Journal of Romance Studies

Participle–object agreement in French and the theory of grammatical viruses

Journal of Romance Studies (2013), 13, (1), 19–33.

Abstract

This paper looks at the French rule of the preceding direct object from a fresh perspective, that of Virus Theory. As is well known, the rule in question perplexes foreign learners and causes difficulty to native speakers of French. At the same time it is something of a cultural shibboleth and has attracted a quite surprising degree of interest from theoretical linguists (including Chomsky). Based on an examination of the phenomenon in terms of five signature properties, the present paper proposes that the rule is in fact a grammatical virus; that is, an epiphenomenon of language pedagogy rather than a genuine component of the French grammar. From that perspective it is similar to such constructs as the English rule which, in prestige speech, converts accusative me to nominative I after the word and. Linguists should thus be wary of using the paradigm of avoir-related participle agreement for theory construction as it appears to be something of an empirical red herring.

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Arrivé, Michel (1994) ‘Un débat sans mémoire: la querelle de l’orthographe en France (1893– 1991)’, Langages 114, 69–83. Un débat sans mémoire: la querelle de l’orthographe en France (1893– 1991) Langages 114 69 83 Google Scholar

Belletti, Adriana (2006) ‘(Past) participle agreement’, in The Blackwell companion to syntax vol III, ed. Martin Everaert and Henk Van Riemsdijk (London/New York: Blackwell), 493–521. (Past) participle agreement The Blackwell companion to syntax vol III 493 521 Google Scholar

Billotte, Pierre (1957) Considérations stratégiques (Paris: Société nouvelle de l’Encyclopédie française). Considérations stratégiques Google Scholar

Bošković, Željko (1997) ‘On certain violations of the superiority condition, AgrO and economy of derivation’, Journal of Linguistics 33, 227–54. On certain violations of the superiority condition, AgrO and economy of derivation Journal of Linguistics 33 227 54 Google Scholar

Brissaud, Catherine (1999) ‘La réalisation de l’accord du participe passé employé avec avoir. De l’influence de quelques variables linguistiques et sociales’, Langage et société 88, 5–24. La réalisation de l’accord du participe passé employé avec avoir. De l’influence de quelques variables linguistiques et sociales Langage et société 88 5 24 Google Scholar

Campbell, John (2008) ‘Sarkozy and the past participle: accord … ou pas d’accord ?’, French Studies Bulletin 29.1, no. 106. http://fsb.oxfordjournals.org/ (accessed 27 February 2010). Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (1995) The Minimalist Program (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). The Minimalist Program Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (2001) ‘Derivation by Phase’, in Ken Hale: a life in language, ed. Michael Kenstowicz (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 1–52. Derivation by Phase Ken Hale: a life in language 1 52 Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (2008) ‘On Phases’, in Foundational issues in linguistic theory, ed. Robert Freidin, Carlos Otero and María Luisa Zubizarreta (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 133–66. On Phases Foundational issues in linguistic theory 133 66 Google Scholar

Conseil supérieur de la langue française (1990) ‘Les rectifications de l’orthographe (Rapport)’, Journal officiel de la République Française, édition des documents administratifs 100 (December), 7–18. Google Scholar

D’Alessandro, Roberta and Ian Roberts (2008) ‘Movement and Agreement in Italian past participles and defective phases’, Linguistic Inquiry 39, 477–91. Movement and Agreement in Italian past participles and defective phases Linguistic Inquiry 39 477 91 Google Scholar

Déprez, Viviane (1998) ‘Semantic effects of agreement: the case of French past participle agreement’, Probus 10, 1–65. Semantic effects of agreement: the case of French past participle agreement Probus 10 1 65 Google Scholar

Ducrot, Oswald and Jean-Marie Schaeffer (1995) Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopédique de sciences du langage (Paris: Larousse). Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopédique de sciences du langage Google Scholar

Emonds, Joseph E (1986) ‘Grammatically deviant prestige constructions’, in Festschrift for Sol Saporta, ed. Michael Brame, Heles Contreras and Frederick J. Newmeyer (Seattle: Noit Amrofer), 93–129. Grammatically deviant prestige constructions Festschrift for Sol Saporta 93 129 Google Scholar

Grèce, Michel De (1982) La Nuit du sérail (Paris: Gallimard). La Nuit du sérail Google Scholar

Grevisse, Maurice (1986) Le bon usage, 12th edn by André Goose (Paris: Duculot). Le bon usage Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1975) French syntax: the transformational cycle (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). French syntax: the transformational cycle Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1981) ‘On certain differences between French and English’, Linguistic Inquiry 12, 349–371. On certain differences between French and English Linguistic Inquiry 12 349 371 Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1989) ‘Facets of Romance past participle agreement’, in Dialect variation and the theory of grammar, ed. Paola Benincà (Dordrecht: Foris), 85–103. Facets of Romance past participle agreement Dialect variation and the theory of grammar 85 103 Google Scholar

Lasnik, Howard and Nicholas Sobin (2000) ‘The who /whom puzzle: on the preservation of an archaic feature’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18, 343–71. The who /whom puzzle: on the preservation of an archaic feature Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18 343 71 Google Scholar

Lyons, John (1981) Language and linguistics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Language and linguistics Google Scholar

Milroy, James (2001) ‘Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization’, Journal of sociolinguistics 5.4, 530–55. Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization Journal of sociolinguistics 5.4 530 55 Google Scholar

Müller, Natasha, Katrine Schmitz, Katja Cantone and Tanja Kupisch (2006) ‘Null arguments in monolingual children: a comparison of Italian and French’, in The acquisition of syntax in Romance languages, ed. Vicent Torres and Linda Escobar (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), 69–93. Null arguments in monolingual children: a comparison of Italian and French The acquisition of syntax in Romance languages 69 93 Google Scholar

Olson, Gary A. and Lester Faigley (1991) ‘Language, politics and composition: a conversation with Noam Chomsky’, Journal of Advanced Composition 11, 1–35. Language, politics and composition: a conversation with Noam Chomsky Journal of Advanced Composition 11 1 35 Google Scholar

Pirvulescu, Mihaela and Isabelle Belzil (2008) ‘The acquisition of past participle agreement in Québec French L1’, Language acquisition 15, 75–88. The acquisition of past participle agreement in Québec French L1 Language acquisition 15 75 88 Google Scholar

Quattlebaum, Judith A. (1994) ‘A study of Case assignment in coordinate noun phrases’, Language Quarterly 32, 131–47. A study of Case assignment in coordinate noun phrases Language Quarterly 32 131 47 Google Scholar

Queneau, Raymond (1951) Le dimanche de la vie (Paris: Gallimard). Le dimanche de la vie Google Scholar

Radford, Andrew and Michele Vincent (2007) ‘On past participle agreement in transitive clauses in French’, in Proceedings of the XXXIII Incontro di grammatica generativa, Bologna, March 1–3, 2007, ed. Antonietta Bisetto and Francesco E. Barbieri (Bologna: Università di Bologna), 140–61. On past participle agreement in transitive clauses in French 140 61 Google Scholar

Richards, Norvin (1997) What moves where when in which language? PhD diss., MIT. What moves where when in which language? Google Scholar

Ruwet, Nicolas (1982) Grammaire des insultes et autres études (Paris: Seuil). Grammaire des insultes et autres études Google Scholar

Smith, John Charles (1993) ‘The agreement of the past participle conjugated with avoir and a preceding direct object – a brief history of prescriptive attitudes’, in Authority and the French language. Papers from a conference at the University of Bristol, ed. Rodney Sampson (Münster: Nodus), 87–125. The agreement of the past participle conjugated with avoir and a preceding direct object – a brief history of prescriptive attitudes 87 125 Google Scholar

Sobin, Nicholas (1997) ‘Agreement, default rules, and grammatical viruses’, Linguistic Inquiry 28, 318–43. Agreement, default rules, and grammatical viruses Linguistic Inquiry 28 318 43 Google Scholar

Sobin, Nicholas (2009) ‘Prestige Case forms and the Comp-trace effect’, Syntax 12, 32–59. Prestige Case forms and the Comp-trace effect Syntax 12 32 59 Google Scholar

Sportiche, Dominique (1998) Partitions and atoms of clause structure: subjects, agreement, case and clitics (Abingdon: Routledge). Partitions and atoms of clause structure: subjects, agreement, case and clitics Google Scholar

Sundquist, John D. (2011) ‘Negative movement in the history of Norwegian: the evolution of a grammatical virus’, in Grammatical change: origins, nature, outcomes, ed. Diane Jonas, John Whitman and Andrew Garrett (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 293–312. Negative movement in the history of Norwegian: the evolution of a grammatical virus Grammatical change: origins, nature, outcomes 293 312 Google Scholar

Tanase, Eugène (1976) ‘L’accord du participe passé dans le français oral’, in Actes du XIIIe Congrè s international de linguistique et philologie romanes: tenu à l’Université Laval (Qué bec, Canada) du 29 août au 5 septembre 1971, ed. Marcel Boudreault and Frankwalt Mö hren (Québec: Presses de l’Université Laval), 475–82. L’accord du participe passé dans le français oral Actes du XIIIe Congrè s international de linguistique et philologie romanes: tenu à l’Université Laval (Qué bec, Canada) du 29 août au 5 septembre 1971 475 82 Google Scholar

Ura, Hiroyuki (1993) ‘On feature-checking for wh-traces’, MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18, 243–80. On feature-checking for wh-traces MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18 243 80 Google Scholar

Veland, Reidar (1998) ‘Une construction dite ne pas exister en français moderne: le passif suivi d’un infinitif nu’, Journal of French language studies 8, 97–113. Une construction dite ne pas exister en français moderne: le passif suivi d’un infinitif nu Journal of French language studies 8 97 113 Google Scholar

Arrivé, Michel (1994) ‘Un débat sans mémoire: la querelle de l’orthographe en France (1893– 1991)’, Langages 114, 69–83. Un débat sans mémoire: la querelle de l’orthographe en France (1893– 1991) Langages 114 69 83 Google Scholar

Belletti, Adriana (2006) ‘(Past) participle agreement’, in The Blackwell companion to syntax vol III, ed. Martin Everaert and Henk Van Riemsdijk (London/New York: Blackwell), 493–521. (Past) participle agreement The Blackwell companion to syntax vol III 493 521 Google Scholar

Billotte, Pierre (1957) Considérations stratégiques (Paris: Société nouvelle de l’Encyclopédie française). Considérations stratégiques Google Scholar

Bošković, Željko (1997) ‘On certain violations of the superiority condition, AgrO and economy of derivation’, Journal of Linguistics 33, 227–54. On certain violations of the superiority condition, AgrO and economy of derivation Journal of Linguistics 33 227 54 Google Scholar

Brissaud, Catherine (1999) ‘La réalisation de l’accord du participe passé employé avec avoir. De l’influence de quelques variables linguistiques et sociales’, Langage et société 88, 5–24. La réalisation de l’accord du participe passé employé avec avoir. De l’influence de quelques variables linguistiques et sociales Langage et société 88 5 24 Google Scholar

Campbell, John (2008) ‘Sarkozy and the past participle: accord … ou pas d’accord ?’, French Studies Bulletin 29.1, no. 106. http://fsb.oxfordjournals.org/ (accessed 27 February 2010). Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (1995) The Minimalist Program (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). The Minimalist Program Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (2001) ‘Derivation by Phase’, in Ken Hale: a life in language, ed. Michael Kenstowicz (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 1–52. Derivation by Phase Ken Hale: a life in language 1 52 Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (2008) ‘On Phases’, in Foundational issues in linguistic theory, ed. Robert Freidin, Carlos Otero and María Luisa Zubizarreta (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 133–66. On Phases Foundational issues in linguistic theory 133 66 Google Scholar

Conseil supérieur de la langue française (1990) ‘Les rectifications de l’orthographe (Rapport)’, Journal officiel de la République Française, édition des documents administratifs 100 (December), 7–18. Google Scholar

D’Alessandro, Roberta and Ian Roberts (2008) ‘Movement and Agreement in Italian past participles and defective phases’, Linguistic Inquiry 39, 477–91. Movement and Agreement in Italian past participles and defective phases Linguistic Inquiry 39 477 91 Google Scholar

Déprez, Viviane (1998) ‘Semantic effects of agreement: the case of French past participle agreement’, Probus 10, 1–65. Semantic effects of agreement: the case of French past participle agreement Probus 10 1 65 Google Scholar

Ducrot, Oswald and Jean-Marie Schaeffer (1995) Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopédique de sciences du langage (Paris: Larousse). Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopédique de sciences du langage Google Scholar

Emonds, Joseph E (1986) ‘Grammatically deviant prestige constructions’, in Festschrift for Sol Saporta, ed. Michael Brame, Heles Contreras and Frederick J. Newmeyer (Seattle: Noit Amrofer), 93–129. Grammatically deviant prestige constructions Festschrift for Sol Saporta 93 129 Google Scholar

Grèce, Michel De (1982) La Nuit du sérail (Paris: Gallimard). La Nuit du sérail Google Scholar

Arrivé, Michel (1994) ‘Un débat sans mémoire: la querelle de l’orthographe en France (1893– 1991)’, Langages 114, 69–83. Un débat sans mémoire: la querelle de l’orthographe en France (1893– 1991) Langages 114 69 83 Google Scholar

Grevisse, Maurice (1986) Le bon usage, 12th edn by André Goose (Paris: Duculot). Le bon usage Google Scholar

Belletti, Adriana (2006) ‘(Past) participle agreement’, in The Blackwell companion to syntax vol III, ed. Martin Everaert and Henk Van Riemsdijk (London/New York: Blackwell), 493–521. (Past) participle agreement The Blackwell companion to syntax vol III 493 521 Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1975) French syntax: the transformational cycle (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). French syntax: the transformational cycle Google Scholar

Billotte, Pierre (1957) Considérations stratégiques (Paris: Société nouvelle de l’Encyclopédie française). Considérations stratégiques Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1981) ‘On certain differences between French and English’, Linguistic Inquiry 12, 349–371. On certain differences between French and English Linguistic Inquiry 12 349 371 Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1989) ‘Facets of Romance past participle agreement’, in Dialect variation and the theory of grammar, ed. Paola Benincà (Dordrecht: Foris), 85–103. Facets of Romance past participle agreement Dialect variation and the theory of grammar 85 103 Google Scholar

Bošković, Željko (1997) ‘On certain violations of the superiority condition, AgrO and economy of derivation’, Journal of Linguistics 33, 227–54. On certain violations of the superiority condition, AgrO and economy of derivation Journal of Linguistics 33 227 54 Google Scholar

Lasnik, Howard and Nicholas Sobin (2000) ‘The who /whom puzzle: on the preservation of an archaic feature’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18, 343–71. The who /whom puzzle: on the preservation of an archaic feature Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18 343 71 Google Scholar

Brissaud, Catherine (1999) ‘La réalisation de l’accord du participe passé employé avec avoir. De l’influence de quelques variables linguistiques et sociales’, Langage et société 88, 5–24. La réalisation de l’accord du participe passé employé avec avoir. De l’influence de quelques variables linguistiques et sociales Langage et société 88 5 24 Google Scholar

Lyons, John (1981) Language and linguistics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Language and linguistics Google Scholar

Arrivé, Michel (1994) ‘Un débat sans mémoire: la querelle de l’orthographe en France (1893– 1991)’, Langages 114, 69–83. Un débat sans mémoire: la querelle de l’orthographe en France (1893– 1991) Langages 114 69 83 Google Scholar

Campbell, John (2008) ‘Sarkozy and the past participle: accord … ou pas d’accord ?’, French Studies Bulletin 29.1, no. 106. http://fsb.oxfordjournals.org/ (accessed 27 February 2010). Google Scholar

Milroy, James (2001) ‘Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization’, Journal of sociolinguistics 5.4, 530–55. Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization Journal of sociolinguistics 5.4 530 55 Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (1995) The Minimalist Program (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). The Minimalist Program Google Scholar

Müller, Natasha, Katrine Schmitz, Katja Cantone and Tanja Kupisch (2006) ‘Null arguments in monolingual children: a comparison of Italian and French’, in The acquisition of syntax in Romance languages, ed. Vicent Torres and Linda Escobar (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), 69–93. Null arguments in monolingual children: a comparison of Italian and French The acquisition of syntax in Romance languages 69 93 Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (2001) ‘Derivation by Phase’, in Ken Hale: a life in language, ed. Michael Kenstowicz (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 1–52. Derivation by Phase Ken Hale: a life in language 1 52 Google Scholar

Belletti, Adriana (2006) ‘(Past) participle agreement’, in The Blackwell companion to syntax vol III, ed. Martin Everaert and Henk Van Riemsdijk (London/New York: Blackwell), 493–521. (Past) participle agreement The Blackwell companion to syntax vol III 493 521 Google Scholar

Olson, Gary A. and Lester Faigley (1991) ‘Language, politics and composition: a conversation with Noam Chomsky’, Journal of Advanced Composition 11, 1–35. Language, politics and composition: a conversation with Noam Chomsky Journal of Advanced Composition 11 1 35 Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (2008) ‘On Phases’, in Foundational issues in linguistic theory, ed. Robert Freidin, Carlos Otero and María Luisa Zubizarreta (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 133–66. On Phases Foundational issues in linguistic theory 133 66 Google Scholar

Billotte, Pierre (1957) Considérations stratégiques (Paris: Société nouvelle de l’Encyclopédie française). Considérations stratégiques Google Scholar

Pirvulescu, Mihaela and Isabelle Belzil (2008) ‘The acquisition of past participle agreement in Québec French L1’, Language acquisition 15, 75–88. The acquisition of past participle agreement in Québec French L1 Language acquisition 15 75 88 Google Scholar

Bošković, Željko (1997) ‘On certain violations of the superiority condition, AgrO and economy of derivation’, Journal of Linguistics 33, 227–54. On certain violations of the superiority condition, AgrO and economy of derivation Journal of Linguistics 33 227 54 Google Scholar

Conseil supérieur de la langue française (1990) ‘Les rectifications de l’orthographe (Rapport)’, Journal officiel de la République Française, édition des documents administratifs 100 (December), 7–18. Google Scholar

Quattlebaum, Judith A. (1994) ‘A study of Case assignment in coordinate noun phrases’, Language Quarterly 32, 131–47. A study of Case assignment in coordinate noun phrases Language Quarterly 32 131 47 Google Scholar

Brissaud, Catherine (1999) ‘La réalisation de l’accord du participe passé employé avec avoir. De l’influence de quelques variables linguistiques et sociales’, Langage et société 88, 5–24. La réalisation de l’accord du participe passé employé avec avoir. De l’influence de quelques variables linguistiques et sociales Langage et société 88 5 24 Google Scholar

D’Alessandro, Roberta and Ian Roberts (2008) ‘Movement and Agreement in Italian past participles and defective phases’, Linguistic Inquiry 39, 477–91. Movement and Agreement in Italian past participles and defective phases Linguistic Inquiry 39 477 91 Google Scholar

Campbell, John (2008) ‘Sarkozy and the past participle: accord … ou pas d’accord ?’, French Studies Bulletin 29.1, no. 106. http://fsb.oxfordjournals.org/ (accessed 27 February 2010). Google Scholar

Queneau, Raymond (1951) Le dimanche de la vie (Paris: Gallimard). Le dimanche de la vie Google Scholar

Déprez, Viviane (1998) ‘Semantic effects of agreement: the case of French past participle agreement’, Probus 10, 1–65. Semantic effects of agreement: the case of French past participle agreement Probus 10 1 65 Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (1995) The Minimalist Program (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). The Minimalist Program Google Scholar

Radford, Andrew and Michele Vincent (2007) ‘On past participle agreement in transitive clauses in French’, in Proceedings of the XXXIII Incontro di grammatica generativa, Bologna, March 1–3, 2007, ed. Antonietta Bisetto and Francesco E. Barbieri (Bologna: Università di Bologna), 140–61. On past participle agreement in transitive clauses in French 140 61 Google Scholar

Ducrot, Oswald and Jean-Marie Schaeffer (1995) Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopédique de sciences du langage (Paris: Larousse). Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopédique de sciences du langage Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (2001) ‘Derivation by Phase’, in Ken Hale: a life in language, ed. Michael Kenstowicz (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 1–52. Derivation by Phase Ken Hale: a life in language 1 52 Google Scholar

Richards, Norvin (1997) What moves where when in which language? PhD diss., MIT. What moves where when in which language? Google Scholar

Emonds, Joseph E (1986) ‘Grammatically deviant prestige constructions’, in Festschrift for Sol Saporta, ed. Michael Brame, Heles Contreras and Frederick J. Newmeyer (Seattle: Noit Amrofer), 93–129. Grammatically deviant prestige constructions Festschrift for Sol Saporta 93 129 Google Scholar

Ruwet, Nicolas (1982) Grammaire des insultes et autres études (Paris: Seuil). Grammaire des insultes et autres études Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (2008) ‘On Phases’, in Foundational issues in linguistic theory, ed. Robert Freidin, Carlos Otero and María Luisa Zubizarreta (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 133–66. On Phases Foundational issues in linguistic theory 133 66 Google Scholar

Grèce, Michel De (1982) La Nuit du sérail (Paris: Gallimard). La Nuit du sérail Google Scholar

Conseil supérieur de la langue française (1990) ‘Les rectifications de l’orthographe (Rapport)’, Journal officiel de la République Française, édition des documents administratifs 100 (December), 7–18. Google Scholar

Grevisse, Maurice (1986) Le bon usage, 12th edn by André Goose (Paris: Duculot). Le bon usage Google Scholar

Smith, John Charles (1993) ‘The agreement of the past participle conjugated with avoir and a preceding direct object – a brief history of prescriptive attitudes’, in Authority and the French language. Papers from a conference at the University of Bristol, ed. Rodney Sampson (Münster: Nodus), 87–125. The agreement of the past participle conjugated with avoir and a preceding direct object – a brief history of prescriptive attitudes 87 125 Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1975) French syntax: the transformational cycle (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). French syntax: the transformational cycle Google Scholar

D’Alessandro, Roberta and Ian Roberts (2008) ‘Movement and Agreement in Italian past participles and defective phases’, Linguistic Inquiry 39, 477–91. Movement and Agreement in Italian past participles and defective phases Linguistic Inquiry 39 477 91 Google Scholar

Déprez, Viviane (1998) ‘Semantic effects of agreement: the case of French past participle agreement’, Probus 10, 1–65. Semantic effects of agreement: the case of French past participle agreement Probus 10 1 65 Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1981) ‘On certain differences between French and English’, Linguistic Inquiry 12, 349–371. On certain differences between French and English Linguistic Inquiry 12 349 371 Google Scholar

Sobin, Nicholas (1997) ‘Agreement, default rules, and grammatical viruses’, Linguistic Inquiry 28, 318–43. Agreement, default rules, and grammatical viruses Linguistic Inquiry 28 318 43 Google Scholar

Ducrot, Oswald and Jean-Marie Schaeffer (1995) Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopédique de sciences du langage (Paris: Larousse). Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopédique de sciences du langage Google Scholar

Sobin, Nicholas (2009) ‘Prestige Case forms and the Comp-trace effect’, Syntax 12, 32–59. Prestige Case forms and the Comp-trace effect Syntax 12 32 59 Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1989) ‘Facets of Romance past participle agreement’, in Dialect variation and the theory of grammar, ed. Paola Benincà (Dordrecht: Foris), 85–103. Facets of Romance past participle agreement Dialect variation and the theory of grammar 85 103 Google Scholar

Emonds, Joseph E (1986) ‘Grammatically deviant prestige constructions’, in Festschrift for Sol Saporta, ed. Michael Brame, Heles Contreras and Frederick J. Newmeyer (Seattle: Noit Amrofer), 93–129. Grammatically deviant prestige constructions Festschrift for Sol Saporta 93 129 Google Scholar

Lasnik, Howard and Nicholas Sobin (2000) ‘The who /whom puzzle: on the preservation of an archaic feature’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18, 343–71. The who /whom puzzle: on the preservation of an archaic feature Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18 343 71 Google Scholar

Sportiche, Dominique (1998) Partitions and atoms of clause structure: subjects, agreement, case and clitics (Abingdon: Routledge). Partitions and atoms of clause structure: subjects, agreement, case and clitics Google Scholar

Grèce, Michel De (1982) La Nuit du sérail (Paris: Gallimard). La Nuit du sérail Google Scholar

Lyons, John (1981) Language and linguistics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Language and linguistics Google Scholar

Sundquist, John D. (2011) ‘Negative movement in the history of Norwegian: the evolution of a grammatical virus’, in Grammatical change: origins, nature, outcomes, ed. Diane Jonas, John Whitman and Andrew Garrett (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 293–312. Negative movement in the history of Norwegian: the evolution of a grammatical virus Grammatical change: origins, nature, outcomes 293 312 Google Scholar

Grevisse, Maurice (1986) Le bon usage, 12th edn by André Goose (Paris: Duculot). Le bon usage Google Scholar

Milroy, James (2001) ‘Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization’, Journal of sociolinguistics 5.4, 530–55. Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization Journal of sociolinguistics 5.4 530 55 Google Scholar

Tanase, Eugène (1976) ‘L’accord du participe passé dans le français oral’, in Actes du XIIIe Congrè s international de linguistique et philologie romanes: tenu à l’Université Laval (Qué bec, Canada) du 29 août au 5 septembre 1971, ed. Marcel Boudreault and Frankwalt Mö hren (Québec: Presses de l’Université Laval), 475–82. L’accord du participe passé dans le français oral Actes du XIIIe Congrè s international de linguistique et philologie romanes: tenu à l’Université Laval (Qué bec, Canada) du 29 août au 5 septembre 1971 475 82 Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1975) French syntax: the transformational cycle (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). French syntax: the transformational cycle Google Scholar

Ura, Hiroyuki (1993) ‘On feature-checking for wh-traces’, MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18, 243–80. On feature-checking for wh-traces MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18 243 80 Google Scholar

Müller, Natasha, Katrine Schmitz, Katja Cantone and Tanja Kupisch (2006) ‘Null arguments in monolingual children: a comparison of Italian and French’, in The acquisition of syntax in Romance languages, ed. Vicent Torres and Linda Escobar (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), 69–93. Null arguments in monolingual children: a comparison of Italian and French The acquisition of syntax in Romance languages 69 93 Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1981) ‘On certain differences between French and English’, Linguistic Inquiry 12, 349–371. On certain differences between French and English Linguistic Inquiry 12 349 371 Google Scholar

Veland, Reidar (1998) ‘Une construction dite ne pas exister en français moderne: le passif suivi d’un infinitif nu’, Journal of French language studies 8, 97–113. Une construction dite ne pas exister en français moderne: le passif suivi d’un infinitif nu Journal of French language studies 8 97 113 Google Scholar

Olson, Gary A. and Lester Faigley (1991) ‘Language, politics and composition: a conversation with Noam Chomsky’, Journal of Advanced Composition 11, 1–35. Language, politics and composition: a conversation with Noam Chomsky Journal of Advanced Composition 11 1 35 Google Scholar

Pirvulescu, Mihaela and Isabelle Belzil (2008) ‘The acquisition of past participle agreement in Québec French L1’, Language acquisition 15, 75–88. The acquisition of past participle agreement in Québec French L1 Language acquisition 15 75 88 Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1989) ‘Facets of Romance past participle agreement’, in Dialect variation and the theory of grammar, ed. Paola Benincà (Dordrecht: Foris), 85–103. Facets of Romance past participle agreement Dialect variation and the theory of grammar 85 103 Google Scholar

Lasnik, Howard and Nicholas Sobin (2000) ‘The who /whom puzzle: on the preservation of an archaic feature’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18, 343–71. The who /whom puzzle: on the preservation of an archaic feature Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18 343 71 Google Scholar

Quattlebaum, Judith A. (1994) ‘A study of Case assignment in coordinate noun phrases’, Language Quarterly 32, 131–47. A study of Case assignment in coordinate noun phrases Language Quarterly 32 131 47 Google Scholar

Lyons, John (1981) Language and linguistics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Language and linguistics Google Scholar

Queneau, Raymond (1951) Le dimanche de la vie (Paris: Gallimard). Le dimanche de la vie Google Scholar

Milroy, James (2001) ‘Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization’, Journal of sociolinguistics 5.4, 530–55. Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization Journal of sociolinguistics 5.4 530 55 Google Scholar

Radford, Andrew and Michele Vincent (2007) ‘On past participle agreement in transitive clauses in French’, in Proceedings of the XXXIII Incontro di grammatica generativa, Bologna, March 1–3, 2007, ed. Antonietta Bisetto and Francesco E. Barbieri (Bologna: Università di Bologna), 140–61. On past participle agreement in transitive clauses in French 140 61 Google Scholar

Müller, Natasha, Katrine Schmitz, Katja Cantone and Tanja Kupisch (2006) ‘Null arguments in monolingual children: a comparison of Italian and French’, in The acquisition of syntax in Romance languages, ed. Vicent Torres and Linda Escobar (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), 69–93. Null arguments in monolingual children: a comparison of Italian and French The acquisition of syntax in Romance languages 69 93 Google Scholar

Richards, Norvin (1997) What moves where when in which language? PhD diss., MIT. What moves where when in which language? Google Scholar

Olson, Gary A. and Lester Faigley (1991) ‘Language, politics and composition: a conversation with Noam Chomsky’, Journal of Advanced Composition 11, 1–35. Language, politics and composition: a conversation with Noam Chomsky Journal of Advanced Composition 11 1 35 Google Scholar

Ruwet, Nicolas (1982) Grammaire des insultes et autres études (Paris: Seuil). Grammaire des insultes et autres études Google Scholar

Pirvulescu, Mihaela and Isabelle Belzil (2008) ‘The acquisition of past participle agreement in Québec French L1’, Language acquisition 15, 75–88. The acquisition of past participle agreement in Québec French L1 Language acquisition 15 75 88 Google Scholar

Smith, John Charles (1993) ‘The agreement of the past participle conjugated with avoir and a preceding direct object – a brief history of prescriptive attitudes’, in Authority and the French language. Papers from a conference at the University of Bristol, ed. Rodney Sampson (Münster: Nodus), 87–125. The agreement of the past participle conjugated with avoir and a preceding direct object – a brief history of prescriptive attitudes 87 125 Google Scholar

Sobin, Nicholas (1997) ‘Agreement, default rules, and grammatical viruses’, Linguistic Inquiry 28, 318–43. Agreement, default rules, and grammatical viruses Linguistic Inquiry 28 318 43 Google Scholar

Quattlebaum, Judith A. (1994) ‘A study of Case assignment in coordinate noun phrases’, Language Quarterly 32, 131–47. A study of Case assignment in coordinate noun phrases Language Quarterly 32 131 47 Google Scholar

Sobin, Nicholas (2009) ‘Prestige Case forms and the Comp-trace effect’, Syntax 12, 32–59. Prestige Case forms and the Comp-trace effect Syntax 12 32 59 Google Scholar

Queneau, Raymond (1951) Le dimanche de la vie (Paris: Gallimard). Le dimanche de la vie Google Scholar

Sportiche, Dominique (1998) Partitions and atoms of clause structure: subjects, agreement, case and clitics (Abingdon: Routledge). Partitions and atoms of clause structure: subjects, agreement, case and clitics Google Scholar

Radford, Andrew and Michele Vincent (2007) ‘On past participle agreement in transitive clauses in French’, in Proceedings of the XXXIII Incontro di grammatica generativa, Bologna, March 1–3, 2007, ed. Antonietta Bisetto and Francesco E. Barbieri (Bologna: Università di Bologna), 140–61. On past participle agreement in transitive clauses in French 140 61 Google Scholar

Richards, Norvin (1997) What moves where when in which language? PhD diss., MIT. What moves where when in which language? Google Scholar

Sundquist, John D. (2011) ‘Negative movement in the history of Norwegian: the evolution of a grammatical virus’, in Grammatical change: origins, nature, outcomes, ed. Diane Jonas, John Whitman and Andrew Garrett (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 293–312. Negative movement in the history of Norwegian: the evolution of a grammatical virus Grammatical change: origins, nature, outcomes 293 312 Google Scholar

Ruwet, Nicolas (1982) Grammaire des insultes et autres études (Paris: Seuil). Grammaire des insultes et autres études Google Scholar

Tanase, Eugène (1976) ‘L’accord du participe passé dans le français oral’, in Actes du XIIIe Congrè s international de linguistique et philologie romanes: tenu à l’Université Laval (Qué bec, Canada) du 29 août au 5 septembre 1971, ed. Marcel Boudreault and Frankwalt Mö hren (Québec: Presses de l’Université Laval), 475–82. L’accord du participe passé dans le français oral Actes du XIIIe Congrè s international de linguistique et philologie romanes: tenu à l’Université Laval (Qué bec, Canada) du 29 août au 5 septembre 1971 475 82 Google Scholar

Smith, John Charles (1993) ‘The agreement of the past participle conjugated with avoir and a preceding direct object – a brief history of prescriptive attitudes’, in Authority and the French language. Papers from a conference at the University of Bristol, ed. Rodney Sampson (Münster: Nodus), 87–125. The agreement of the past participle conjugated with avoir and a preceding direct object – a brief history of prescriptive attitudes 87 125 Google Scholar

Ura, Hiroyuki (1993) ‘On feature-checking for wh-traces’, MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18, 243–80. On feature-checking for wh-traces MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18 243 80 Google Scholar

Sobin, Nicholas (1997) ‘Agreement, default rules, and grammatical viruses’, Linguistic Inquiry 28, 318–43. Agreement, default rules, and grammatical viruses Linguistic Inquiry 28 318 43 Google Scholar

Veland, Reidar (1998) ‘Une construction dite ne pas exister en français moderne: le passif suivi d’un infinitif nu’, Journal of French language studies 8, 97–113. Une construction dite ne pas exister en français moderne: le passif suivi d’un infinitif nu Journal of French language studies 8 97 113 Google Scholar

Sobin, Nicholas (2009) ‘Prestige Case forms and the Comp-trace effect’, Syntax 12, 32–59. Prestige Case forms and the Comp-trace effect Syntax 12 32 59 Google Scholar

Sportiche, Dominique (1998) Partitions and atoms of clause structure: subjects, agreement, case and clitics (Abingdon: Routledge). Partitions and atoms of clause structure: subjects, agreement, case and clitics Google Scholar

Sundquist, John D. (2011) ‘Negative movement in the history of Norwegian: the evolution of a grammatical virus’, in Grammatical change: origins, nature, outcomes, ed. Diane Jonas, John Whitman and Andrew Garrett (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 293–312. Negative movement in the history of Norwegian: the evolution of a grammatical virus Grammatical change: origins, nature, outcomes 293 312 Google Scholar

Tanase, Eugène (1976) ‘L’accord du participe passé dans le français oral’, in Actes du XIIIe Congrè s international de linguistique et philologie romanes: tenu à l’Université Laval (Qué bec, Canada) du 29 août au 5 septembre 1971, ed. Marcel Boudreault and Frankwalt Mö hren (Québec: Presses de l’Université Laval), 475–82. L’accord du participe passé dans le français oral Actes du XIIIe Congrè s international de linguistique et philologie romanes: tenu à l’Université Laval (Qué bec, Canada) du 29 août au 5 septembre 1971 475 82 Google Scholar

Ura, Hiroyuki (1993) ‘On feature-checking for wh-traces’, MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18, 243–80. On feature-checking for wh-traces MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18 243 80 Google Scholar

Veland, Reidar (1998) ‘Une construction dite ne pas exister en français moderne: le passif suivi d’un infinitif nu’, Journal of French language studies 8, 97–113. Une construction dite ne pas exister en français moderne: le passif suivi d’un infinitif nu Journal of French language studies 8 97 113 Google Scholar

Arrivé, Michel (1994) ‘Un débat sans mémoire: la querelle de l’orthographe en France (1893– 1991)’, Langages 114, 69–83. Un débat sans mémoire: la querelle de l’orthographe en France (1893– 1991) Langages 114 69 83 Google Scholar

Belletti, Adriana (2006) ‘(Past) participle agreement’, in The Blackwell companion to syntax vol III, ed. Martin Everaert and Henk Van Riemsdijk (London/New York: Blackwell), 493–521. (Past) participle agreement The Blackwell companion to syntax vol III 493 521 Google Scholar

Billotte, Pierre (1957) Considérations stratégiques (Paris: Société nouvelle de l’Encyclopédie française). Considérations stratégiques Google Scholar

Bošković, Željko (1997) ‘On certain violations of the superiority condition, AgrO and economy of derivation’, Journal of Linguistics 33, 227–54. On certain violations of the superiority condition, AgrO and economy of derivation Journal of Linguistics 33 227 54 Google Scholar

Brissaud, Catherine (1999) ‘La réalisation de l’accord du participe passé employé avec avoir. De l’influence de quelques variables linguistiques et sociales’, Langage et société 88, 5–24. La réalisation de l’accord du participe passé employé avec avoir. De l’influence de quelques variables linguistiques et sociales Langage et société 88 5 24 Google Scholar

Campbell, John (2008) ‘Sarkozy and the past participle: accord … ou pas d’accord ?’, French Studies Bulletin 29.1, no. 106. http://fsb.oxfordjournals.org/ (accessed 27 February 2010). Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (1995) The Minimalist Program (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). The Minimalist Program Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (2001) ‘Derivation by Phase’, in Ken Hale: a life in language, ed. Michael Kenstowicz (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 1–52. Derivation by Phase Ken Hale: a life in language 1 52 Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (2008) ‘On Phases’, in Foundational issues in linguistic theory, ed. Robert Freidin, Carlos Otero and María Luisa Zubizarreta (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 133–66. On Phases Foundational issues in linguistic theory 133 66 Google Scholar

Conseil supérieur de la langue française (1990) ‘Les rectifications de l’orthographe (Rapport)’, Journal officiel de la République Française, édition des documents administratifs 100 (December), 7–18. Google Scholar

D’Alessandro, Roberta and Ian Roberts (2008) ‘Movement and Agreement in Italian past participles and defective phases’, Linguistic Inquiry 39, 477–91. Movement and Agreement in Italian past participles and defective phases Linguistic Inquiry 39 477 91 Google Scholar

Déprez, Viviane (1998) ‘Semantic effects of agreement: the case of French past participle agreement’, Probus 10, 1–65. Semantic effects of agreement: the case of French past participle agreement Probus 10 1 65 Google Scholar

Ducrot, Oswald and Jean-Marie Schaeffer (1995) Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopédique de sciences du langage (Paris: Larousse). Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopédique de sciences du langage Google Scholar

Emonds, Joseph E (1986) ‘Grammatically deviant prestige constructions’, in Festschrift for Sol Saporta, ed. Michael Brame, Heles Contreras and Frederick J. Newmeyer (Seattle: Noit Amrofer), 93–129. Grammatically deviant prestige constructions Festschrift for Sol Saporta 93 129 Google Scholar

Grèce, Michel De (1982) La Nuit du sérail (Paris: Gallimard). La Nuit du sérail Google Scholar

Grevisse, Maurice (1986) Le bon usage, 12th edn by André Goose (Paris: Duculot). Le bon usage Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1975) French syntax: the transformational cycle (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). French syntax: the transformational cycle Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1981) ‘On certain differences between French and English’, Linguistic Inquiry 12, 349–371. On certain differences between French and English Linguistic Inquiry 12 349 371 Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1989) ‘Facets of Romance past participle agreement’, in Dialect variation and the theory of grammar, ed. Paola Benincà (Dordrecht: Foris), 85–103. Facets of Romance past participle agreement Dialect variation and the theory of grammar 85 103 Google Scholar

Lasnik, Howard and Nicholas Sobin (2000) ‘The who /whom puzzle: on the preservation of an archaic feature’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18, 343–71. The who /whom puzzle: on the preservation of an archaic feature Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18 343 71 Google Scholar

Lyons, John (1981) Language and linguistics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Language and linguistics Google Scholar

Milroy, James (2001) ‘Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization’, Journal of sociolinguistics 5.4, 530–55. Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization Journal of sociolinguistics 5.4 530 55 Google Scholar

Arrivé, Michel (1994) ‘Un débat sans mémoire: la querelle de l’orthographe en France (1893– 1991)’, Langages 114, 69–83. Un débat sans mémoire: la querelle de l’orthographe en France (1893– 1991) Langages 114 69 83 Google Scholar

Müller, Natasha, Katrine Schmitz, Katja Cantone and Tanja Kupisch (2006) ‘Null arguments in monolingual children: a comparison of Italian and French’, in The acquisition of syntax in Romance languages, ed. Vicent Torres and Linda Escobar (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), 69–93. Null arguments in monolingual children: a comparison of Italian and French The acquisition of syntax in Romance languages 69 93 Google Scholar

Belletti, Adriana (2006) ‘(Past) participle agreement’, in The Blackwell companion to syntax vol III, ed. Martin Everaert and Henk Van Riemsdijk (London/New York: Blackwell), 493–521. (Past) participle agreement The Blackwell companion to syntax vol III 493 521 Google Scholar

Billotte, Pierre (1957) Considérations stratégiques (Paris: Société nouvelle de l’Encyclopédie française). Considérations stratégiques Google Scholar

Olson, Gary A. and Lester Faigley (1991) ‘Language, politics and composition: a conversation with Noam Chomsky’, Journal of Advanced Composition 11, 1–35. Language, politics and composition: a conversation with Noam Chomsky Journal of Advanced Composition 11 1 35 Google Scholar

Bošković, Željko (1997) ‘On certain violations of the superiority condition, AgrO and economy of derivation’, Journal of Linguistics 33, 227–54. On certain violations of the superiority condition, AgrO and economy of derivation Journal of Linguistics 33 227 54 Google Scholar

Pirvulescu, Mihaela and Isabelle Belzil (2008) ‘The acquisition of past participle agreement in Québec French L1’, Language acquisition 15, 75–88. The acquisition of past participle agreement in Québec French L1 Language acquisition 15 75 88 Google Scholar

Quattlebaum, Judith A. (1994) ‘A study of Case assignment in coordinate noun phrases’, Language Quarterly 32, 131–47. A study of Case assignment in coordinate noun phrases Language Quarterly 32 131 47 Google Scholar

Brissaud, Catherine (1999) ‘La réalisation de l’accord du participe passé employé avec avoir. De l’influence de quelques variables linguistiques et sociales’, Langage et société 88, 5–24. La réalisation de l’accord du participe passé employé avec avoir. De l’influence de quelques variables linguistiques et sociales Langage et société 88 5 24 Google Scholar

Campbell, John (2008) ‘Sarkozy and the past participle: accord … ou pas d’accord ?’, French Studies Bulletin 29.1, no. 106. http://fsb.oxfordjournals.org/ (accessed 27 February 2010). Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (1995) The Minimalist Program (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). The Minimalist Program Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (2001) ‘Derivation by Phase’, in Ken Hale: a life in language, ed. Michael Kenstowicz (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 1–52. Derivation by Phase Ken Hale: a life in language 1 52 Google Scholar

Chomsky, Noam (2008) ‘On Phases’, in Foundational issues in linguistic theory, ed. Robert Freidin, Carlos Otero and María Luisa Zubizarreta (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 133–66. On Phases Foundational issues in linguistic theory 133 66 Google Scholar

Queneau, Raymond (1951) Le dimanche de la vie (Paris: Gallimard). Le dimanche de la vie Google Scholar

Conseil supérieur de la langue française (1990) ‘Les rectifications de l’orthographe (Rapport)’, Journal officiel de la République Française, édition des documents administratifs 100 (December), 7–18. Google Scholar

Radford, Andrew and Michele Vincent (2007) ‘On past participle agreement in transitive clauses in French’, in Proceedings of the XXXIII Incontro di grammatica generativa, Bologna, March 1–3, 2007, ed. Antonietta Bisetto and Francesco E. Barbieri (Bologna: Università di Bologna), 140–61. On past participle agreement in transitive clauses in French 140 61 Google Scholar

Richards, Norvin (1997) What moves where when in which language? PhD diss., MIT. What moves where when in which language? Google Scholar

D’Alessandro, Roberta and Ian Roberts (2008) ‘Movement and Agreement in Italian past participles and defective phases’, Linguistic Inquiry 39, 477–91. Movement and Agreement in Italian past participles and defective phases Linguistic Inquiry 39 477 91 Google Scholar

Déprez, Viviane (1998) ‘Semantic effects of agreement: the case of French past participle agreement’, Probus 10, 1–65. Semantic effects of agreement: the case of French past participle agreement Probus 10 1 65 Google Scholar

Ruwet, Nicolas (1982) Grammaire des insultes et autres études (Paris: Seuil). Grammaire des insultes et autres études Google Scholar

Smith, John Charles (1993) ‘The agreement of the past participle conjugated with avoir and a preceding direct object – a brief history of prescriptive attitudes’, in Authority and the French language. Papers from a conference at the University of Bristol, ed. Rodney Sampson (Münster: Nodus), 87–125. The agreement of the past participle conjugated with avoir and a preceding direct object – a brief history of prescriptive attitudes 87 125 Google Scholar

Ducrot, Oswald and Jean-Marie Schaeffer (1995) Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopédique de sciences du langage (Paris: Larousse). Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopédique de sciences du langage Google Scholar

Sobin, Nicholas (1997) ‘Agreement, default rules, and grammatical viruses’, Linguistic Inquiry 28, 318–43. Agreement, default rules, and grammatical viruses Linguistic Inquiry 28 318 43 Google Scholar

Emonds, Joseph E (1986) ‘Grammatically deviant prestige constructions’, in Festschrift for Sol Saporta, ed. Michael Brame, Heles Contreras and Frederick J. Newmeyer (Seattle: Noit Amrofer), 93–129. Grammatically deviant prestige constructions Festschrift for Sol Saporta 93 129 Google Scholar

Sobin, Nicholas (2009) ‘Prestige Case forms and the Comp-trace effect’, Syntax 12, 32–59. Prestige Case forms and the Comp-trace effect Syntax 12 32 59 Google Scholar

Grèce, Michel De (1982) La Nuit du sérail (Paris: Gallimard). La Nuit du sérail Google Scholar

Sportiche, Dominique (1998) Partitions and atoms of clause structure: subjects, agreement, case and clitics (Abingdon: Routledge). Partitions and atoms of clause structure: subjects, agreement, case and clitics Google Scholar

Grevisse, Maurice (1986) Le bon usage, 12th edn by André Goose (Paris: Duculot). Le bon usage Google Scholar

Sundquist, John D. (2011) ‘Negative movement in the history of Norwegian: the evolution of a grammatical virus’, in Grammatical change: origins, nature, outcomes, ed. Diane Jonas, John Whitman and Andrew Garrett (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 293–312. Negative movement in the history of Norwegian: the evolution of a grammatical virus Grammatical change: origins, nature, outcomes 293 312 Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1975) French syntax: the transformational cycle (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press). French syntax: the transformational cycle Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1981) ‘On certain differences between French and English’, Linguistic Inquiry 12, 349–371. On certain differences between French and English Linguistic Inquiry 12 349 371 Google Scholar

Tanase, Eugène (1976) ‘L’accord du participe passé dans le français oral’, in Actes du XIIIe Congrè s international de linguistique et philologie romanes: tenu à l’Université Laval (Qué bec, Canada) du 29 août au 5 septembre 1971, ed. Marcel Boudreault and Frankwalt Mö hren (Québec: Presses de l’Université Laval), 475–82. L’accord du participe passé dans le français oral Actes du XIIIe Congrè s international de linguistique et philologie romanes: tenu à l’Université Laval (Qué bec, Canada) du 29 août au 5 septembre 1971 475 82 Google Scholar

Ura, Hiroyuki (1993) ‘On feature-checking for wh-traces’, MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18, 243–80. On feature-checking for wh-traces MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18 243 80 Google Scholar

Kayne, Richard S. (1989) ‘Facets of Romance past participle agreement’, in Dialect variation and the theory of grammar, ed. Paola Benincà (Dordrecht: Foris), 85–103. Facets of Romance past participle agreement Dialect variation and the theory of grammar 85 103 Google Scholar

Lasnik, Howard and Nicholas Sobin (2000) ‘The who /whom puzzle: on the preservation of an archaic feature’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18, 343–71. The who /whom puzzle: on the preservation of an archaic feature Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 18 343 71 Google Scholar

Veland, Reidar (1998) ‘Une construction dite ne pas exister en français moderne: le passif suivi d’un infinitif nu’, Journal of French language studies 8, 97–113. Une construction dite ne pas exister en français moderne: le passif suivi d’un infinitif nu Journal of French language studies 8 97 113 Google Scholar

Lyons, John (1981) Language and linguistics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Language and linguistics Google Scholar

Milroy, James (2001) ‘Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization’, Journal of sociolinguistics 5.4, 530–55. Language ideologies and the consequences of standardization Journal of sociolinguistics 5.4 530 55 Google Scholar

Müller, Natasha, Katrine Schmitz, Katja Cantone and Tanja Kupisch (2006) ‘Null arguments in monolingual children: a comparison of Italian and French’, in The acquisition of syntax in Romance languages, ed. Vicent Torres and Linda Escobar (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), 69–93. Null arguments in monolingual children: a comparison of Italian and French The acquisition of syntax in Romance languages 69 93 Google Scholar

Olson, Gary A. and Lester Faigley (1991) ‘Language, politics and composition: a conversation with Noam Chomsky’, Journal of Advanced Composition 11, 1–35. Language, politics and composition: a conversation with Noam Chomsky Journal of Advanced Composition 11 1 35 Google Scholar

Pirvulescu, Mihaela and Isabelle Belzil (2008) ‘The acquisition of past participle agreement in Québec French L1’, Language acquisition 15, 75–88. The acquisition of past participle agreement in Québec French L1 Language acquisition 15 75 88 Google Scholar

Quattlebaum, Judith A. (1994) ‘A study of Case assignment in coordinate noun phrases’, Language Quarterly 32, 131–47. A study of Case assignment in coordinate noun phrases Language Quarterly 32 131 47 Google Scholar

Queneau, Raymond (1951) Le dimanche de la vie (Paris: Gallimard). Le dimanche de la vie Google Scholar

Radford, Andrew and Michele Vincent (2007) ‘On past participle agreement in transitive clauses in French’, in Proceedings of the XXXIII Incontro di grammatica generativa, Bologna, March 1–3, 2007, ed. Antonietta Bisetto and Francesco E. Barbieri (Bologna: Università di Bologna), 140–61. On past participle agreement in transitive clauses in French 140 61 Google Scholar

Richards, Norvin (1997) What moves where when in which language? PhD diss., MIT. What moves where when in which language? Google Scholar

Ruwet, Nicolas (1982) Grammaire des insultes et autres études (Paris: Seuil). Grammaire des insultes et autres études Google Scholar

Smith, John Charles (1993) ‘The agreement of the past participle conjugated with avoir and a preceding direct object – a brief history of prescriptive attitudes’, in Authority and the French language. Papers from a conference at the University of Bristol, ed. Rodney Sampson (Münster: Nodus), 87–125. The agreement of the past participle conjugated with avoir and a preceding direct object – a brief history of prescriptive attitudes 87 125 Google Scholar

Sobin, Nicholas (1997) ‘Agreement, default rules, and grammatical viruses’, Linguistic Inquiry 28, 318–43. Agreement, default rules, and grammatical viruses Linguistic Inquiry 28 318 43 Google Scholar

Sobin, Nicholas (2009) ‘Prestige Case forms and the Comp-trace effect’, Syntax 12, 32–59. Prestige Case forms and the Comp-trace effect Syntax 12 32 59 Google Scholar

Sportiche, Dominique (1998) Partitions and atoms of clause structure: subjects, agreement, case and clitics (Abingdon: Routledge). Partitions and atoms of clause structure: subjects, agreement, case and clitics Google Scholar

Sundquist, John D. (2011) ‘Negative movement in the history of Norwegian: the evolution of a grammatical virus’, in Grammatical change: origins, nature, outcomes, ed. Diane Jonas, John Whitman and Andrew Garrett (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 293–312. Negative movement in the history of Norwegian: the evolution of a grammatical virus Grammatical change: origins, nature, outcomes 293 312 Google Scholar

Tanase, Eugène (1976) ‘L’accord du participe passé dans le français oral’, in Actes du XIIIe Congrè s international de linguistique et philologie romanes: tenu à l’Université Laval (Qué bec, Canada) du 29 août au 5 septembre 1971, ed. Marcel Boudreault and Frankwalt Mö hren (Québec: Presses de l’Université Laval), 475–82. L’accord du participe passé dans le français oral Actes du XIIIe Congrè s international de linguistique et philologie romanes: tenu à l’Université Laval (Qué bec, Canada) du 29 août au 5 septembre 1971 475 82 Google Scholar

Ura, Hiroyuki (1993) ‘On feature-checking for wh-traces’, MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18, 243–80. On feature-checking for wh-traces MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 18 243 80 Google Scholar

Veland, Reidar (1998) ‘Une construction dite ne pas exister en français moderne: le passif suivi d’un infinitif nu’, Journal of French language studies 8, 97–113. Une construction dite ne pas exister en français moderne: le passif suivi d’un infinitif nu Journal of French language studies 8 97 113 Google Scholar

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MacKenzie, Ian