International Development Planning Review

Urban-rural transition in China's metropolises: new trends in peri-urbanisation in Beijing

International Development Planning Review (2012), 34, (3), 269–294.

Abstract

This paper analyses new trends in peri-urbanisation occurring in China after 2000, by taking Beijing as a case study. The results of the analysis show that the percentage of temporary migrant residents continues to grow in the peri-urban region, and social inequalities between local people and migrants have increased there. In particular, there is a concentration of thousands of young and well-educated migrants in the peri-urban region. New forms of urban villages have also emerged in the peri-urban region, for example, informal communities, known as ‘incomplete ownership housing’ communities, which are being developed in the peri-urban region by collective villages, rather than individual villagers. The residential demand of the middle-class groups has favoured the growth of low-density houses in the peri-urban region. These new trends are related to many transition factors, including changes in economic structure, growing market forces, increasing incomes, the emergence of a middle class, a dichotomous land system and fragmented development management and social discrimination caused by the remnants of the hukou mechanism. The new trends suggest that China's metropolises are experiencing a highly complex urban-rural transition process in the transformation era.

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WEBSTER, D. and MULLER, L. (2004), ‘The challenges of peri-urban growth in East Asia: the case of China Hangzhou-Ningbo corridor’, in M. Freire & B. Yuen (eds), Enhancing Urban Management in East Asia, Aldershot, Ashgate, 23-54. Enhancing Urban Management in East Asia 23 54 Google Scholar

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WORLD BANK (1994), China: Country Economic Memorandum, Macroeconomic Stability in a Decentralized Economy, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Google Scholar

WU, F. (2001), ‘China's recent urban development in the process of land and housing marketisation and economic globalization’, Habitat International, 25, 273-89. ‘China's recent urban development in the process of land and housing marketisation and economic globalization’ Habitat International 25 273 89 Google Scholar

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WU, W. P. (2004), ‘Sources of migrant housing disadvantage in urban China’, Environment and Planning A, 36, 1285-304. ‘Sources of migrant housing disadvantage in urban China’ Environment and Planning A 36 1285 304 Google Scholar

YANG, Q. (2004), ‘Beijing will demolish 231 urban villages’, XinhuaNet, 27 September 2004 http://news.xinhuanet.com/house/2004-09/28/content_2031764.htm Google Scholar

ZHANG, D. (2010), ‘Beijing revenue from land transfer reached RMB 93 bn. Being half of the city's total revenue’, China Stock Times, 29 December. ‘Beijing revenue from land transfer reached RMB 93 bn. Being half of the city's total revenue’ China Stock Times Google Scholar

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ZHAO, P. and HOWDEN-CHAPMAN, P. (2010), ‘Social inequalities in mobility: the impact of the hukou system on migrants’ job accessibility and commuting costs in Beijing', International Development and Planning Review, 32, 363-84. ‘Social inequalities in mobility: the impact of the hukou system on migrants’ job accessibility and commuting costs in Beijing' International Development and Planning Review 32 363 84 Google Scholar

ZHAO, P., LU, B. and WOLTJER, J. (2009), ‘Conflicts in urban fringe in the transformation era: an examination of performance of the metropolitan growth management in Beijing’, Habitat International, 33, 347-56. ‘Conflicts in urban fringe in the transformation era: an examination of performance of the metropolitan growth management in Beijing’ Habitat International 33 347 56 Google Scholar

ZHENG, S., LONG, F., FAN, C. C. and GU, Y. (2009), ‘Urban villages in china: a 2008 survey of migrant settlements in Beijing’, Eurasian Geography and Economics, 50, 425-46. ‘Urban villages in china: a 2008 survey of migrant settlements in Beijing’ Eurasian Geography and Economics 50 425 46 Google Scholar

ZHOU, Y. and MA, L. J. C. (2000), ‘Economic restructuring and suburbanization in China’, Urban Geography, 21, 205-36. ‘Economic restructuring and suburbanization in China’ Urban Geography 21 205 36 Google Scholar

ZHU, J. (1999), ‘Local growth coalition: the context and implications of China's gradualist urban land reforms’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 25, 534-48. ‘Local growth coalition: the context and implications of China's gradualist urban land reforms’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25 534 48 Google Scholar

ZHU, J. and HU, T. (2009), ‘Disordered land-rent competition in China's periurbanisation: case study of Beiqijia Township, Beijing', Environment and Planning A, 41, 1629-46. ‘Disordered land-rent competition in China's periurbanisation: case study of Beiqijia Township, Beijing’ Environment and Planning A 41 1629 46 Google Scholar

ZHU, S. (2007), ‘Over one million s.q.m "incomplete ownership housing" checked in Beijing Tongzhou’, Beijing Morning News, 18 September. ‘Over one million s.q.m "incomplete ownership housing" checked in Beijing Tongzhou’ Beijing Morning News Google Scholar

AFL-CIO (2009), ‘Young workers: a lost decade’, AFL-CIO America's Unions http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/laborunions/18 Google Scholar

BI, X. (2010), ‘The area of the "incomplete ownership housing" 6.6 bn. The ministry of national land and resources making countermeasures’, New Beijing Daily, 1 February. ‘The area of the "incomplete ownership housing" 6.6 bn. The ministry of national land and resources making countermeasures’ New Beijing Daily Google Scholar

BLHB (BEIJING NATIONAL LAND RESOURCE AND HOUSING MANAGEMENT BUREAU) (2000), Beijing Land Readjustment Data, Beijing, Beijing National Land Resource and Housing Management Bureau. Google Scholar

BLHB (BEIJING NATIONAL LAND RESOURCE AND HOUSING MANAGEMENT BUREAU) (2009), Beijing Land Readjustment Data, Beijing, Beijing National Land Resource and Housing Management Bureau. Google Scholar

BLHB (BEIJING NATIONAL LAND RESOURCE AND HOUSING MANAGEMENT BUREAU) (various years), Beijing Real Estate Statistical Yearbook, Beijing, Zhong guo ji liang Press Google Scholar

BMCHURD (BEIJING MUNICIPAL COMMISSION OF HOUSING LAND URBAN-RURAL DEVELOPMENT) (various years), Beijing Real Estate Statistical Yearbook (2009), Beijing, Zhong guo ji liang Press. Google Scholar

BRANDT, L. and ZHU, X. (2000), ‘Redistribution in a decentralized economy: growth and inflation in China under reform’, Journal of Political Economy, 108, 422-39. ‘Redistribution in a decentralized economy: growth and inflation in China under reform’ Journal of Political Economy 108 422 39 Google Scholar

BSB (BEIJING STATISTIC BUREAU) (1990), Beijing the Fourth (1990) Census, Beijing, Beijing Statistic Bureau. Google Scholar

BSB (BEIJING STATISTIC BUREAU) (1996), Beijing First National Agricultural Census (1996), Beijing, Beijing Statistic Bureau. Google Scholar

BSB (BEIJING STATISTIC BUREAU) (1997), Report of the First (1996) National Basic Unit Census of Beijing, Beijing, Beijing Statistic Bureau. Google Scholar

BSB (BEIJING STATISTIC BUREAU) (2000), Beijing the Fifth (2000) Census, Beijing, Beijing Statistic Bureau. Google Scholar

BSB (BEIJING STATISTIC BUREAU) (2002), Report of the Second (2001) National Basic Unit Census of Beijing, Beijing, Beijing Statistic Bureau. Google Scholar

BSB (BEIJING STATISTIC BUREAU) (2004), Report of Beijing Migrant Survey 2003, Beijing, Beijing Statistic Bureau. Google Scholar

BSB (BEIJING STATISTIC BUREAU) (2005), Report of the First (2004) National Economic Census of Beijing, Beijing, Beijing Statistic Bureau. Google Scholar

BSB (BEIJING STATISTIC BUREAU) (2006), Beijing 1 per cent Population Sample Survey 2005, Beijing, China Statistical Publishing House. Google Scholar

BSB (BEIJING STATISTIC BUREAU) (2008), Beijing Second National Agricultural Census, Beijing, Beijing Statistic Bureau. Google Scholar

BSB (BEIJING STATISTIC BUREAU) (2009a), Beijing 1% Population Sample Survey 2008, Beijing, China Statistical Publishing House. Google Scholar

BSB (BEIJING STATISTIC BUREAU) (2009b), Report of the Second (2004) National Economic Census of Beijing, Beijing, Beijing Statistic Bureau. Google Scholar

BSB (BEIJING STATISTIC BUREAU)(various years), Beijing Statistic Yearbook, Beijing, China Statistical Publishing House. Google Scholar

CHINA YOUTH DAILY (2010), ‘Tangjialing's Ant Group looking for next village’, China Youth Daily. Google Scholar

CHOW, G. C. (2007), China's Economic Transformation (2nd edn.), London, Blackwell Publishing. China's Economic Transformation Google Scholar

COHEN, B. (2006), ‘Urbanization in developing countries: current trends, future projections, and key challenges for sustainability’, Technology in Society, 28, 63-80. ‘Urbanization in developing countries: current trends, future projections, and key challenges for sustainability’ Technology in Society 28 63 80 Google Scholar

CSB (CHINA STATISTIC BUREAU) (various years), China Statistic Yearbook, Beijing, China Statistical Publishing House. Google Scholar

DENG, F. F. and HUANG, Y. (2004), ‘Uneven land reform and urban sprawl in China: the case of Beijing’, Progress in Planning, 61, 211-36. ‘Uneven land reform and urban sprawl in China: the case of Beijing’ Progress in Planning 61 211 36 Google Scholar

FELTENSTEIN, A. and IWATA, S. (2005), ‘Decentralization and macroeconomic performance in China: regional autonomy has its costs’, Journal of Development Economics, 76, 481-501. ‘Decentralization and macroeconomic performance in China: regional autonomy has its costs’ Journal of Development Economics 76 481 501 Google Scholar

GAUBATZ, P. (1999), ‘China's urban transformation: patterns and process of morphological change in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou’, Urban Studies, 36, 1495-521. ‘China's urban transformation: patterns and process of morphological change in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou’ Urban Studies 36 1495 521 Google Scholar

GU, C. and SHEN, J. (2003), ‘Transformation of urban socio-spatial structure in socialist market economies: the case of Beijing’, Habitat International, 27, 107-22. ‘Transformation of urban socio-spatial structure in socialist market economies: the case of Beijing’ Habitat International 27 107 22 Google Scholar

KNIGHT, J. and LI, S. (1999), ‘Fiscal decentralization: incentives, redistribution in China’, Oxford Development Studies, 27, 5-32. ‘Fiscal decentralization: incentives, redistribution in China’ Oxford Development Studies 27 5 32 Google Scholar

LIAN, S. (2009), Yi zu (Ant group), Nanning, Guangxi Normal University Press. Yi zu (Ant group) Google Scholar

LIN, G. C. S. (2001a), ‘Evolving spatial form of urban-rural interaction in the Pearl River Delta, China’, The Professional Geographer, 53, 56-70. ‘Evolving spatial form of urban-rural interaction in the Pearl River Delta, China’ The Professional Geographer 53 56 70 Google Scholar

LIN, G. C. S. (2001b), ‘Metropolitan development in a transitional socialist economy: spatial restructuring in the Pearl River Delta, China’, Urban Studies, 38, 383-406. ‘Metropolitan development in a transitional socialist economy: spatial restructuring in the Pearl River Delta, China’ Urban Studies 38 383 406 Google Scholar

LIN, J. Y. and LIU, Z. (2000), ‘Fiscal decentralization and economic growth in China’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 49, 1-21. ‘Fiscal decentralization and economic growth in China’ Economic Development and Cultural Change 49 1 21 Google Scholar

MA, L. J. C. (2004), ‘Economic reforms, urban spatial restructuring, and planning in China’, Progress in Planning, 61, 237-60. ‘Economic reforms, urban spatial restructuring, and planning in China’ Progress in Planning 61 237 60 Google Scholar

PAN, C. (2010), China's Human Resource Blue Book 2010, Beijing, Renmin Press. China's Human Resource Blue Book 2010 Google Scholar

PANEBIACO, S. and KIEHL, M. (2003), ‘Suburbanisation, counterurbanisation, reurbanisation? An empirical analysis of recent employment and population trends in Western Europe’ (paper delivered to the ERSA 2003 Conference, Jyväskylä). ‘Suburbanisation, counterurbanisation, reurbanisation? An empirical analysis of recent employment and population trends in Western Europe’ Google Scholar

RICHARDSON, H. W. and BAE, C. H. C. (2004), Urban Sprawl in Western Europe and the United States, Aldershot, Ashgate. Urban Sprawl in Western Europe and the United States Google Scholar

UNITED NATIONS (2001), World Urbanization Prospects: The 1999 Revision, New York, NY, United Nations. Google Scholar

WANG, Y. P. (2004), Urban Poverty, Housing and Social Change in China, London, Routledge. Urban Poverty, Housing and Social Change in China Google Scholar

WATSON, V. (2009), ‘"The planned city sweeps the poor away…": urban planning and 21st century urbanisation’, Progress in Planning, 72, 151-93. ‘"The planned city sweeps the poor away…": urban planning and 21st century urbanisation’ Progress in Planning 72 151 93 Google Scholar

WEBSTER, D. (2002), On the Edge: Shaping the Future of Peri-Urban East Asia, Stanford, CA, Asia-Pacific Research Centre, Stanford University. On the Edge: Shaping the Future of Peri-Urban East Asia Google Scholar

WEBSTER, D. and MULLER, L. (2004), ‘The challenges of peri-urban growth in East Asia: the case of China Hangzhou-Ningbo corridor’, in M. Freire & B. Yuen (eds), Enhancing Urban Management in East Asia, Aldershot, Ashgate, 23-54. Enhancing Urban Management in East Asia 23 54 Google Scholar

WEBSTER, D. R., CAI, J., MULLER, L. and LUO, B. (2003), Emerging Third Stage Peri-Urbanization: Functional Specialization in the Hangzhou Peri-Urban Region, Stanford, CA, Asia-Pacific Research Center, Stanford University. Emerging Third Stage Peri-Urbanization: Functional Specialization in the Hangzhou Peri-Urban Region Google Scholar

WEBSTER, D. R., CAI, J., MULLER, L. and LUO, B. (2004), Peri-Urbanization in Chengdu, Western China: From ‘Third Line’ to Market Dynamics, Stanford, CA, Asia-Pacific Research Center, Stanford University. Peri-Urbanization in Chengdu, Western China: From ‘Third Line’ to Market Dynamics Google Scholar

WEI, Y. D., LEUNG, C. K. and LUO, J. (2006), ‘Globalizing Shanghai: foreign investment and urban restructuring’, Habitat International, 30, 231-44. ‘Globalizing Shanghai: foreign investment and urban restructuring’ Habitat International 30 231 44 Google Scholar

WEST, L. A. and WONG, C. P. W. (1995), ‘Fiscal decentralization and growing regional disparities in rural China: some evidence in the provision of social services’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 11, 70-84. ‘Fiscal decentralization and growing regional disparities in rural China: some evidence in the provision of social services’ Oxford Review of Economic Policy 11 70 84 Google Scholar

WONG, K. K. and ZHAO, X. B. (1999), ‘The influence of bureaucratic behavior on land apportionment in China: the informal process’, Environment and Planning C, 17, 113-26. ‘The influence of bureaucratic behavior on land apportionment in China: the informal process’ Environment and Planning C 17 113 26 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (1994), China: Country Economic Memorandum, Macroeconomic Stability in a Decentralized Economy, Washington, DC, The World Bank. Google Scholar

WU, F. (2001), ‘China's recent urban development in the process of land and housing marketisation and economic globalization’, Habitat International, 25, 273-89. ‘China's recent urban development in the process of land and housing marketisation and economic globalization’ Habitat International 25 273 89 Google Scholar

WU, F. (2003), ‘The (post-) socialist entrepreneurial city as a state project: Shanghai's regionalization in question’, Urban Studies, 40, 1673-98. ‘The (post-) socialist entrepreneurial city as a state project: Shanghai's regionalization in question’ Urban Studies 40 1673 98 Google Scholar

WU, J. (2008), ‘The peri-urbanisation of Shanghai: planning, growth pattern and sustainable development’, Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 49, 244-53. ‘The peri-urbanisation of Shanghai: planning, growth pattern and sustainable development’ Asia Pacific Viewpoint 49 244 53 Google Scholar

WU, W. (2002), ‘Migrant housing in urban China: choices and constraints’, Urban Affairs Review, 38, 90-119. ‘Migrant housing in urban China: choices and constraints’ Urban Affairs Review 38 90 119 Google Scholar

WU, W. P. (2004), ‘Sources of migrant housing disadvantage in urban China’, Environment and Planning A, 36, 1285-304. ‘Sources of migrant housing disadvantage in urban China’ Environment and Planning A 36 1285 304 Google Scholar

YANG, Q. (2004), ‘Beijing will demolish 231 urban villages’, XinhuaNet, 27 September 2004 http://news.xinhuanet.com/house/2004-09/28/content_2031764.htm Google Scholar

ZHANG, D. (2010), ‘Beijing revenue from land transfer reached RMB 93 bn. Being half of the city's total revenue’, China Stock Times, 29 December. ‘Beijing revenue from land transfer reached RMB 93 bn. Being half of the city's total revenue’ China Stock Times Google Scholar

ZHAO, P. (2010), ‘Building knowledge city in transformation era: knowledge-based urban development in Beijing in the context of globalisation and decentralisation’, Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 51, 73-90. ‘Building knowledge city in transformation era: knowledge-based urban development in Beijing in the context of globalisation and decentralisation’ Asia Pacific Viewpoint 51 73 90 Google Scholar

ZHAO, P. and HOWDEN-CHAPMAN, P. (2010), ‘Social inequalities in mobility: the impact of the hukou system on migrants’ job accessibility and commuting costs in Beijing', International Development and Planning Review, 32, 363-84. ‘Social inequalities in mobility: the impact of the hukou system on migrants’ job accessibility and commuting costs in Beijing' International Development and Planning Review 32 363 84 Google Scholar

ZHAO, P., LU, B. and WOLTJER, J. (2009), ‘Conflicts in urban fringe in the transformation era: an examination of performance of the metropolitan growth management in Beijing’, Habitat International, 33, 347-56. ‘Conflicts in urban fringe in the transformation era: an examination of performance of the metropolitan growth management in Beijing’ Habitat International 33 347 56 Google Scholar

ZHENG, S., LONG, F., FAN, C. C. and GU, Y. (2009), ‘Urban villages in china: a 2008 survey of migrant settlements in Beijing’, Eurasian Geography and Economics, 50, 425-46. ‘Urban villages in china: a 2008 survey of migrant settlements in Beijing’ Eurasian Geography and Economics 50 425 46 Google Scholar

ZHOU, Y. and MA, L. J. C. (2000), ‘Economic restructuring and suburbanization in China’, Urban Geography, 21, 205-36. ‘Economic restructuring and suburbanization in China’ Urban Geography 21 205 36 Google Scholar

ZHU, J. (1999), ‘Local growth coalition: the context and implications of China's gradualist urban land reforms’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 25, 534-48. ‘Local growth coalition: the context and implications of China's gradualist urban land reforms’ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25 534 48 Google Scholar

ZHU, J. and HU, T. (2009), ‘Disordered land-rent competition in China's periurbanisation: case study of Beiqijia Township, Beijing', Environment and Planning A, 41, 1629-46. ‘Disordered land-rent competition in China's periurbanisation: case study of Beiqijia Township, Beijing’ Environment and Planning A 41 1629 46 Google Scholar

ZHU, S. (2007), ‘Over one million s.q.m "incomplete ownership housing" checked in Beijing Tongzhou’, Beijing Morning News, 18 September. ‘Over one million s.q.m "incomplete ownership housing" checked in Beijing Tongzhou’ Beijing Morning News Google Scholar

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Zhao, Pengjun

Zhao, Pengjun