International Development Planning Review

Urban villages as incubators of creative clusters: the case of Guangzhou

International Development Planning Review (2019), 41, (3), 375–398.

Abstract

Since the mid-2000s, cultural and creative clusters, especially arts clusters, have flourished across cities and towns in China as a result of local governments' efforts to establish the cultural and creative sector for urban regeneration. Although many clusters arose organically without policy directives, some later encountered intense government interventions after being officialised as the city's strategic cultural industry bases. Arguing that this top-down creative placemaking approach, although seemingly commercially successful, overlooks the needs of grassroots artists – thus compromising the creative nature of the cluster – this paper highlights the nurturing socioeconomic environment attractive to grassroots artists and other creative people created through a bottom-up approach. Through case studies of two arts clusters in Guangzhou, we find that organically grown, village-based artist clusters can better nurture creative people than planned arts districts, for these clusters feature a flexible and autonomous land development arrangement, frequent interactions between artists and village residents, and a broad spectrum of entrepreneurial opportunities.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

References

Ashley, A. J. (2015) ‘Beyond the aesthetic: the historical pursuit of local arts economic development’, Journal of Planning History, 14(1), 38–61. Google Scholar

Audretsch, D. B. and Feldman, M. P. (1996) ‘R&D spillovers and the geography of innovation and production’, The American Economic Review, 86(3), 630–40. Google Scholar

Bianchini, F. and Parkinson, M. (eds) (1993) Cultural policy and urban regeneration, Manchester, Manchester University Press. Google Scholar

Chapple, K., Jackson, S. and Martin, A. J. (2010) ‘Concentrating creativity: the planning of formal and informal arts districts’, City, Culture and Society, 1, 225–34. Google Scholar

DCMS (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) (1998) Creative industries mapping document (report of United Kingdom special working group on creative industries), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

Evans, G. (2005) ‘Measure for measure: evaluating the evidence of culture’s contribution to regeneration’, Urban Studies, 42(5–6), 959–83. Google Scholar

Florida, R. (2002) The rise of the creative class: and how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life, New York, NY, Basic Books. Google Scholar

Florida, R. (2003) ‘Cities and the creative class’, City & Community, 2(1), 3–19. Google Scholar

Gadwa Nicodemus, A. (2013) ‘Fuzzy vibrancy: creative placemaking as ascendant US cultural policy’, Cultural Trends, 22(3–4), 213–22. Google Scholar

Gornostaeva, G. and Campbell, N. (2012) ‘The creative underclass in the production of place: Example of Camden town in London’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 34(2), 169–88. Google Scholar

Guangzhou Municipal Government. (2008) Suggestion to push forward the industry’s ‘Suppress the Secondary’ in the city (Suifu[2008]No.8), Guangzhou, People’s Government of Guangzhou. Google Scholar

Guangzhou Municipal Government. (2011) Regulatory detailed planning for Pazhou-Yuancun region (Suifu[2011]No.213), Guangzhou, People’s Government of Guangzhou. Google Scholar

Gugu, S. and Dal Molin, M. (2016) ‘Collaborative local cultural governance: what works? The case of cultural districts in Italy’, Administration & Society, 48(2), 237–62. Google Scholar

Hall, P. (2000) ‘Creative cities and economic development’, Urban Studies, 37(4), 639–49. Google Scholar

He, S. (2017) ‘The creative spatio-temporal fix: creative and cultural industries development in Shanghai, China’, Geoforum, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.07.017 (accessed 10 June 2018). Google Scholar

Howkins, J. (2002) The creative economy: how people make money from ideas, London, Penguin Press. Google Scholar

Jacobs, J. (1962) The death and life of great American cities, New York, Random House. Google Scholar

Landry, C. (2012) The creative city: a toolkit for urban innovators, London, Earthscan. Google Scholar

Li, S.-M., Cheng, H.-H. and Wang, J. (2014) ‘Making a cultural cluster in China: a study of Dafen oil painting’, Habitat International, 41, 156–64. Google Scholar

Liu, X. (2017) ‘“Contested policy mobility”: the creative transformation and temporary use of brownfields in Redtory, Guangzhou’, Urban Geography, 38(6), 884–902. Google Scholar

Liu, X., Han, S. S. and O’Connor, K. (2013) ‘Art villages in metropolitan Beijing: a study of the location dynamics’, Habitat International, 40, 176–83. Google Scholar

Lloyd, R. (2002) ‘Neo-bohemia: art and neighbourhood redevelopment in Chicago’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 24(5), 517–32. Google Scholar

Markusen, A. (2006) ‘Urban development and the politics of a creative class: evidence from a study of artists’, Environment and Planning A, 38, 1921–40. Google Scholar

Markusen, A. and Schrock, G. (2006) ‘The artistic dividend: urban artistic specialisation and economic development implications’, Urban Studies, 43(10), 1661–86. Google Scholar

Montgomery, J. (2004) ‘Cultural quarters as mechanisms for urban regeneration. Part 2: a review of four cultural quarters in the UK, Ireland and Australia’, Planning, Practice & Research, 19(1), 3–31. Google Scholar

Moss, G. (2017) Artistic enclaves in the post-industrial city: a case study of Lawrenceville Pittsburgh, Cham, Switzerland, Springer. Google Scholar

Mould, O. and Comunian, R. (2015) ‘Hung, drawn, and cultural quartered: rethinking cultural quarter development policy in the UK’, European Planning Studies, 23(12), 2356–69. Google Scholar

Noonan, D. (2013) ‘How US cultural districts reshape neighbourhoods’, Cultural Trend, 22(3–4), 203–12. Google Scholar

O’Connor, J. and Gu, X. (2014) ‘Creative industry clusters in Shanghai: a success story?’, International Journal of Cultural Policy, 20(1), 1–20. Google Scholar

O’Connor, J. and Liu, L. (2014) ‘Shenzhen’s OCT-LOFT: creative space in the City of Design’, City, Culture and Society, 5(3), 131–38. Google Scholar

Porter, L. and Barber, A. (2007) ‘Planning the cultural quarter in Birmingham’s eastside’, European Planning Studies, 15(10), 1327–48. Google Scholar

Porter, M. E. (2000) ‘Location, competition, and economic development: local clusters in a global economy’, Economic Development Quarterly, 14(1), 15–34. Google Scholar

Pratt, A. C. (2004a) ‘The cultural economy: a call for spatialized “production of culture” perspectives’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(1), 117–28. Google Scholar

Pratt, A. C. (2004b) ‘Creative clusters: towards the governance of the creative industries production system?’, Media International Australia, (112), 50–66. Google Scholar

Qian, J., He, S. and Liu, L. (2013) ‘Aestheticisation, rent-seeking, and rural gentrification amidst China’s rapid urbanisation: the case of Xiaozhou village, Guangzhou’, Journal of Rural Studies, 32, 331–45. Google Scholar

Ren, X. and Sun, M. (2012) ‘Artistic urbanization: creative industries and creative control in Beijing’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 36(3), 504–21. Google Scholar

Rushton, M. (2015) ‘Cultural districts and economic development in American cities’, Poetics, 49, 20–29. Google Scholar

Santagata, W. (2002) ‘Cultural districts, property rights and sustainable economic growth’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 26(1), 9–23. Google Scholar

Shaw, K. (2005) ‘The place of alternative culture and the politics of its protection in Berlin, Amsterdam and Melbourne’, Planning Theory & Practice, 6(2), 149–69. Google Scholar

Sonn, J. W., Chen, K. W., Wang, H. and Liu, X. (2017) ‘A top-down creation of a cultural cluster for urban regeneration: the case of OCT Loft, Shenzhen’, Land Use Policy, 69, 307–16. Google Scholar

Stern, M. and Seifert, S. (2010) ‘Cultural clusters: the implications of cultural assets agglomeration for neighbourhood revitalization’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 29(3), 262–79. Google Scholar

Tianhe District Government (2006) Master plan of Tianhe District, 2007–2020, Tianhe District Government. Google Scholar

Wang, J. (2012) ‘Evolution of cultural clusters in China: comparative study of Beijing and Shanghai’, Architectoni.ca, 2, 148–59. Google Scholar

Webster, D., Muller, L. and Cai, J. (2011) ‘The emerging cultural economy in Chinese cities: early dynamics’, International Development Planning Review, 33(3), 343–69. Google Scholar

Yin, Y., Liu, Z., Dunford, M. and Liu, W. (2015) ‘The 798 art district: multi-scalar drivers of land use succession and industrial restructuring in Beijing’, Habitat International, 46, 147–55. Google Scholar

Zacharias, J. and Lei, Y. (2016) ‘Villages at the urban fringe: the social dynamics of Xiaozhou’, Journal of Rural Studies, 47, 650–56. Google Scholar

Zhang, J. (2017) ‘The geographic political economy of art district formation in China: the case of Songzhuang’, Geoforum, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.07.018 (accessed 10 June 2018). Google Scholar

Zhang, Y. (2014) ‘Governing art districts: state control and cultural production in contemporary China’, The China Quarterly, 219, 827–48. Google Scholar

Zheng, J. and Chan, R. (2014) ‘The impact of “creative industry clusters” on cultural and creative industry development in Shanghai’, City, Culture and Society, 5(1), 9–22. Google Scholar

Zheng, Y. (2012) ‘The research of the influence of the culture creative industry to the traditional village public space of Xiaozhou village in Guangzhou’ (unpublished master’s thesis), South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China. Google Scholar

Zhong, S. (2016) ‘Artists and Shanghai’s culture-led urban regeneration’, Cities, 56, 165–71. Google Scholar

Zielke, P. and Waibel, M. (2014) ‘Comparative urban governance of developing creative spaces in China’, Habitat International, 41, 99–107. Google Scholar

Zukin, S. (1982) Loft living: culture and capital in urban change, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press. Google Scholar

Ashley, A. J. (2015) ‘Beyond the aesthetic: the historical pursuit of local arts economic development’, Journal of Planning History, 14(1), 38–61. Google Scholar

Audretsch, D. B. and Feldman, M. P. (1996) ‘R&D spillovers and the geography of innovation and production’, The American Economic Review, 86(3), 630–40. Google Scholar

Bianchini, F. and Parkinson, M. (eds) (1993) Cultural policy and urban regeneration, Manchester, Manchester University Press. Google Scholar

Chapple, K., Jackson, S. and Martin, A. J. (2010) ‘Concentrating creativity: the planning of formal and informal arts districts’, City, Culture and Society, 1, 225–34. Google Scholar

DCMS (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) (1998) Creative industries mapping document (report of United Kingdom special working group on creative industries), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

Evans, G. (2005) ‘Measure for measure: evaluating the evidence of culture’s contribution to regeneration’, Urban Studies, 42(5–6), 959–83. Google Scholar

Florida, R. (2002) The rise of the creative class: and how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life, New York, NY, Basic Books. Google Scholar

Florida, R. (2003) ‘Cities and the creative class’, City & Community, 2(1), 3–19. Google Scholar

Gadwa Nicodemus, A. (2013) ‘Fuzzy vibrancy: creative placemaking as ascendant US cultural policy’, Cultural Trends, 22(3–4), 213–22. Google Scholar

Gornostaeva, G. and Campbell, N. (2012) ‘The creative underclass in the production of place: Example of Camden town in London’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 34(2), 169–88. Google Scholar

Guangzhou Municipal Government. (2008) Suggestion to push forward the industry’s ‘Suppress the Secondary’ in the city (Suifu[2008]No.8), Guangzhou, People’s Government of Guangzhou. Google Scholar

Guangzhou Municipal Government. (2011) Regulatory detailed planning for Pazhou-Yuancun region (Suifu[2011]No.213), Guangzhou, People’s Government of Guangzhou. Google Scholar

Gugu, S. and Dal Molin, M. (2016) ‘Collaborative local cultural governance: what works? The case of cultural districts in Italy’, Administration & Society, 48(2), 237–62. Google Scholar

Hall, P. (2000) ‘Creative cities and economic development’, Urban Studies, 37(4), 639–49. Google Scholar

He, S. (2017) ‘The creative spatio-temporal fix: creative and cultural industries development in Shanghai, China’, Geoforum, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.07.017 (accessed 10 June 2018). Google Scholar

Howkins, J. (2002) The creative economy: how people make money from ideas, London, Penguin Press. Google Scholar

Jacobs, J. (1962) The death and life of great American cities, New York, Random House. Google Scholar

Landry, C. (2012) The creative city: a toolkit for urban innovators, London, Earthscan. Google Scholar

Li, S.-M., Cheng, H.-H. and Wang, J. (2014) ‘Making a cultural cluster in China: a study of Dafen oil painting’, Habitat International, 41, 156–64. Google Scholar

Liu, X. (2017) ‘“Contested policy mobility”: the creative transformation and temporary use of brownfields in Redtory, Guangzhou’, Urban Geography, 38(6), 884–902. Google Scholar

Liu, X., Han, S. S. and O’Connor, K. (2013) ‘Art villages in metropolitan Beijing: a study of the location dynamics’, Habitat International, 40, 176–83. Google Scholar

Lloyd, R. (2002) ‘Neo-bohemia: art and neighbourhood redevelopment in Chicago’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 24(5), 517–32. Google Scholar

Markusen, A. (2006) ‘Urban development and the politics of a creative class: evidence from a study of artists’, Environment and Planning A, 38, 1921–40. Google Scholar

Markusen, A. and Schrock, G. (2006) ‘The artistic dividend: urban artistic specialisation and economic development implications’, Urban Studies, 43(10), 1661–86. Google Scholar

Montgomery, J. (2004) ‘Cultural quarters as mechanisms for urban regeneration. Part 2: a review of four cultural quarters in the UK, Ireland and Australia’, Planning, Practice & Research, 19(1), 3–31. Google Scholar

Moss, G. (2017) Artistic enclaves in the post-industrial city: a case study of Lawrenceville Pittsburgh, Cham, Switzerland, Springer. Google Scholar

Mould, O. and Comunian, R. (2015) ‘Hung, drawn, and cultural quartered: rethinking cultural quarter development policy in the UK’, European Planning Studies, 23(12), 2356–69. Google Scholar

Noonan, D. (2013) ‘How US cultural districts reshape neighbourhoods’, Cultural Trend, 22(3–4), 203–12. Google Scholar

O’Connor, J. and Gu, X. (2014) ‘Creative industry clusters in Shanghai: a success story?’, International Journal of Cultural Policy, 20(1), 1–20. Google Scholar

O’Connor, J. and Liu, L. (2014) ‘Shenzhen’s OCT-LOFT: creative space in the City of Design’, City, Culture and Society, 5(3), 131–38. Google Scholar

Porter, L. and Barber, A. (2007) ‘Planning the cultural quarter in Birmingham’s eastside’, European Planning Studies, 15(10), 1327–48. Google Scholar

Porter, M. E. (2000) ‘Location, competition, and economic development: local clusters in a global economy’, Economic Development Quarterly, 14(1), 15–34. Google Scholar

Pratt, A. C. (2004a) ‘The cultural economy: a call for spatialized “production of culture” perspectives’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(1), 117–28. Google Scholar

Pratt, A. C. (2004b) ‘Creative clusters: towards the governance of the creative industries production system?’, Media International Australia, (112), 50–66. Google Scholar

Qian, J., He, S. and Liu, L. (2013) ‘Aestheticisation, rent-seeking, and rural gentrification amidst China’s rapid urbanisation: the case of Xiaozhou village, Guangzhou’, Journal of Rural Studies, 32, 331–45. Google Scholar

Ren, X. and Sun, M. (2012) ‘Artistic urbanization: creative industries and creative control in Beijing’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 36(3), 504–21. Google Scholar

Rushton, M. (2015) ‘Cultural districts and economic development in American cities’, Poetics, 49, 20–29. Google Scholar

Santagata, W. (2002) ‘Cultural districts, property rights and sustainable economic growth’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 26(1), 9–23. Google Scholar

Shaw, K. (2005) ‘The place of alternative culture and the politics of its protection in Berlin, Amsterdam and Melbourne’, Planning Theory & Practice, 6(2), 149–69. Google Scholar

Sonn, J. W., Chen, K. W., Wang, H. and Liu, X. (2017) ‘A top-down creation of a cultural cluster for urban regeneration: the case of OCT Loft, Shenzhen’, Land Use Policy, 69, 307–16. Google Scholar

Stern, M. and Seifert, S. (2010) ‘Cultural clusters: the implications of cultural assets agglomeration for neighbourhood revitalization’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 29(3), 262–79. Google Scholar

Tianhe District Government (2006) Master plan of Tianhe District, 2007–2020, Tianhe District Government. Google Scholar

Wang, J. (2012) ‘Evolution of cultural clusters in China: comparative study of Beijing and Shanghai’, Architectoni.ca, 2, 148–59. Google Scholar

Webster, D., Muller, L. and Cai, J. (2011) ‘The emerging cultural economy in Chinese cities: early dynamics’, International Development Planning Review, 33(3), 343–69. Google Scholar

Yin, Y., Liu, Z., Dunford, M. and Liu, W. (2015) ‘The 798 art district: multi-scalar drivers of land use succession and industrial restructuring in Beijing’, Habitat International, 46, 147–55. Google Scholar

Zacharias, J. and Lei, Y. (2016) ‘Villages at the urban fringe: the social dynamics of Xiaozhou’, Journal of Rural Studies, 47, 650–56. Google Scholar

Zhang, J. (2017) ‘The geographic political economy of art district formation in China: the case of Songzhuang’, Geoforum, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.07.018 (accessed 10 June 2018). Google Scholar

Zhang, Y. (2014) ‘Governing art districts: state control and cultural production in contemporary China’, The China Quarterly, 219, 827–48. Google Scholar

Zheng, J. and Chan, R. (2014) ‘The impact of “creative industry clusters” on cultural and creative industry development in Shanghai’, City, Culture and Society, 5(1), 9–22. Google Scholar

Zheng, Y. (2012) ‘The research of the influence of the culture creative industry to the traditional village public space of Xiaozhou village in Guangzhou’ (unpublished master’s thesis), South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China. Google Scholar

Zhong, S. (2016) ‘Artists and Shanghai’s culture-led urban regeneration’, Cities, 56, 165–71. Google Scholar

Zielke, P. and Waibel, M. (2014) ‘Comparative urban governance of developing creative spaces in China’, Habitat International, 41, 99–107. Google Scholar

Zukin, S. (1982) Loft living: culture and capital in urban change, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press. Google Scholar

Ashley, A. J. (2015) ‘Beyond the aesthetic: the historical pursuit of local arts economic development’, Journal of Planning History, 14(1), 38–61. Google Scholar

Audretsch, D. B. and Feldman, M. P. (1996) ‘R&D spillovers and the geography of innovation and production’, The American Economic Review, 86(3), 630–40. Google Scholar

Bianchini, F. and Parkinson, M. (eds) (1993) Cultural policy and urban regeneration, Manchester, Manchester University Press. Google Scholar

Chapple, K., Jackson, S. and Martin, A. J. (2010) ‘Concentrating creativity: the planning of formal and informal arts districts’, City, Culture and Society, 1, 225–34. Google Scholar

DCMS (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) (1998) Creative industries mapping document (report of United Kingdom special working group on creative industries), London, HMSO. Google Scholar

Evans, G. (2005) ‘Measure for measure: evaluating the evidence of culture’s contribution to regeneration’, Urban Studies, 42(5–6), 959–83. Google Scholar

Florida, R. (2002) The rise of the creative class: and how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life, New York, NY, Basic Books. Google Scholar

Florida, R. (2003) ‘Cities and the creative class’, City & Community, 2(1), 3–19. Google Scholar

Gadwa Nicodemus, A. (2013) ‘Fuzzy vibrancy: creative placemaking as ascendant US cultural policy’, Cultural Trends, 22(3–4), 213–22. Google Scholar

Gornostaeva, G. and Campbell, N. (2012) ‘The creative underclass in the production of place: Example of Camden town in London’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 34(2), 169–88. Google Scholar

Guangzhou Municipal Government. (2008) Suggestion to push forward the industry’s ‘Suppress the Secondary’ in the city (Suifu[2008]No.8), Guangzhou, People’s Government of Guangzhou. Google Scholar

Guangzhou Municipal Government. (2011) Regulatory detailed planning for Pazhou-Yuancun region (Suifu[2011]No.213), Guangzhou, People’s Government of Guangzhou. Google Scholar

Gugu, S. and Dal Molin, M. (2016) ‘Collaborative local cultural governance: what works? The case of cultural districts in Italy’, Administration & Society, 48(2), 237–62. Google Scholar

Hall, P. (2000) ‘Creative cities and economic development’, Urban Studies, 37(4), 639–49. Google Scholar

He, S. (2017) ‘The creative spatio-temporal fix: creative and cultural industries development in Shanghai, China’, Geoforum, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.07.017 (accessed 10 June 2018). Google Scholar

Howkins, J. (2002) The creative economy: how people make money from ideas, London, Penguin Press. Google Scholar

Jacobs, J. (1962) The death and life of great American cities, New York, Random House. Google Scholar

Landry, C. (2012) The creative city: a toolkit for urban innovators, London, Earthscan. Google Scholar

Li, S.-M., Cheng, H.-H. and Wang, J. (2014) ‘Making a cultural cluster in China: a study of Dafen oil painting’, Habitat International, 41, 156–64. Google Scholar

Liu, X. (2017) ‘“Contested policy mobility”: the creative transformation and temporary use of brownfields in Redtory, Guangzhou’, Urban Geography, 38(6), 884–902. Google Scholar

Liu, X., Han, S. S. and O’Connor, K. (2013) ‘Art villages in metropolitan Beijing: a study of the location dynamics’, Habitat International, 40, 176–83. Google Scholar

Lloyd, R. (2002) ‘Neo-bohemia: art and neighbourhood redevelopment in Chicago’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 24(5), 517–32. Google Scholar

Markusen, A. (2006) ‘Urban development and the politics of a creative class: evidence from a study of artists’, Environment and Planning A, 38, 1921–40. Google Scholar

Markusen, A. and Schrock, G. (2006) ‘The artistic dividend: urban artistic specialisation and economic development implications’, Urban Studies, 43(10), 1661–86. Google Scholar

Montgomery, J. (2004) ‘Cultural quarters as mechanisms for urban regeneration. Part 2: a review of four cultural quarters in the UK, Ireland and Australia’, Planning, Practice & Research, 19(1), 3–31. Google Scholar

Moss, G. (2017) Artistic enclaves in the post-industrial city: a case study of Lawrenceville Pittsburgh, Cham, Switzerland, Springer. Google Scholar

Mould, O. and Comunian, R. (2015) ‘Hung, drawn, and cultural quartered: rethinking cultural quarter development policy in the UK’, European Planning Studies, 23(12), 2356–69. Google Scholar

Noonan, D. (2013) ‘How US cultural districts reshape neighbourhoods’, Cultural Trend, 22(3–4), 203–12. Google Scholar

O’Connor, J. and Gu, X. (2014) ‘Creative industry clusters in Shanghai: a success story?’, International Journal of Cultural Policy, 20(1), 1–20. Google Scholar

O’Connor, J. and Liu, L. (2014) ‘Shenzhen’s OCT-LOFT: creative space in the City of Design’, City, Culture and Society, 5(3), 131–38. Google Scholar

Porter, L. and Barber, A. (2007) ‘Planning the cultural quarter in Birmingham’s eastside’, European Planning Studies, 15(10), 1327–48. Google Scholar

Porter, M. E. (2000) ‘Location, competition, and economic development: local clusters in a global economy’, Economic Development Quarterly, 14(1), 15–34. Google Scholar

Pratt, A. C. (2004a) ‘The cultural economy: a call for spatialized “production of culture” perspectives’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(1), 117–28. Google Scholar

Pratt, A. C. (2004b) ‘Creative clusters: towards the governance of the creative industries production system?’, Media International Australia, (112), 50–66. Google Scholar

Qian, J., He, S. and Liu, L. (2013) ‘Aestheticisation, rent-seeking, and rural gentrification amidst China’s rapid urbanisation: the case of Xiaozhou village, Guangzhou’, Journal of Rural Studies, 32, 331–45. Google Scholar

Ren, X. and Sun, M. (2012) ‘Artistic urbanization: creative industries and creative control in Beijing’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 36(3), 504–21. Google Scholar

Rushton, M. (2015) ‘Cultural districts and economic development in American cities’, Poetics, 49, 20–29. Google Scholar

Santagata, W. (2002) ‘Cultural districts, property rights and sustainable economic growth’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 26(1), 9–23. Google Scholar

Shaw, K. (2005) ‘The place of alternative culture and the politics of its protection in Berlin, Amsterdam and Melbourne’, Planning Theory & Practice, 6(2), 149–69. Google Scholar

Sonn, J. W., Chen, K. W., Wang, H. and Liu, X. (2017) ‘A top-down creation of a cultural cluster for urban regeneration: the case of OCT Loft, Shenzhen’, Land Use Policy, 69, 307–16. Google Scholar

Stern, M. and Seifert, S. (2010) ‘Cultural clusters: the implications of cultural assets agglomeration for neighbourhood revitalization’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 29(3), 262–79. Google Scholar

Tianhe District Government (2006) Master plan of Tianhe District, 2007–2020, Tianhe District Government. Google Scholar

Wang, J. (2012) ‘Evolution of cultural clusters in China: comparative study of Beijing and Shanghai’, Architectoni.ca, 2, 148–59. Google Scholar

Webster, D., Muller, L. and Cai, J. (2011) ‘The emerging cultural economy in Chinese cities: early dynamics’, International Development Planning Review, 33(3), 343–69. Google Scholar

Yin, Y., Liu, Z., Dunford, M. and Liu, W. (2015) ‘The 798 art district: multi-scalar drivers of land use succession and industrial restructuring in Beijing’, Habitat International, 46, 147–55. Google Scholar

Zacharias, J. and Lei, Y. (2016) ‘Villages at the urban fringe: the social dynamics of Xiaozhou’, Journal of Rural Studies, 47, 650–56. Google Scholar

Zhang, J. (2017) ‘The geographic political economy of art district formation in China: the case of Songzhuang’, Geoforum, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.07.018 (accessed 10 June 2018). Google Scholar

Zhang, Y. (2014) ‘Governing art districts: state control and cultural production in contemporary China’, The China Quarterly, 219, 827–48. Google Scholar

Zheng, J. and Chan, R. (2014) ‘The impact of “creative industry clusters” on cultural and creative industry development in Shanghai’, City, Culture and Society, 5(1), 9–22. Google Scholar

Zheng, Y. (2012) ‘The research of the influence of the culture creative industry to the traditional village public space of Xiaozhou village in Guangzhou’ (unpublished master’s thesis), South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China. Google Scholar

Zhong, S. (2016) ‘Artists and Shanghai’s culture-led urban regeneration’, Cities, 56, 165–71. Google Scholar

Zielke, P. and Waibel, M. (2014) ‘Comparative urban governance of developing creative spaces in China’, Habitat International, 41, 99–107. Google Scholar

Zukin, S. (1982) Loft living: culture and capital in urban change, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details