International Development Planning Review

Who plans the African city? A case study of Maputo: part 1 – the structural context

International Development Planning Review (2015), 37, (3), 329–350.

Abstract

Urbanisation in sub-Saharan Africa constitutes a radically different context from that in the Global North, in terms of scale and pace of urban change and the nature of political and economic structures where state capacities are limited and non-state action dominates. However, the nature of urban planning generally implemented tends to be based on northern norms and methods, but without significant impact. This article draws on recent empirical research examining state and non-state activities on urban land development in Maputo, Mozambique. Here, whereas land-use planning based on state control has limited practical impact, urban land is physically structured and planned by urban dwellers aspiring to establish legitimate and viable forms of socioculturally informed physical order. Even where such ‘ordered’ land-use practices are not implemented (whether by state or non-state actors), collective forms of sociocultural organisation still orientate and guide land-use practices in many ‘unplanned’ areas, and this remains the dominant form of land development. This leads to the query: who actually ‘plans’ the African city?

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ABBOTT, J. (2004), ‘Upgrading an informal settlement in Cape Town, South Africa’, in K. T. Hansen and M. Vaa (eds), Reconsidering Informality. Perspectives from Urban Africa, Uppsala, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 193–209.Upgrading an informal settlement in Cape Town, South Africa Reconsidering Informality. Perspectives from Urban Africa 193 209 Google Scholar

BERNARD DA COSTA, A. and BIZA, A. (2012), ‘Home space in the African city’ (ethnographic study), Copenhagen, Danish Research Council, available at: http://www.homespace.dk/tl_files/uploads/publications/Full%20reports/HomeSpace_Ethnographic_Report_text.pdf (accessed 18 February 2015). Google Scholar

BLUNDO, G. and OLIVIER DE SARDAN, J. -P. (eds) (2006), Everyday Corruption and the State. Citizens and Public Offcials in Africa, London, Zed Books.Everyday Corruption and the State. Citizens and Public Offcials in Africa Google Scholar

CHABAL, P. and DALOZ, J. -P. (1999), Africa Works. Disorder as a Political Instrument, Bloomington, IN, Indiana University Press.Africa Works. Disorder as a Political Instrument, Google Scholar

CHITEKWE, B. (2009), ‘Struggles for urban land by the Zimbabwe Homeless People’s Federation’, Environment and Urbanization, 21, 347–66.Struggles for urban land by the Zimbabwe Homeless People’s Federation Environment and Urbanization 21 347 66 Google Scholar

COLSON, E. (1971), ‘The impact of the colonial period on the definition of land rights’, in V. Turner (ed.), Colonialism in Africa: 1870-1960. Vol 3: Profiles of Change: African Society and Colonial Rule, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 193–215.The impact of the colonial period on the definition of land rights Colonialism in Africa: 1870-1960. Vol 3: Profiles of Change: African Society and Colonial Rule 193 215 Google Scholar

COQUERY-VIDROVITcH, C. (1991), ‘The process of urbanization in Africa’, African Studies Review, 34, 1–98.The process of urbanization in Africa African Studies Review 34 1 98 Google Scholar

DINERMAN, A. (2006), Revolution, Counter-Revolution and Revisionism in Postcolonial Africa, The Case of Mozambique, 1975-1994, London, Routledge.Revolution, Counter-Revolution and Revisionism in Postcolonial Africa, The Case of Mozambique, 1975-1994 Google Scholar

ESKEMOSE ANDERSEN, J. (2012a), ‘Home space in the African city: built environment study’ (government study), Copenhagen, Danish Research Council.Home space in the African city: built environment study Google Scholar

ESKEMOSE ANDERSEN, J. (2012b), Home space in the African city: socio-economic study’ (government study), Copenhagen, Danish Research Council, available at: http://www.homespace.dk/tl_files/uploads/publications/Full%20reports/HomeSpace_Socio-Economic_Study.pdf (accessed 19 February 2015). Google Scholar

HALL, P. (2002), Urban & Regional Planning, London, Routledge.Urban & Regional Planning Google Scholar

JANSSON, J. and KIALA, C. (2009), ‘Patterns of Chinese Investment, Aid and Trade in Mozambique’ (briefing paper), Stellenbosch, Centre for Chinese Studies, University of Stellenbosch.Patterns of Chinese Investment, Aid and Trade in Mozambique Google Scholar

JENKINS, P. (2001a), ‘Strengthening access to land for housing for the poor in Maputo, Mozambique’, International Journal of Urban & Regional Research, 25, 629–48.Strengthening access to land for housing for the poor in Maputo, Mozambique International Journal of Urban & Regional Research 25 629 48 Google Scholar

JENKINS, P. (2001b), ‘Emerging Land Markets for Housing in Mozambique: The Impact on the Poor and Alternatives to Improve Land Access and Urban Development – An Action Research Project in Peri-Urban Maputo’ (Action Research Paper No. 75), Edinburgh, Edinburgh College of Art/Heriot-Watt University.Emerging Land Markets for Housing in Mozambique: The Impact on the Poor and Alternatives to Improve Land Access and Urban Development – An Action Research Project in Peri-Urban Maputo Google Scholar

JENKINS, P. (2003), ‘In search of the urban-rural front-line in post-war Mozambique and Angola’, Environment & Urbanisation, 15, 121–34.In search of the urban-rural front-line in post-war Mozambique and Angola Environment & Urbanisation 15 121 34 Google Scholar

JENKINS, P. (2006), ‘The image of the city in Mozambique’, in D. Bryceson and D. Potts (eds), African Urban Economies: Viability, Vitality or Vitiation of Major Cities in East and Southern Africa, Basingstoke, Palgrave, 107–30.The image of the city in Mozambique African Urban Economies: Viability, Vitality or Vitiation of Major Cities in East and Southern Africa 107 30 Google Scholar

JENKINS, P. (2008), ‘Investigating the concepts of legality and legitimacy in sustainable urban development: a case study of land use planning in Maputo, Mozambique’, in S. Sassen and M. Marcotullio (eds), UNESCO Encyclopaedia of Life Support Systems, Volume: Human Settlements and Sustainability, Oxford, UNEScO Publishing-Eolss Publishers, 88.Investigating the concepts of legality and legitimacy in sustainable urban development: a case study of land use planning in Maputo, Mozambique UNESCO Encyclopaedia of Life Support Systems, Volume: Human Settlements and Sustainability 88 Google Scholar

JENKINS, P. (2009), ‘African cities: competing claims on urban land’, in P. Nugent and F. Locatelli (eds), African Cities: Competing Claims on Urban Spaces, Leiden, Brill, 81–108.African cities: competing claims on urban land African Cities: Competing Claims on Urban Spaces 81 108 Google Scholar

JENKINS, P. (2011), ‘Maputo and Luanda’, in G. Therborn and S. Bekker (eds), Capital Cities in Africa: Power and Powerlessness, Johannesburg, Human Science Research Council, 142–66.Maputo and Luanda Capital Cities in Africa: Power and Powerlessness 142 66 Google Scholar

JENKINS, P. (2012), ‘Home Space in the African city: context Report’ (report), Copenhagen, Danish Research Council, available at: http://www.homespace.dk/tl_files/uploads/publications/Full%20reports/HomeSpace_context_Report.pdf (accessed 19 February 2015). Google Scholar

JENKINS, P. (2013), Urbanization, Urbanism and Urbanity: Home Spaces and House Cultures in an African City, New York, NY, Palgrave Macmillan.Urbanization, Urbanism and Urbanity: Home Spaces and House Cultures in an African City Google Scholar

JENKINS, P. and SMITH, H. (2001), ‘The state, the market and community: an analytical framework for community self-development’, in M. Carley, P. Jenkins and H. Smith (eds), Urban Development and Civil Society: The Role of Communities in Sustainable Cities, London, Earthscan, 16–32.The state, the market and community: an analytical framework for community self-development Urban Development and Civil Society: The Role of Communities in Sustainable Cities 16 32 Google Scholar

JENKINS, P., SMITH, H. and WANG, Y. P. (2007), Planning and Housing in the Rapidly Urbanising World, London, Routledge.Planning and Housing in the Rapidly Urbanising World Google Scholar

KAMETE, A. Y. and LINDELL, I. (2010), ‘The politics of “non-planning” interventions in African cities: unravelling the international and local dimensions in Harare and Maputo’, Journal of Southern African Studies, 36, 889–912.The politics of “non-planning” interventions in African cities: unravelling the international and local dimensions in Harare and Maputo Journal of Southern African Studies 36 889 912 Google Scholar

MINISTRY OF PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, MOZAMBIQUE (2009), ‘Projectos submetidos para o financiamento externo do Exim Bank da China do Governo da China’ (projects submitted for external financing through the Exim Bank, Government of China), Mozambique, Ministry of Planning and Development.Projectos submetidos para o fnanciamento externo do Exim Bank da China do Governo da China Google Scholar

MCAUSLAN, P. (1975), Land, Law and Planning, London, Weidenfeld & Nicholson.Land, Law and Planning Google Scholar

MCAUSLAN, P. (2003), Bringing the Law Back In: Essays in Land, Law and Development, Ashford, Ashgate.Bringing the Law Back In: Essays in Land, Law and Development Google Scholar

MYERS, G. (2011), African Cities: Alternative Visions of Urban Theory and Practice, London, Zed Press.African Cities: Alternative Visions of Urban Theory and Practice Google Scholar

NIELSEN, M. (2007), ‘Filling in the blanks. The potency of fragmented imageries of the state’, Review of African Political Economy, 34, 695–708.Filling in the blanks. The potency of fragmented imageries of the state Review of African Political Economy 34 695 708 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

NIELSEN, M. (2010), ‘Mimesis of the state. From natural disaster to urban citizenship on the outskirts of Maputo, Mozambique’, Social Analysis, 54, 153–73.Mimesis of the state. From natural disaster to urban citizenship on the outskirts of Maputo, Mozambique Social Analysis 54 153 73 Google Scholar

NIELSEN, M. (2011), ‘Inverse governmentality. The paradoxical production of peri-urban planning in Maputo, Mozambique’, Critique of Anthropology, 31, 329–58.Inverse governmentality. The paradoxical production of peri-urban planning in Maputo, Mozambique Critique of Anthropology 31 329 58 Google Scholar

NIELSEN, M. (2013), ‘Analogic asphalt. Suspended value conversions among young road workers in southern Mozambique’, HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 3, 79–96.Analogic asphalt. Suspended value conversions among young road workers in southern Mozambique HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 3 79 96 Google Scholar

NNKYA, T. (2008), Why planning does not work: Land use planning and residents’ rights in Tanzania, Mkuki na Nyota Publishers, Dar es Salaam.Why planning does not work: Land use planning and residents’ rights in Tanzania Google Scholar

PIETERSE, E. (2008), City Futures. Confronting the Crisis of Urban Development, London, Zed Books.City Futures. Confronting the Crisis of Urban Development Google Scholar

RAKODI, C. (2007), ‘Land for housing in African cities: are informal delivery systems institutionally robust and pro-poor?’, Global Urban Development Magazine, 3, available at: www.globalurban.org/GUDMag07Vol3Iss1/Rakodi.htm (accessed 9 February 2014). Google Scholar

SCOTT, J. (1993), Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed, London, Yale University Press.Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed Google Scholar

SWEDESURVEY (1999), ‘Comparative Study of Real and Documented Land Use and Land Occupation and Legal Support to Urban Land Management. First Volume: Evaluation of the Existing Situation’ (final report), Maputo, Direcção de Construção e Urbanização.Comparative Study of Real and Documented Land Use and Land Occupation and Legal Support to Urban Land Management. First Volume: Evaluation of the Existing Situation Google Scholar

TOULMIN, C. and QUAN, J. (2000), Evolving Land Rights, Policy and Tenure in Africa, London, DFID-IIED.Evolving Land Rights, Policy and Tenure in Africa Google Scholar

TRINDADE, J. C. (2006), ‘Rupture and continuity in political and legal processes’, in B. D. S. Santos, J. C. Trindade and M. P. Meneses (eds), Law and Justice in a Multicultural Society. The Case of Mozambique, Dakar, CODESRIA, 45–78.Rupture and continuity in political and legal processes Law and Justice in a Multicultural Society. The Case of Mozambique 45 78 Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2003), ‘The challenge of Slums’ (global report on human settlements), Nairobi, UN-Habitat.The challenge of Slums Google Scholar

UN-HABITAT (2010), The State of African Cities, Nairobi, UN-Habitat/UNEP.The State of African Cities, Nairobi, UN-Habitat/UNEP. Google Scholar

WATSON, V. (2009), ‘‘The Planned City Sweeps the Poor Away’: Urban Planning and 21st Century Urbanisation’ in Progress in Planning, 72, 151–93.The Planned City Sweeps the Poor Away#x2019;: Urban Planning and 21st Century Urbanisation Progress in Planning 72 151 93 Google Scholar

WATSON, V. (2009), ‘Seeing from the South: Refocusing Urban Planning on the Globe’s Central Urban Issues’ in Urban Studies, 26, 2259–75.Seeing from the South: Refocusing Urban Planning on the Globe’s Central Urban Issues Urban Studies 26 2259 75 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Andersen, Jørgen Eskemose

Jenkins, Paul

Nielsen, Morten