Town Planning Review

Beyond the tabula rasa: Gordon Stephenson and urban renewal in Kingston, Ontario

Town Planning Review (2012), 83, (3), 337–354.

Abstract

Gordon Stephenson conducted some of Canada's first urban renewal studies for Halifax (1957), Kingston (1958-60) and London (1960). Stephenson's Kingston study, done in collaboration with George Muirhead, was an unusual episode in Canadian planning history. Most urban renewal studies from the 1940s and 1950s suggested extensive clearance of ‘obsolete’ neighbourhoods. This report was one of the earliest in North America to suggest widespread renovation of historic buildings and selective infill with new construction. This approach was recommended for several neighbourhoods, the downtown and the central waterfront. Stephenson's report set the stage for extensive heritage preservation in Kingston.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ABERCROMBIE, P. (1945), Greater London Plan 1944, London, HMSO. Greater London Plan 1944 Google Scholar

ANGUS, M. (1966), The Old Stones of Kingston: Its Buildings before 1867, Toronto, ON, University of Toronto Press. The Old Stones of Kingston: Its Buildings before 1867 Google Scholar

BACON, E. (1960), ‘A case study in urban design’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 26, 224-35. ‘A case study in urban design’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 26 224 35 Google Scholar

BRAY, C. and ASSOCIATES (2010), Old Sydenham Heritage Conservation District Study, Kingston, ON, Planning Department. Old Sydenham Heritage Conservation District Study Google Scholar

CITY OF KINGSTON (1957), Preliminary Report Housing Conditions, Rideau Heights, Kingston, ON, Planning Department. Google Scholar

CODMAN, J. (1956), Preservation of Historic Districts by Architectural Control, Chicago, IL, American Society of Planning Officials. Preservation of Historic Districts by Architectural Control Google Scholar

CROLL, D. (1956), ‘The objectives of redevelopment in Canadian cities’, Community Planning Review, 6, 144-6. ‘The objectives of redevelopment in Canadian cities’ Community Planning Review 6 144 6 Google Scholar

DAWSON, B. (1978), ‘Twenty years of planning: Rideau Height's shanty-town image is a thing of the past’, Kingston Whig Standard, 9 May. ‘Twenty years of planning: Rideau Height's shanty-town image is a thing of the past’ Kingston Whig Standard Google Scholar

DENHEZ, M. C. (1978), Heritage Fights Back, Ottawa, ON, Heritage Canada. Heritage Fights Back Google Scholar

EDWARDS, H. M. (1958), Study of the Effects of Various East-West One-Way Streets on the Flow of Traffic in Kingston, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Study of the Effects of Various East-West One-Way Streets on the Flow of Traffic in Kingston Google Scholar

EWENS, W. E. (1957), Public Transportation in Kingston, Ontario, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Public Transportation in Kingston, Ontario Google Scholar

FEISS, C. (1956), ‘City Renewal in Action, based on an address given at the National Conference of the CPAC on October 29, 1956’, Community Planning Review, 4, 147-54. ‘City Renewal in Action, based on an address given at the National Conference of the CPAC on October 29, 1956’ Community Planning Review 4 147 54 Google Scholar

FILION, p., HOERING, H., FRENETTE, S., CURRY, D. and MATTICE, R. (2004), ‘The successful few: healthy downtowns of small metropolitan regions’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 70, 328-43. ‘The successful few: healthy downtowns of small metropolitan regions’ Journal of the American Planning Association 70 328 43 Google Scholar

FLIESS, H. (1961), ‘Stockholm city centre’, RAIC Journal, 38, 52-7. ‘Stockholm city centre’ RAIC Journal 38 52 7 Google Scholar

FRENCH, O. (1967a),'Stephenson-Muirhead report - Kingston's planning "Bible"', Kingston Whig Standard, 26 October 1967. Google Scholar

FRENCH, O. (1967b), ‘Most of Stephenson-Muirhead proposals are reality’, Kingston Whig Standard, 27 October 1967. ‘Most of Stephenson-Muirhead proposals are reality’ Kingston Whig Standard Google Scholar

FYFE, S. (2010), Interview with the authors, June 2010. Dr Stewart Fyfe was a member of the Kingston municipal staff in the early 1950s and later a professor of local government at Queen's University. He was the principal author of the economic analysis chapter of the 1960 Planning Study. Google Scholar

GANS, H. (1959), ‘The human implications of current redevelopment and relocation planning’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 25, 15-26. ‘The human implications of current redevelopment and relocation planning’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 25 15 26 Google Scholar

GARVIN, A. (2002), ‘Philadelphia's planner: a conversation with Edmund Bacon’, Journal of Planning History, 1, 58-78. ‘Philadelphia's planner: a conversation with Edmund Bacon’ Journal of Planning History 1 58 78 Google Scholar

HALL, P. (1995), ‘Bringing Abercrombie back from the shades: a look forward and back’, Town Planning Review, 66, 227-41. ‘Bringing Abercrombie back from the shades: a look forward and back’ Town Planning Review 66 227 41 Google Scholar

HARRIS, R. (1996), Unplanned Suburbs: Toronto's American Tragedy, 1900 to 1950, Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press. Unplanned Suburbs: Toronto's American Tragedy, 1900 to 1950 Google Scholar

INGLIS, L. (1978), Market Square, Kingston: A Heritage Conservation District Study, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Market Square, Kingston: A Heritage Conservation District Study Google Scholar

KENT, T. J. (1964), The Urban General Plan, San Francisco, CA, Chandler. The Urban General Plan Google Scholar

LOW, R. A. (1942), Traffic Study of the City of Kingston, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Traffic Study of the City of Kingston Google Scholar

LOWER, A. R. M. (1958), Canadians in the Making: A Social History of Canada, Toronto, ON, Longmans, Green. Canadians in the Making: A Social History of Canada Google Scholar

MACGREGOR, I. (1957), Population Study, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Population Study Google Scholar

MUIRHEAD, G. G. (2008), Interview with the authors, July 2008. George Muirhead was the chief planner for Kingston from 1955-62 and 1970-85. He was co-author of the 1960 Planning Study. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

NAREB (NATIONAL ASSOCIATON OF REAL ESTATE BOARDS) (1956), Blueprint for Neighbourhood Conservation, Washington, DC, National Association of Real Estate Boards. Google Scholar

OSBORNE, B. S. and SWAINSON, D. (2011), Kingston: Building on the Past for the Future, Kingston, ON, Quarry Press. Kingston: Building on the Past for the Future Google Scholar

PARKINS, M. F. (1958), Neighborhood Conservation - A Pilot Study, Detroit, MI, City Plan Commission in cooperation with Housing and Home Finance Agency. Neighborhood Conservation - A Pilot Study Google Scholar

PENDLEBURY, J. (2009), Conservation in the Age of Consensus, London, Routledge. Conservation in the Age of Consensus Google Scholar

PICKETT, S. H. (1957), ‘Planning and urban renewal’, Community Planning Review, 7, 129-33. ‘Planning and urban renewal’ Community Planning Review 7 129 33 Google Scholar

PICKETT, S. H. (1961), ‘Urban renewal: an introduciton to urban renewal studies’, RAIC Journal, 38, 38. ‘Urban renewal: an introduciton to urban renewal studies’ RAIC Journal 38 38 Google Scholar

PICKETT, S. H. (1968), ‘An appraisal of the urban renewal programme in Canada’, The University of Toronto Law Journal, 18, 233-47. ‘An appraisal of the urban renewal programme in Canada’ The University of Toronto Law Journal 18 233 47 Google Scholar

PRESTON, R. A. (1959), Kingston before the War of 1812, Toronto, ON, Champlain Society. Kingston before the War of 1812 Google Scholar

RAVITZ, M. J. (1955), ‘Urban renewal faces critical roadblocks’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 21, 17-32. ‘Urban renewal faces critical roadblocks’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 21 17 32 Google Scholar

ROSE, A. (1958), Regent Park: A Study in Slum Clearance, Toronto, ON, University of Toronto Press. Regent Park: A Study in Slum Clearance Google Scholar

ROY, J. A. (1952), Kingston, the King's Town, Toronto, ON, McClelland and Stewart. Kingston, the King's Town Google Scholar

SEYMOUR, M. (1955), Report on Land Use and Zoning, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Report on Land Use and Zoning Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. (1949), ‘Town planning: contemporary problem of civil design’, Town Planning Review, 20, 125-43. ‘Town planning: contemporary problem of civil design’ Town Planning Review 20 125 43 Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. (1957a), A Redevelopment Study of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Toronto, ON, University of Toronto Press. A Redevelopment Study of Halifax, Nova Scotia Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. (1957b), ‘The Canadian opportunity for urban renewal’, Speech to the Town Planning Institute of Canada, Toronto, ON. ‘The Canadian opportunity for urban renewal’ Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. (1992), On a Human Scale: A Life in City Design (ed. C. DeMarco), South Fremantle, Fremantle Arts Centre Press. On a Human Scale: A Life in City Design Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. and GUARD, D. (1960), Urban Renewal London, Ontario, London, ON, City of London. Urban Renewal London, Ontario Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. and HEPBURN, J. A. (1955), Plan for the Metropolitan Region, Perth and Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, Government Printing Office. Plan for the Metropolitan Region, Perth and Fremantle Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. and MUIRHEAD, G. (1960), A Planning Study of Kingston, Ontario, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. A Planning Study of Kingston, Ontario Google Scholar

WYLLIE, UFNAL, WEINBERG and SCHECKENBERGER TOWN PLANNERS LTD (1970), Sydenham Ward Urban Renewal Scheme, Kingston Ontario, Rexdale, ON, Wyllie, Unfal, Weinberg and Scheckenberger Town Planners Limited. Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, P. (1945), Greater London Plan 1944, London, HMSO. Greater London Plan 1944 Google Scholar

ANGUS, M. (1966), The Old Stones of Kingston: Its Buildings before 1867, Toronto, ON, University of Toronto Press. The Old Stones of Kingston: Its Buildings before 1867 Google Scholar

BACON, E. (1960), ‘A case study in urban design’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 26, 224-35. ‘A case study in urban design’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 26 224 35 Google Scholar

BRAY, C. and ASSOCIATES (2010), Old Sydenham Heritage Conservation District Study, Kingston, ON, Planning Department. Old Sydenham Heritage Conservation District Study Google Scholar

CITY OF KINGSTON (1957), Preliminary Report Housing Conditions, Rideau Heights, Kingston, ON, Planning Department. Google Scholar

CODMAN, J. (1956), Preservation of Historic Districts by Architectural Control, Chicago, IL, American Society of Planning Officials. Preservation of Historic Districts by Architectural Control Google Scholar

CROLL, D. (1956), ‘The objectives of redevelopment in Canadian cities’, Community Planning Review, 6, 144-6. ‘The objectives of redevelopment in Canadian cities’ Community Planning Review 6 144 6 Google Scholar

DAWSON, B. (1978), ‘Twenty years of planning: Rideau Height's shanty-town image is a thing of the past’, Kingston Whig Standard, 9 May. ‘Twenty years of planning: Rideau Height's shanty-town image is a thing of the past’ Kingston Whig Standard Google Scholar

DENHEZ, M. C. (1978), Heritage Fights Back, Ottawa, ON, Heritage Canada. Heritage Fights Back Google Scholar

EDWARDS, H. M. (1958), Study of the Effects of Various East-West One-Way Streets on the Flow of Traffic in Kingston, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Study of the Effects of Various East-West One-Way Streets on the Flow of Traffic in Kingston Google Scholar

EWENS, W. E. (1957), Public Transportation in Kingston, Ontario, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Public Transportation in Kingston, Ontario Google Scholar

FEISS, C. (1956), ‘City Renewal in Action, based on an address given at the National Conference of the CPAC on October 29, 1956’, Community Planning Review, 4, 147-54. ‘City Renewal in Action, based on an address given at the National Conference of the CPAC on October 29, 1956’ Community Planning Review 4 147 54 Google Scholar

FILION, p., HOERING, H., FRENETTE, S., CURRY, D. and MATTICE, R. (2004), ‘The successful few: healthy downtowns of small metropolitan regions’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 70, 328-43. ‘The successful few: healthy downtowns of small metropolitan regions’ Journal of the American Planning Association 70 328 43 Google Scholar

FLIESS, H. (1961), ‘Stockholm city centre’, RAIC Journal, 38, 52-7. ‘Stockholm city centre’ RAIC Journal 38 52 7 Google Scholar

FRENCH, O. (1967a),'Stephenson-Muirhead report - Kingston's planning "Bible"', Kingston Whig Standard, 26 October 1967. Google Scholar

FRENCH, O. (1967b), ‘Most of Stephenson-Muirhead proposals are reality’, Kingston Whig Standard, 27 October 1967. ‘Most of Stephenson-Muirhead proposals are reality’ Kingston Whig Standard Google Scholar

FYFE, S. (2010), Interview with the authors, June 2010. Dr Stewart Fyfe was a member of the Kingston municipal staff in the early 1950s and later a professor of local government at Queen's University. He was the principal author of the economic analysis chapter of the 1960 Planning Study. Google Scholar

GANS, H. (1959), ‘The human implications of current redevelopment and relocation planning’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 25, 15-26. ‘The human implications of current redevelopment and relocation planning’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 25 15 26 Google Scholar

GARVIN, A. (2002), ‘Philadelphia's planner: a conversation with Edmund Bacon’, Journal of Planning History, 1, 58-78. ‘Philadelphia's planner: a conversation with Edmund Bacon’ Journal of Planning History 1 58 78 Google Scholar

HALL, P. (1995), ‘Bringing Abercrombie back from the shades: a look forward and back’, Town Planning Review, 66, 227-41. ‘Bringing Abercrombie back from the shades: a look forward and back’ Town Planning Review 66 227 41 Google Scholar

HARRIS, R. (1996), Unplanned Suburbs: Toronto's American Tragedy, 1900 to 1950, Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press. Unplanned Suburbs: Toronto's American Tragedy, 1900 to 1950 Google Scholar

INGLIS, L. (1978), Market Square, Kingston: A Heritage Conservation District Study, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Market Square, Kingston: A Heritage Conservation District Study Google Scholar

KENT, T. J. (1964), The Urban General Plan, San Francisco, CA, Chandler. The Urban General Plan Google Scholar

LOW, R. A. (1942), Traffic Study of the City of Kingston, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Traffic Study of the City of Kingston Google Scholar

LOWER, A. R. M. (1958), Canadians in the Making: A Social History of Canada, Toronto, ON, Longmans, Green. Canadians in the Making: A Social History of Canada Google Scholar

MACGREGOR, I. (1957), Population Study, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Population Study Google Scholar

MUIRHEAD, G. G. (2008), Interview with the authors, July 2008. George Muirhead was the chief planner for Kingston from 1955-62 and 1970-85. He was co-author of the 1960 Planning Study. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

NAREB (NATIONAL ASSOCIATON OF REAL ESTATE BOARDS) (1956), Blueprint for Neighbourhood Conservation, Washington, DC, National Association of Real Estate Boards. Google Scholar

OSBORNE, B. S. and SWAINSON, D. (2011), Kingston: Building on the Past for the Future, Kingston, ON, Quarry Press. Kingston: Building on the Past for the Future Google Scholar

PARKINS, M. F. (1958), Neighborhood Conservation - A Pilot Study, Detroit, MI, City Plan Commission in cooperation with Housing and Home Finance Agency. Neighborhood Conservation - A Pilot Study Google Scholar

PENDLEBURY, J. (2009), Conservation in the Age of Consensus, London, Routledge. Conservation in the Age of Consensus Google Scholar

PICKETT, S. H. (1957), ‘Planning and urban renewal’, Community Planning Review, 7, 129-33. ‘Planning and urban renewal’ Community Planning Review 7 129 33 Google Scholar

PICKETT, S. H. (1961), ‘Urban renewal: an introduciton to urban renewal studies’, RAIC Journal, 38, 38. ‘Urban renewal: an introduciton to urban renewal studies’ RAIC Journal 38 38 Google Scholar

PICKETT, S. H. (1968), ‘An appraisal of the urban renewal programme in Canada’, The University of Toronto Law Journal, 18, 233-47. ‘An appraisal of the urban renewal programme in Canada’ The University of Toronto Law Journal 18 233 47 Google Scholar

PRESTON, R. A. (1959), Kingston before the War of 1812, Toronto, ON, Champlain Society. Kingston before the War of 1812 Google Scholar

RAVITZ, M. J. (1955), ‘Urban renewal faces critical roadblocks’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 21, 17-32. ‘Urban renewal faces critical roadblocks’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 21 17 32 Google Scholar

ROSE, A. (1958), Regent Park: A Study in Slum Clearance, Toronto, ON, University of Toronto Press. Regent Park: A Study in Slum Clearance Google Scholar

ROY, J. A. (1952), Kingston, the King's Town, Toronto, ON, McClelland and Stewart. Kingston, the King's Town Google Scholar

SEYMOUR, M. (1955), Report on Land Use and Zoning, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Report on Land Use and Zoning Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. (1949), ‘Town planning: contemporary problem of civil design’, Town Planning Review, 20, 125-43. ‘Town planning: contemporary problem of civil design’ Town Planning Review 20 125 43 Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. (1957a), A Redevelopment Study of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Toronto, ON, University of Toronto Press. A Redevelopment Study of Halifax, Nova Scotia Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. (1957b), ‘The Canadian opportunity for urban renewal’, Speech to the Town Planning Institute of Canada, Toronto, ON. ‘The Canadian opportunity for urban renewal’ Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. (1992), On a Human Scale: A Life in City Design (ed. C. DeMarco), South Fremantle, Fremantle Arts Centre Press. On a Human Scale: A Life in City Design Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. and GUARD, D. (1960), Urban Renewal London, Ontario, London, ON, City of London. Urban Renewal London, Ontario Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. and HEPBURN, J. A. (1955), Plan for the Metropolitan Region, Perth and Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, Government Printing Office. Plan for the Metropolitan Region, Perth and Fremantle Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. and MUIRHEAD, G. (1960), A Planning Study of Kingston, Ontario, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. A Planning Study of Kingston, Ontario Google Scholar

WYLLIE, UFNAL, WEINBERG and SCHECKENBERGER TOWN PLANNERS LTD (1970), Sydenham Ward Urban Renewal Scheme, Kingston Ontario, Rexdale, ON, Wyllie, Unfal, Weinberg and Scheckenberger Town Planners Limited. Google Scholar

ABERCROMBIE, P. (1945), Greater London Plan 1944, London, HMSO. Greater London Plan 1944 Google Scholar

ANGUS, M. (1966), The Old Stones of Kingston: Its Buildings before 1867, Toronto, ON, University of Toronto Press. The Old Stones of Kingston: Its Buildings before 1867 Google Scholar

BACON, E. (1960), ‘A case study in urban design’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 26, 224-35. ‘A case study in urban design’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 26 224 35 Google Scholar

BRAY, C. and ASSOCIATES (2010), Old Sydenham Heritage Conservation District Study, Kingston, ON, Planning Department. Old Sydenham Heritage Conservation District Study Google Scholar

CITY OF KINGSTON (1957), Preliminary Report Housing Conditions, Rideau Heights, Kingston, ON, Planning Department. Google Scholar

CODMAN, J. (1956), Preservation of Historic Districts by Architectural Control, Chicago, IL, American Society of Planning Officials. Preservation of Historic Districts by Architectural Control Google Scholar

CROLL, D. (1956), ‘The objectives of redevelopment in Canadian cities’, Community Planning Review, 6, 144-6. ‘The objectives of redevelopment in Canadian cities’ Community Planning Review 6 144 6 Google Scholar

DAWSON, B. (1978), ‘Twenty years of planning: Rideau Height's shanty-town image is a thing of the past’, Kingston Whig Standard, 9 May. ‘Twenty years of planning: Rideau Height's shanty-town image is a thing of the past’ Kingston Whig Standard Google Scholar

DENHEZ, M. C. (1978), Heritage Fights Back, Ottawa, ON, Heritage Canada. Heritage Fights Back Google Scholar

EDWARDS, H. M. (1958), Study of the Effects of Various East-West One-Way Streets on the Flow of Traffic in Kingston, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Study of the Effects of Various East-West One-Way Streets on the Flow of Traffic in Kingston Google Scholar

EWENS, W. E. (1957), Public Transportation in Kingston, Ontario, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Public Transportation in Kingston, Ontario Google Scholar

FEISS, C. (1956), ‘City Renewal in Action, based on an address given at the National Conference of the CPAC on October 29, 1956’, Community Planning Review, 4, 147-54. ‘City Renewal in Action, based on an address given at the National Conference of the CPAC on October 29, 1956’ Community Planning Review 4 147 54 Google Scholar

FILION, p., HOERING, H., FRENETTE, S., CURRY, D. and MATTICE, R. (2004), ‘The successful few: healthy downtowns of small metropolitan regions’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 70, 328-43. ‘The successful few: healthy downtowns of small metropolitan regions’ Journal of the American Planning Association 70 328 43 Google Scholar

FLIESS, H. (1961), ‘Stockholm city centre’, RAIC Journal, 38, 52-7. ‘Stockholm city centre’ RAIC Journal 38 52 7 Google Scholar

FRENCH, O. (1967a),'Stephenson-Muirhead report - Kingston's planning "Bible"', Kingston Whig Standard, 26 October 1967. Google Scholar

FRENCH, O. (1967b), ‘Most of Stephenson-Muirhead proposals are reality’, Kingston Whig Standard, 27 October 1967. ‘Most of Stephenson-Muirhead proposals are reality’ Kingston Whig Standard Google Scholar

FYFE, S. (2010), Interview with the authors, June 2010. Dr Stewart Fyfe was a member of the Kingston municipal staff in the early 1950s and later a professor of local government at Queen's University. He was the principal author of the economic analysis chapter of the 1960 Planning Study. Google Scholar

GANS, H. (1959), ‘The human implications of current redevelopment and relocation planning’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 25, 15-26. ‘The human implications of current redevelopment and relocation planning’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 25 15 26 Google Scholar

GARVIN, A. (2002), ‘Philadelphia's planner: a conversation with Edmund Bacon’, Journal of Planning History, 1, 58-78. ‘Philadelphia's planner: a conversation with Edmund Bacon’ Journal of Planning History 1 58 78 Google Scholar

HALL, P. (1995), ‘Bringing Abercrombie back from the shades: a look forward and back’, Town Planning Review, 66, 227-41. ‘Bringing Abercrombie back from the shades: a look forward and back’ Town Planning Review 66 227 41 Google Scholar

HARRIS, R. (1996), Unplanned Suburbs: Toronto's American Tragedy, 1900 to 1950, Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press. Unplanned Suburbs: Toronto's American Tragedy, 1900 to 1950 Google Scholar

INGLIS, L. (1978), Market Square, Kingston: A Heritage Conservation District Study, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Market Square, Kingston: A Heritage Conservation District Study Google Scholar

KENT, T. J. (1964), The Urban General Plan, San Francisco, CA, Chandler. The Urban General Plan Google Scholar

LOW, R. A. (1942), Traffic Study of the City of Kingston, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Traffic Study of the City of Kingston Google Scholar

LOWER, A. R. M. (1958), Canadians in the Making: A Social History of Canada, Toronto, ON, Longmans, Green. Canadians in the Making: A Social History of Canada Google Scholar

MACGREGOR, I. (1957), Population Study, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Population Study Google Scholar

MUIRHEAD, G. G. (2008), Interview with the authors, July 2008. George Muirhead was the chief planner for Kingston from 1955-62 and 1970-85. He was co-author of the 1960 Planning Study. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

NAREB (NATIONAL ASSOCIATON OF REAL ESTATE BOARDS) (1956), Blueprint for Neighbourhood Conservation, Washington, DC, National Association of Real Estate Boards. Google Scholar

OSBORNE, B. S. and SWAINSON, D. (2011), Kingston: Building on the Past for the Future, Kingston, ON, Quarry Press. Kingston: Building on the Past for the Future Google Scholar

PARKINS, M. F. (1958), Neighborhood Conservation - A Pilot Study, Detroit, MI, City Plan Commission in cooperation with Housing and Home Finance Agency. Neighborhood Conservation - A Pilot Study Google Scholar

PENDLEBURY, J. (2009), Conservation in the Age of Consensus, London, Routledge. Conservation in the Age of Consensus Google Scholar

PICKETT, S. H. (1957), ‘Planning and urban renewal’, Community Planning Review, 7, 129-33. ‘Planning and urban renewal’ Community Planning Review 7 129 33 Google Scholar

PICKETT, S. H. (1961), ‘Urban renewal: an introduciton to urban renewal studies’, RAIC Journal, 38, 38. ‘Urban renewal: an introduciton to urban renewal studies’ RAIC Journal 38 38 Google Scholar

PICKETT, S. H. (1968), ‘An appraisal of the urban renewal programme in Canada’, The University of Toronto Law Journal, 18, 233-47. ‘An appraisal of the urban renewal programme in Canada’ The University of Toronto Law Journal 18 233 47 Google Scholar

PRESTON, R. A. (1959), Kingston before the War of 1812, Toronto, ON, Champlain Society. Kingston before the War of 1812 Google Scholar

RAVITZ, M. J. (1955), ‘Urban renewal faces critical roadblocks’, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 21, 17-32. ‘Urban renewal faces critical roadblocks’ Journal of the American Institute of Planners 21 17 32 Google Scholar

ROSE, A. (1958), Regent Park: A Study in Slum Clearance, Toronto, ON, University of Toronto Press. Regent Park: A Study in Slum Clearance Google Scholar

ROY, J. A. (1952), Kingston, the King's Town, Toronto, ON, McClelland and Stewart. Kingston, the King's Town Google Scholar

SEYMOUR, M. (1955), Report on Land Use and Zoning, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. Report on Land Use and Zoning Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. (1949), ‘Town planning: contemporary problem of civil design’, Town Planning Review, 20, 125-43. ‘Town planning: contemporary problem of civil design’ Town Planning Review 20 125 43 Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. (1957a), A Redevelopment Study of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Toronto, ON, University of Toronto Press. A Redevelopment Study of Halifax, Nova Scotia Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. (1957b), ‘The Canadian opportunity for urban renewal’, Speech to the Town Planning Institute of Canada, Toronto, ON. ‘The Canadian opportunity for urban renewal’ Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. (1992), On a Human Scale: A Life in City Design (ed. C. DeMarco), South Fremantle, Fremantle Arts Centre Press. On a Human Scale: A Life in City Design Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. and GUARD, D. (1960), Urban Renewal London, Ontario, London, ON, City of London. Urban Renewal London, Ontario Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. and HEPBURN, J. A. (1955), Plan for the Metropolitan Region, Perth and Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, Government Printing Office. Plan for the Metropolitan Region, Perth and Fremantle Google Scholar

STEPHENSON, G. and MUIRHEAD, G. (1960), A Planning Study of Kingston, Ontario, Kingston, ON, City of Kingston. A Planning Study of Kingston, Ontario Google Scholar

WYLLIE, UFNAL, WEINBERG and SCHECKENBERGER TOWN PLANNERS LTD (1970), Sydenham Ward Urban Renewal Scheme, Kingston Ontario, Rexdale, ON, Wyllie, Unfal, Weinberg and Scheckenberger Town Planners Limited. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Gordon, David

Nicholson, Michelle