google Scholar

HSO (HISTORY OF SHENZHEN OFFICE) (1997), Establishment of Development of Special Economic Zones in China: Shenzhen, Beijing, China, History of the Chinese Communist Party Press. [in Chinese] Google Scholar

HUANG, Z. Y. and YANG, D. Y. (2001), ‘A comprehensive review of eco-city concepts in China and foreign countries’, City Planning Review, 25, 55-66. [in Chinese] ‘A comprehensive review of eco-city concepts in China and foreign countries’ City Planning Review 25 55 66 Google Scholar

JAHIEL, A. R. (1997), ‘The contradictory impact of reform on environmental protection in China’, The China Quarterly, 149, 81-103. ‘The contradictory impact of reform on environmental protection in China’ The China Quarterly 149 81 103 Google Scholar

JEPSON, E. J. (2001), ‘Sustainability and planning: Diverse concepts and close associations’, Journal of Planning Literature, 15, 499-510. ‘Sustainability and planning: Diverse concepts and close associations’ Journal of Planning Literature 15 499 510 Google Scholar

JIANG, T. (2010), History of Shenzhen's reform, Beijing, China, People's Press. [in Chinese] History of Shenzhen's reform Google Scholar

KEELEY, J. and SCOONES, I. (1999), Understanding environmental policy processes: A review, IDS Working Paper 89, Brighton, Institute of Development Studies. Understanding environmental policy processes: A review Google Scholar

KRUSEKOPF, C. (2011), ‘Special economic zones and improved environmental management in China’, in C. Carter and A. Harding (eds), Special economic zones in Asian market economies, Abingdon and New York, Routledge, pp.84-107. Special economic zones in Asian market economies 84 107 Google Scholar

LIU, J. and DIAMOND, J. (2005), ‘China's environment in a globalizing world’, Nature, 435, 1179-86. ‘China's environment in a globalizing world’ Nature 435 1179 86 Google Scholar

MACLEOD, G. (2001), ‘The new regionalism reconsidered: globalization, regulation and the recasting of political economic space’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 25, 804-29. ‘The new regionalism reconsidered: globalization, regulation and the recasting of political economic space’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25 804 29 Google Scholar

MARKS, R. B. (2012), China: Its environment and history, Lanham, MD, Rowman and Littlefield. China: Its environment and history Google Scholar

MCHARG, I. L. (1969), Design with nature, Garden City, NY, Natural History Press. Design with nature Google Scholar

MÜHLHAUSLER, P. and PEACE, A. (2006), ‘Environmental discourses’, Annual Reviews of Anthropology, 35, 457-79. ‘Environmental discourses’ Annual Reviews of Anthropology 35 457 79 Google Scholar

NÆSS, P. (2001), ‘Urban planning and sustainable development’, European Planning Studies, 9, 503-24. ‘Urban planning and sustainable development’ European Planning Studies 9 503 24 Google Scholar

NEWBY, H. (1990), ‘Ecology, amenity and society: Social science and environmental change’, Town Planning Review, 61, 3-13. ‘Ecology, amenity and society: Social science and environmental change’ Town Planning Review 61 3 13 Google Scholar

NG, M. K. (2002), ‘Sustainable development in the rapidly growing socialist market economy of Shenzhen: Bottom-up efforts and top-down policies’, disP - The Planning Review, 151, 42-50. ‘Sustainable development in the rapidly growing socialist market economy of Shenzhen: Bottom-up efforts and top-down policies’ disP - The Planning Review 151 42 50 Google Scholar

PGGP (PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT OF GUANGDONG PROVINCE) (2001), Shenzhen Municipality 10th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development http://www.gd.gov.cn/govpub/fzgh/sywgy/0200607290020.htm Google Scholar

PGGP (PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT OF GUANGDONG PROVINCE) (2005), Pearl River Delta Urban Cluster Coordinated Development Plan, Guangzhou, China, PGGP. [in Chinese] Google Scholar

PGGP (PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT OF GUANGDONG PROVINCE) (2006), Shenzhen Municipality 11th Five-Year Plan of National Economic and Social Development http://www.gd.gov.cn/govpub/fzgh/sywgy/0200607050269.htm Google Scholar

PGSM (PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT OF SHENZHEN MUNICIPALITY) (1997), Shenzhen Master Plan (1996-2010), Shenzhen, China, PGSM. [in Chinese] Google Scholar

PGSM (PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT OF SHENZHEN MUNICIPALITY) (2008), Shenzhen Master Plan (2007-2020), Shenzhen, China: PGSM. [in Chinese] Google Scholar

PGSM (PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT OF SHENZHEN MUNICIPALITY) (2010), Shenzhen Master Plan (2010-2020), Shenzhen, China, PGSM. [in Chinese] Google Scholar

POW, C. P. and NEO, H. (2013), ‘Seeing red over green: Contesting urban sustainabilities in China’, Urban Studies, 50, 2256-74. ‘Seeing red over green: Contesting urban sustainabilities in China’ Urban Studies 50 2256 74 Google Scholar

REDCLIFT, M. (2005), ‘Sustainable development (1987-2005): An oxymoron comes of age’, Sustainable Development, 13, 212-27. ‘Sustainable development (1987-2005): An oxymoron comes of age’ Sustainable Development 13 212 27 Google Scholar

SC (STATE COUNCIL) (1980), Summary of the National Urban Planning Working Conference,Beijing, China, SC. [in Chinese] Google Scholar

SHAPIRO, J. (2001), Mao's war against nature, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Mao's war against nature Google Scholar

SHEN, Q. J. (2004), ‘EIA of plans and urban planning responses’, City Planning Review, 28, 52-56. [in Chinese] ‘EIA of plans and urban planning responses’ City Planning Review 28 52 56 Google Scholar

STERNER, T., TROELL, M., VINCENT, J., ANIYAR, S., BARRETT, S., BROCK, W., CARPENTER, S. and XEPAPADEAS, A. (2006), ‘Quick fixes for the environment: Part of the solution or part of the problem?’, Environment, 48, 20-27. ‘Quick fixes for the environment: Part of the solution or part of the problem?’ Environment 48 20 27 Google Scholar

SUPA (SHENZHEN URBAN PLANNING AUTHORITY) and SCB (SHENZHEN CONSTRUCTION BUREAU) (1990), Shenzhen urban planning and design, Shenzhen, China, Haitian. Google Scholar

SUPB (SHENZHEN URBAN PLANNING BUREAU) and CAUPD (CHINA ACADEMY OF URBAN PLANNING and DESIGN) (1986), The general planning of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, Shenzhen, China, SUPB. Google Scholar

SWYNGEDOUW, E. (2000), ‘Authoritarian governance, power, and the politics of rescaling’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 18, 63-76. ‘Authoritarian governance, power, and the politics of rescaling’ Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 18 63 76 Google Scholar

TANSUHAJ, P., GENTRY, J. W., JOHN, J., MANZER, L. L. and CHO, B. J. (1991), ‘A cross-national examination of innovation resistance’, International Marketing Review, 8, 7-20 ‘A cross-national examination of innovation resistance’ International Marketing Review 8 7 20 Google Scholar

WANG, W. (2005), A historical study on the development and paradigms of urban planning in Shenzhen, unpublished master's dissertation, Wuhan Polytechnic University. Google Scholar

WHEELER, S. M. (2000), ‘Planning for metropolitan sustainability’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 20, 133-45. ‘Planning for metropolitan sustainability’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 20 133 45 Google Scholar

WU, F. (2002), ‘China's changing urban governance in the transition towards a more market-oriented economy’, Urban Studies, 39, 1071-93. ‘China's changing urban governance in the transition towards a more market-oriented economy’ Urban Studies 39 1071 93 Google Scholar

WU, F. (2012), ‘China's eco-cities’, Geoforum, 43, 169-71. ‘China's eco-cities’ Geoforum 43 169 71 Google Scholar

XINHUA ONLINE (2006), ‘Efficiency overtakes speed as primary goal’, 3 December http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-12/03/content_5428169.htm Google Scholar

XU, J. and WANG, J. J. (2012), ‘Reassembling the state in urban China’, Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 53, 7-19. ‘Reassembling the state in urban China’ Asia Pacific Viewpoint 53 7 19 Google Scholar

XU, J. and YEH, A. G. O. (2005), ‘City repositioning and competitiveness building in regional development: New development strategies in Guangzhou, China’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29, 283-308. ‘City repositioning and competitiveness building in regional development: New development strategies in Guangzhou, China’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29 283 308 Google Scholar

XUE, Y., LIANG, H., BOULTON, W. R. and SNYDER, C. A. (2005), ‘ERP implementation failures in China: Case studies with implications for ERP vendors’, International Journal of Production Economics, 97, 279-95. ‘ERP implementation failures in China: Case studies with implications for ERP vendors’ International Journal of Production Economics 97 279 95 Google Scholar

YANG, B. J. and DONG, K. (2008), ‘Eco-city planning: concept and practice’, City Planning Review, 8, 10-14. [in Chinese]. ‘Eco-city planning: concept and practice’ City Planning Review 8 10 14 Google Scholar

YEH, A. G. O. and WU, F. (1999), ‘The transformation of the urban planning system in China from a centrally-planned to transitional economy’, Progress in Planning, 51, 167-252. ‘The transformation of the urban planning system in China from a centrally-planned to transitional economy’ Progress in Planning 51 167 252 Google Scholar

ZACHARIAS, M. J. and TANG, Y. (2010), ‘Restructuring and repositioning Shenzhen, China's new mega city’, Progress in Planning, 73, 209-49. ‘Restructuring and repositioning Shenzhen, China's new mega city’ Progress in Planning 73 209 49 Google Scholar

ZHANG, L. and ZHAO, L. (2010), ‘Historical interaction between environmental conceptions and man-land relationship since the establishment of New China’, Researches in Chinese Economic History, 1, 3-11. [in Chinese] ‘Historical interaction between environmental conceptions and man-land relationship since the establishment of New China’ Researches in Chinese Economic History 1 3 11 Google Scholar

ABRAMSON, D. B. (2007), ‘The dialectics of urban planning in China’, in F. Wu (ed.), China's emerging cities: The making of new urbanism, Oxon, Routledge, pp. 66-86. China's emerging cities: The making of new urbanism 66 86 Google Scholar

ANDONOVA, L. B. and MITCHELL, R. B. (2010), ‘The rescaling of global environmental politics’, Annual Reviews of Environment and Resources, 35, 255-82. ‘The rescaling of global environmental politics’ Annual Reviews of Environment and Resources 35 255 82 Google Scholar

BRADBURY, I. and KIRKBY, R. (1996), ‘China's Agenda 21: A critique’, Applied Geography, 16, 97-107. ‘China's Agenda 21: A critique’ Applied Geography 16 97 107 Google Scholar

BROWDER, G. (2007), Stepping up: Improving China's urban water utilities, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Stepping up: Improving China's urban water utilities Google Scholar

BRUTON, M. J., BRUTON, S. G. and LI, Y. (2005), ‘Shenzhen: Coping with uncertainties in planning’, Habitat International, 29, 227-43. ‘Shenzhen: Coping with uncertainties in planning’ Habitat International 29 227 43 Google Scholar

BULKELEY, H. (2005), ‘Reconfiguring environmental governance: towards a politics of scales and networks’, Political Geography, 24, 875-902. ‘Reconfiguring environmental governance: towards a politics of scales and networks’ Political Geography 24 875 902 Google Scholar

BULKELEY, H. and BETSILL, M. (2005), ‘Rethinking sustainable cities: multilevel governance and the "urban" politics of climate change’, Environmental Politics, 14, 42-63. ‘Rethinking sustainable cities: multilevel governance and the "urban" politics of climate change’ Environmental Politics 14 42 63 Google Scholar

CAI, Y. N., TANG, Y., YI, X. F. and JIN, W. L. (2010), ‘Eco-construction for Turpan New Town’, in China Urban Science Research Society (ed.), China low-carbon eco-city development report 2010, Beijing, China, China Construction Industry Press, pp. 474-82. [in Chinese] Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, S. (1996), ‘Green cities, growing cities, just cities?: Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 62, 296-312. ‘Green cities, growing cities, just cities?: Urban planning and the contradictions of sustainable development’ Journal of the American Planning Association 62 296 312 Google Scholar

CHE, X., ENGLISH, A., LU, J. and CHEN, Y. D. (2011), ‘Improving the effectiveness of planning EIA (PEIA) in China: Integrating planning and assessment during the preparation of Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan’, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 31, 561-71. ‘Improving the effectiveness of planning EIA (PEIA) in China: Integrating planning and assessment during the preparation of Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan’ Environmental Impact Assessment Review 31 561 71 Google Scholar

CHIEN, S. (2013), ‘Chinese eco-cities: A perspective of land-speculation-oriented entrepreneurialism’, China Information, 27, 173-96. ‘Chinese eco-cities: A perspective of land-speculation-oriented entrepreneurialism’ China Information 27 173 96 Google Scholar

DANIELS, T. L. (2009), ‘A trail across times: American environmental planning from city beautiful to sustainability’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 75, 178-92. ‘A trail across times: American environmental planning from city beautiful to sustainability’ Journal of the American Planning Association 75 178 92 Google Scholar

DAVOUDI, S. (2012), ‘Climate risk and security: New meanings of "the environment" in the English planning system’, European Planning Studies, 20, 49-69. ‘Climate risk and security: New meanings of "the environment" in the English planning system’ European Planning Studies 20 49 69 Google Scholar

DOWNS, E. S. (2004), ‘The Chinese energy security debate’, The China Quarterly, 177, 21-41. ‘The Chinese energy security debate’ The China Quarterly 177 21 41 Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. and SHAW, T. (1993), The treatment of environment by planners: Evolving concepts and policies in development plans, Working Paper No.31, Centre for Research in European Urban Environments. The treatment of environment by planners: Evolving concepts and policies in development plans Google Scholar

HILLS, P. and ROBERTS, P. (2001), ‘Political integration, transboundary pollution and sustainability: Challenges for environmental policy in the Pearl River Delta Region’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 44, 455-73. ‘Political integration, transboundary pollution and sustainability: Challenges for environmental policy in the Pearl River Delta Region’ Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 44 455 73 Google Scholar

HODSON, M. and MARVIN, S. (2010), ‘Urbanism in the anthropocene: Ecological urbanism or premium ecological enclaves?’, City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action, 14, 298-313. ‘Urbanism in the anthropocene: Ecological urbanism or premium ecological enclaves?’ City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action 14 298 313 Google Scholar

HOPWOOD, B., MELLOR, M. and O'BRIEN, G. (2005), ‘Sustainable development: Mapping different approaches’, Sustainable Development, 13, 38-52. ‘Sustainable development: Mapping different approaches’ Sustainable Development 13 38 52 Google Scholar

HSO (HISTORY OF SHENZHEN OFFICE) (1997), Establishment of Development of Special Economic Zones in China: Shenzhen, Beijing, China, History of the Chinese Communist Party Press. [in Chinese] Google Scholar

HUANG, Z. Y. and YANG, D. Y. (2001), ‘A comprehensive review of eco-city concepts in China and foreign countries’, City Planning Review, 25, 55-66. [in Chinese] ‘A comprehensive review of eco-city concepts in China and foreign countries’ City Planning Review 25 55 66 Google Scholar

JAHIEL, A. R. (1997), ‘The contradictory impact of reform on environmental protection in China’, The China Quarterly, 149, 81-103. ‘The contradictory impact of reform on environmental protection in China’ The China Quarterly 149 81 103 Google Scholar

JEPSON, E. J. (2001), ‘Sustainability and planning: Diverse concepts and close associations’, Journal of Planning Literature, 15, 499-510. ‘Sustainability and planning: Diverse concepts and close associations’ Journal of Planning Literature 15 499 510 Google Scholar

JIANG, T. (2010), History of Shenzhen's reform, Beijing, China, People's Press. [in Chinese] History of Shenzhen's reform Google Scholar

KEELEY, J. and SCOONES, I. (1999), Understanding environmental policy processes: A review, IDS Working Paper 89, Brighton, Institute of Development Studies. Understanding environmental policy processes: A review Google Scholar

KRUSEKOPF, C. (2011), ‘Special economic zones and improved environmental management in China’, in C. Carter and A. Harding (eds), Special economic zones in Asian market economies, Abingdon and New York, Routledge, pp.84-107. Special economic zones in Asian market economies 84 107 Google Scholar

LIU, J. and DIAMOND, J. (2005), ‘China's environment in a globalizing world’, Nature, 435, 1179-86. ‘China's environment in a globalizing world’ Nature 435 1179 86 Google Scholar

MACLEOD, G. (2001), ‘The new regionalism reconsidered: globalization, regulation and the recasting of political economic space’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 25, 804-29. ‘The new regionalism reconsidered: globalization, regulation and the recasting of political economic space’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25 804 29 Google Scholar

MARKS, R. B. (2012), China: Its environment and history, Lanham, MD, Rowman and Littlefield. China: Its environment and history Google Scholar

MCHARG, I. L. (1969), Design with nature, Garden City, NY, Natural History Press. Design with nature Google Scholar

MÜHLHAUSLER, P. and PEACE, A. (2006), ‘Environmental discourses’, Annual Reviews of Anthropology, 35, 457-79. ‘Environmental discourses’ Annual Reviews of Anthropology 35 457 79 Google Scholar

NÆSS, P. (2001), ‘Urban planning and sustainable development’, European Planning Studies, 9, 503-24. ‘Urban planning and sustainable development’ European Planning Studies 9 503 24 Google Scholar

NEWBY, H. (1990), ‘Ecology, amenity and society: Social science and environmental change’, Town Planning Review, 61, 3-13. ‘Ecology, amenity and society: Social science and environmental change’ Town Planning Review 61 3 13 Google Scholar

NG, M. K. (2002), ‘Sustainable development in the rapidly growing socialist market economy of Shenzhen: Bottom-up efforts and top-down policies’, disP - The Planning Review, 151, 42-50. ‘Sustainable development in the rapidly growing socialist market economy of Shenzhen: Bottom-up efforts and top-down policies’ disP - The Planning Review 151 42 50 Google Scholar

PGGP (PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT OF GUANGDONG PROVINCE) (2001), Shenzhen Municipality 10th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development http://www.gd.gov.cn/govpub/fzgh/sywgy/0200607290020.htm Google Scholar

PGGP (PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT OF GUANGDONG PROVINCE) (2005), Pearl River Delta Urban Cluster Coordinated Development Plan, Guangzhou, China, PGGP. [in Chinese] Google Scholar

PGGP (PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT OF GUANGDONG PROVINCE) (2006), Shenzhen Municipality 11th Five-Year Plan of National Economic and Social Development http://www.gd.gov.cn/govpub/fzgh/sywgy/0200607050269.htm Google Scholar

PGSM (PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT OF SHENZHEN MUNICIPALITY) (1997), Shenzhen Master Plan (1996-2010), Shenzhen, China, PGSM. [in Chinese] Google Scholar

PGSM (PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT OF SHENZHEN MUNICIPALITY) (2008), Shenzhen Master Plan (2007-2020), Shenzhen, China: PGSM. [in Chinese] Google Scholar

PGSM (PEOPLE'S GOVERNMENT OF SHENZHEN MUNICIPALITY) (2010), Shenzhen Master Plan (2010-2020), Shenzhen, China, PGSM. [in Chinese] Google Scholar

POW, C. P. and NEO, H. (2013), ‘Seeing red over green: Contesting urban sustainabilities in China’, Urban Studies, 50, 2256-74. ‘Seeing red over green: Contesting urban sustainabilities in China’ Urban Studies 50 2256 74 Google Scholar

REDCLIFT, M. (2005), ‘Sustainable development (1987-2005): An oxymoron comes of age’, Sustainable Development, 13, 212-27. ‘Sustainable development (1987-2005): An oxymoron comes of age’ Sustainable Development 13 212 27 Google Scholar

SC (STATE COUNCIL) (1980), Summary of the National Urban Planning Working Conference,Beijing, China, SC. [in Chinese] Google Scholar

SHAPIRO, J. (2001), Mao's war against nature, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Mao's war against nature Google Scholar

SHEN, Q. J. (2004), ‘EIA of plans and urban planning responses’, City Planning Review, 28, 52-56. [in Chinese] ‘EIA of plans and urban planning responses’ City Planning Review 28 52 56 Google Scholar

STERNER, T., TROELL, M., VINCENT, J., ANIYAR, S., BARRETT, S., BROCK, W., CARPENTER, S. and XEPAPADEAS, A. (2006), ‘Quick fixes for the environment: Part of the solution or part of the problem?’, Environment, 48, 20-27. ‘Quick fixes for the environment: Part of the solution or part of the problem?’ Environment 48 20 27 Google Scholar

SUPA (SHENZHEN URBAN PLANNING AUTHORITY) and SCB (SHENZHEN CONSTRUCTION BUREAU) (1990), Shenzhen urban planning and design, Shenzhen, China, Haitian. Google Scholar

SUPB (SHENZHEN URBAN PLANNING BUREAU) and CAUPD (CHINA ACADEMY OF URBAN PLANNING and DESIGN) (1986), The general planning of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, Shenzhen, China, SUPB. Google Scholar

SWYNGEDOUW, E. (2000), ‘Authoritarian governance, power, and the politics of rescaling’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 18, 63-76. ‘Authoritarian governance, power, and the politics of rescaling’ Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 18 63 76 Google Scholar

TANSUHAJ, P., GENTRY, J. W., JOHN, J., MANZER, L. L. and CHO, B. J. (1991), ‘A cross-national examination of innovation resistance’, International Marketing Review, 8, 7-20 ‘A cross-national examination of innovation resistance’ International Marketing Review 8 7 20 Google Scholar

WANG, W. (2005), A historical study on the development and paradigms of urban planning in Shenzhen, unpublished master's dissertation, Wuhan Polytechnic University. Google Scholar

WHEELER, S. M. (2000), ‘Planning for metropolitan sustainability’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 20, 133-45. ‘Planning for metropolitan sustainability’ Journal of Planning Education and Research 20 133 45 Google Scholar

WU, F. (2002), ‘China's changing urban governance in the transition towards a more market-oriented economy’, Urban Studies, 39, 1071-93. ‘China's changing urban governance in the transition towards a more market-oriented economy’ Urban Studies 39 1071 93 Google Scholar

WU, F. (2012), ‘China's eco-cities’, Geoforum, 43, 169-71. ‘China's eco-cities’ Geoforum 43 169 71 Google Scholar

XINHUA ONLINE (2006), ‘Efficiency overtakes speed as primary goal’, 3 December http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-12/03/content_5428169.htm Google Scholar

XU, J. and WANG, J. J. (2012), ‘Reassembling the state in urban China’, Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 53, 7-19. ‘Reassembling the state in urban China’ Asia Pacific Viewpoint 53 7 19 Google Scholar

XU, J. and YEH, A. G. O. (2005), ‘City repositioning and competitiveness building in regional development: New development strategies in Guangzhou, China’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29, 283-308. ‘City repositioning and competitiveness building in regional development: New development strategies in Guangzhou, China’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29 283 308 Google Scholar

XUE, Y., LIANG, H., BOULTON, W. R. and SNYDER, C. A. (2005), ‘ERP implementation failures in China: Case studies with implications for ERP vendors’, International Journal of Production Economics, 97, 279-95. ‘ERP implementation failures in China: Case studies with implications for ERP vendors’ International Journal of Production Economics 97 279 95 Google Scholar

YANG, B. J. and DONG, K. (2008), ‘Eco-city planning: concept and practice’, City Planning Review, 8, 10-14. [in Chinese]. ‘Eco-city planning: concept and practice’ City Planning Review 8 10 14 Google Scholar

YEH, A. G. O. and WU, F. (1999), ‘The transformation of the urban planning system in China from a centrally-planned to transitional economy’, Progress in Planning, 51, 167-252. ‘The transformation of the urban planning system in China from a centrally-planned to transitional economy’ Progress in Planning 51 167 252 Google Scholar

ZACHARIAS, M. J. and TANG, Y. (2010), ‘Restructuring and repositioning Shenzhen, China's new mega city’, Progress in Planning, 73, 209-49. ‘Restructuring and repositioning Shenzhen, China's new mega city’ Progress in Planning 73 209 49 Google Scholar

ZHANG, L. and ZHAO, L. (2010), ‘Historical interaction between environmental conceptions and man-land relationship since the establishment of New China’, Researches in Chinese Economic History, 1, 3-11. [in Chinese] ‘Historical interaction between environmental conceptions and man-land relationship since the establishment of New China’ Researches in Chinese Economic History 1 3 11 Google Scholar

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Xu, Jiang

Chung, Calvin