Town Planning Review

Housing development and small town residential desirability: Valued aspects, resident attitudes and growth management

Town Planning Review (2011), 82, (3), 317–340.

Abstract

Although rural planning has implications for areas operating under constraint, this article considers the challenges faced by small towns in which rural housing growth has been concentrated. By investigating the valued aspects of residents and their attitudes towards/experiences of growth within two case study towns, the article explores the potential for the coexistence of housing development and small town residential desirability. The results have shown housing development to be unpopular where the quality of growth management was of most concern. Incremental developer-led housing growth has unsettled the functional balance of the towns, with its design adding little to aesthetic appeal, character or services. The results illustrate the need to improve growth management by adopting a more 'spatial' and local approach to strategy formation.

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BAKER, M. and HINCKS, S. (2009), 'Infrastructure delivery and spatial planning: the case of English Local Development Frameworks', Town Planning Review, 80, 173–99. Infrastructure delivery and spatial planning: the case of English Local Development Frameworks Town Planning Review 80 173 99 Google Scholar

BROWN, R.B., FUGUITT, G., HEATON, T. and WASEEM, S. (1997), 'Continuities in size of place preferences in the United States, 1972–1992', Rural Sociology, 54, 568–86. Continuities in size of place preferences in the United States, 1972–1992 Rural Sociology 54 568 86 Google Scholar

CABE (COMMISSION FOR ARCHITECTURE AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT) (2004), Creating Successful Master Plans: A Clients Guide, London, CABE. Google Scholar

CABE (COMMISSION FOR ARCHITECTURE AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT) (2008), Building for Life, London, CABE. Google Scholar

CARRUTHERS, J.I. and ULFARSSON, G.F. (2003), 'Urban sprawl and the cost of public services', Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 30, 503–22. Urban sprawl and the cost of public services Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 30 503 22 Google Scholar

CLOKE, P. (1987), Rural Planning Policy into Action, London, Harper & Row. Rural Planning Policy into Action Google Scholar

CLOKE, P., GOODWIN, M. and MILBOURNE, P. (1998), 'Inside looking out; outside looking in. Different experiences of cultural competence in rural lifestyle', in P. Boyle and K. Halfacree (eds), Migration into Rural Areas: Theories and Issues, Chichester, John Wiley & Sons. Inside looking out; outside looking in. Different experiences of cultural competence in rural lifestyle Migration into Rural Areas: Theories and Issues Google Scholar

COUNSELL, D. (1999), 'Attitudes to sustainable development in the housing capacity debate: a case of the West Sussex Structure Plan', Town Planning Review, 70, 213–29. Attitudes to sustainable development in the housing capacity debate: a case of the West Sussex Structure Plan Town Planning Review 70 213 29 Google Scholar

DAHMS, F.A. (1998), 'Settlement evolution in the Arena Society in the urban field', Journal of Rural Studies, 14, 299–320. Settlement evolution in the Arena Society in the urban field Journal of Rural Studies 14 299 320 Google Scholar

DANIELS, T. (1999), When City and Country Collide: Managing Growth in the Metropolitan Fringe, Washington, DC, Island Press. When City and Country Collide: Managing Growth in the Metropolitan Fringe Google Scholar

DAVIS, J.S., NELSON, A.C. and DUEKER, K.J. (1994), 'The new "burbs": the exurbs and their planning implications', Journal of the American Planning Association, 60, 45–59. The new "burbs": the exurbs and their planning implications Journal of the American Planning Association 60 45 59 Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2007), Planning for a Sustainable Future, Cm7120, London, TSO. Google Scholar

DEAR, M. (1992), 'Understanding and overcoming the NIMBY syndrome', Journal of the American Planning Association, 58, 288–300. Understanding and overcoming the NIMBY syndrome Journal of the American Planning Association 58 288 300 Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1998), The Impact of Large Food Stores on Market Towns and District Centres, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

FISCHEL, W.A. (2001), 'Why are there NIMBYs?', Land Economics, 77, 144–52. Why are there NIMBYs? Land Economics 77 144 52 Google Scholar

GERRING (2007), Case Study Research: Principles and Practice, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Case Study Research: Principles and Practice Google Scholar

GOBER, P., MCHUGH, K.E. and LECLERC, D. (1993), 'Job-rich but housing-poor: the dilemma of a western amenity town', Professional Geographer, 45, 12–20. Job-rich but housing-poor: the dilemma of a western amenity town Professional Geographer 45 12 20 Google Scholar

GODSCHALK, D.R. (2004), 'Land use planning challenges: coping with the conflicts in visions of sustainability development and liveable communities', Journal of the American Planning Association, 70, 5–13. Land use planning challenges: coping with the conflicts in visions of sustainability development and liveable communities Journal of the American Planning Association 70 5 13 Google Scholar

GNDP (GREATER NORWICH DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIP) (2009), 'Joint Core Strategy for Broadland, Norwich and South Norfolk: Public Consultation', http://www.gndp.org.uk/ Google Scholar

HALFACREE, K.H. (1995), 'Talking about rurality: social representations of the rural as expressed by residents of six English parishes', Journal of Rural Studies, 11, 1–20. Talking about rurality: social representations of the rural as expressed by residents of six English parishes Journal of Rural Studies 11 1 20 Google Scholar

HANNA, K.S., DALE, A. and LING, C. (2009), 'Social capital and quality of place: reflections on growth and change in a small town', Local Environment, 14, 31–44. Social capital and quality of place: reflections on growth and change in a small town Local Environment 14 31 44 Google Scholar

HART, T. (2007), 'Policies for market towns', in N.A. Powe, T. Hart, T. and T. Shaw (eds), Market Towns: Roles, Challenges and Prospects, London, Routledge. Policies for market towns Market Towns: Roles, Challenges and Prospects Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2007), Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning of Our Times, London, Routledge. Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning of Our Times Google Scholar

HEINS, S., DAM, F.V. and GOETGELUK, R. (2002), 'The pseudo-countryside as a compromise between spatial planning goals and consumers' preferences', Built Environment, 28, 311–18. The pseudo-countryside as a compromise between spatial planning goals and consumers' preferences Built Environment 28 311 18 Google Scholar

HOWLEY, P., SCOTT, M. and REDMOND, D. (2009), 'Sustainability versus liveability: an investigation of neighbourhood satisfaction', Journal of Environmental Planning and Landscape, 52, 847–64. Sustainability versus liveability: an investigation of neighbourhood satisfaction Journal of Environmental Planning and Landscape 52 847 64 Google Scholar

JACOBS, M. (1997), Making Sense of Environmental Capital, London, Council for the Protection of Rural England. Making Sense of Environmental Capital Google Scholar

KING'S LYNN & WEST NORFOLK LOCAL PLAN (1998), Adopted Local Plan, King's Lynn, Borough of King's Lynn and West Norfolk. Google Scholar

KLOSTERMAN, R.E. (1985), 'Arguments for and against Planning', Town Planning Review, 56, 5–20. Arguments for and against Planning Town Planning Review 56 5 20 Google Scholar

KLWN (KING'S LYNN AND WEST NORFOLK) (2009), Core Strategy: Proposed Submission Document, King's Lynn, Borough of King's Lynn and West Norfolk. Google Scholar

MORPHET, J. (2011), Effective Practice in Spatial Planning, London, Routledge. Effective Practice in Spatial Planning Google Scholar

MURDOCH, J. and LOWE, P. (2003), 'The preservationist paradox: modernism, environmentalism and the politics of spatial division', Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 28, 318–32. The preservationist paradox: modernism, environmentalism and the politics of spatial division Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 28 318 32 Google Scholar

NADIN, V. (2007), 'The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England', Planning Practice & Research, 22, 43–62. The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England Planning Practice & Research 22 43 62 Google Scholar

NELSON, A.C., DAWKINS, C.J. and THOMAS, W.S. (2007), The Social Impacts of Urban Containment, Urban Planning and Environment, Aldershot, Ashgate. The Social Impacts of Urban Containment, Urban Planning and Environment Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2005), Planning Policy Statement 1: Delivering Sustainable Development, London, TSO. Google Scholar

OXLEY, M. (2004), Economics, Planning and Housing, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Economics, Planning and Housing Google Scholar

PENDALL, R. (1999), 'Opposition to housing: NIMBY and beyond', Urban Affairs Review, 35, 112–36. Opposition to housing: NIMBY and beyond Urban Affairs Review 35 112 36 Google Scholar

POWE, N.A. (2006), 'Understanding urban attitudes towards country towns: considering their potential as visitor attractions', Journal of Retail and Leisure Property, 5, 255–69. Understanding urban attitudes towards country towns: considering their potential as visitor attractions Journal of Retail and Leisure Property 5 255 69 Google Scholar

POWE, N.A. and GUNN, S. (2008), 'Housing development in market towns: making a success of "local service centres"?', Town Planning Review, 78, 795–818. Housing development in market towns: making a success of "local service centres"? Town Planning Review 78 795 818 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

POWE, N.A. and HART, T. (2008), 'Market towns: understanding and maintaining functionality', Town Planning Review, 79, 1–14. Market towns: understanding and maintaining functionality Town Planning Review 79 1 14 Google Scholar

POWE, N.A., HART, T. and BEK, D. (2009), 'Market town centres in England: meeting the challenge of maintaining their contemporary relevance', Planning Practice and Research, 24, 301–319. Market town centres in England: meeting the challenge of maintaining their contemporary relevance Planning Practice and Research 24 301 319 Google Scholar

RENKOW, M. and HOOVER, D. (2000), 'Commuting, migration, and rural–urban population dynamics', Journal of Regional Science, 40, 261–87. Commuting, migration, and rural–urban population dynamics Journal of Regional Science 40 261 87 Google Scholar

SCHIVELY, C. (2007), 'Understanding the NIMBY and LULU phenomena: reassessing our knowledge base and informing future research', Journal of Planning Literature, 21, 255–66. Understanding the NIMBY and LULU phenomena: reassessing our knowledge base and informing future research Journal of Planning Literature 21 255 66 Google Scholar

SHAW, D. and LORD, A. (2007), 'The cultural turn? Culture change and what it means for spatial planning in England', Planning Practice and Research, 22, 63–78. The cultural turn? Culture change and what it means for spatial planning in England Planning Practice and Research 22 63 78 Google Scholar

SHUCKSMITH, M., WATKINS, L. and HENDERSON, M. (1993), 'Attitudes and policies towards residential development in the Scottish countryside', Journal of Rural Studies, 9, 243–55. Attitudes and policies towards residential development in the Scottish countryside Journal of Rural Studies 9 243 55 Google Scholar

SMITH, D.P. and PHILLIPS, D.A. (2001), 'Socio-cultural representations of gentrified Pennine rurality', Journal of Rural Studies, 17, 457–69. Socio-cultural representations of gentrified Pennine rurality Journal of Rural Studies 17 457 69 Google Scholar

SNCRP (SOUTH NORFOLK CRIME REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP) (2004), Crime and Disorder and Drugs Audit 2004, Norwich, South Norfolk Crime Reduction Partnership. Google Scholar

TAKAHASHI, L.M. and DEAR, M.J. (1997), 'The changing dynamics of community opposition to human service facilities', Journal of the American Planning Association, 63, 79–93. The changing dynamics of community opposition to human service facilities Journal of the American Planning Association 63 79 93 Google Scholar

TAYLOR, M. (2008), Living Working Countryside, The Taylor Review of Rural Economy and Affordable Housing, London, Department for Communities and Local Government. Living Working Countryside, The Taylor Review of Rural Economy and Affordable Housing Google Scholar

WNP (WEST NORFOLK PARTNERSHIP) (2008), Transforming West Norfolk (West Norfolk's Sustainable Community Strategy), King's Lynn, WNP. Google Scholar

BAKER, M. and HINCKS, S. (2009), 'Infrastructure delivery and spatial planning: the case of English Local Development Frameworks', Town Planning Review, 80, 173–99. Infrastructure delivery and spatial planning: the case of English Local Development Frameworks Town Planning Review 80 173 99 Google Scholar

BROWN, R.B., FUGUITT, G., HEATON, T. and WASEEM, S. (1997), 'Continuities in size of place preferences in the United States, 1972–1992', Rural Sociology, 54, 568–86. Continuities in size of place preferences in the United States, 1972–1992 Rural Sociology 54 568 86 Google Scholar

CABE (COMMISSION FOR ARCHITECTURE AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT) (2004), Creating Successful Master Plans: A Clients Guide, London, CABE. Google Scholar

CABE (COMMISSION FOR ARCHITECTURE AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT) (2008), Building for Life, London, CABE. Google Scholar

CARRUTHERS, J.I. and ULFARSSON, G.F. (2003), 'Urban sprawl and the cost of public services', Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 30, 503–22. Urban sprawl and the cost of public services Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 30 503 22 Google Scholar

CLOKE, P. (1987), Rural Planning Policy into Action, London, Harper & Row. Rural Planning Policy into Action Google Scholar

CLOKE, P., GOODWIN, M. and MILBOURNE, P. (1998), 'Inside looking out; outside looking in. Different experiences of cultural competence in rural lifestyle', in P. Boyle and K. Halfacree (eds), Migration into Rural Areas: Theories and Issues, Chichester, John Wiley & Sons. Inside looking out; outside looking in. Different experiences of cultural competence in rural lifestyle Migration into Rural Areas: Theories and Issues Google Scholar

COUNSELL, D. (1999), 'Attitudes to sustainable development in the housing capacity debate: a case of the West Sussex Structure Plan', Town Planning Review, 70, 213–29. Attitudes to sustainable development in the housing capacity debate: a case of the West Sussex Structure Plan Town Planning Review 70 213 29 Google Scholar

DAHMS, F.A. (1998), 'Settlement evolution in the Arena Society in the urban field', Journal of Rural Studies, 14, 299–320. Settlement evolution in the Arena Society in the urban field Journal of Rural Studies 14 299 320 Google Scholar

DANIELS, T. (1999), When City and Country Collide: Managing Growth in the Metropolitan Fringe, Washington, DC, Island Press. When City and Country Collide: Managing Growth in the Metropolitan Fringe Google Scholar

DAVIS, J.S., NELSON, A.C. and DUEKER, K.J. (1994), 'The new "burbs": the exurbs and their planning implications', Journal of the American Planning Association, 60, 45–59. The new "burbs": the exurbs and their planning implications Journal of the American Planning Association 60 45 59 Google Scholar

DCLG (DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (2007), Planning for a Sustainable Future, Cm7120, London, TSO. Google Scholar

DEAR, M. (1992), 'Understanding and overcoming the NIMBY syndrome', Journal of the American Planning Association, 58, 288–300. Understanding and overcoming the NIMBY syndrome Journal of the American Planning Association 58 288 300 Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1998), The Impact of Large Food Stores on Market Towns and District Centres, London, HMSO. Google Scholar

FISCHEL, W.A. (2001), 'Why are there NIMBYs?', Land Economics, 77, 144–52. Why are there NIMBYs? Land Economics 77 144 52 Google Scholar

GERRING (2007), Case Study Research: Principles and Practice, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Case Study Research: Principles and Practice Google Scholar

GOBER, P., MCHUGH, K.E. and LECLERC, D. (1993), 'Job-rich but housing-poor: the dilemma of a western amenity town', Professional Geographer, 45, 12–20. Job-rich but housing-poor: the dilemma of a western amenity town Professional Geographer 45 12 20 Google Scholar

GODSCHALK, D.R. (2004), 'Land use planning challenges: coping with the conflicts in visions of sustainability development and liveable communities', Journal of the American Planning Association, 70, 5–13. Land use planning challenges: coping with the conflicts in visions of sustainability development and liveable communities Journal of the American Planning Association 70 5 13 Google Scholar

GNDP (GREATER NORWICH DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIP) (2009), 'Joint Core Strategy for Broadland, Norwich and South Norfolk: Public Consultation', http://www.gndp.org.uk/ Google Scholar

HALFACREE, K.H. (1995), 'Talking about rurality: social representations of the rural as expressed by residents of six English parishes', Journal of Rural Studies, 11, 1–20. Talking about rurality: social representations of the rural as expressed by residents of six English parishes Journal of Rural Studies 11 1 20 Google Scholar

HANNA, K.S., DALE, A. and LING, C. (2009), 'Social capital and quality of place: reflections on growth and change in a small town', Local Environment, 14, 31–44. Social capital and quality of place: reflections on growth and change in a small town Local Environment 14 31 44 Google Scholar

HART, T. (2007), 'Policies for market towns', in N.A. Powe, T. Hart, T. and T. Shaw (eds), Market Towns: Roles, Challenges and Prospects, London, Routledge. Policies for market towns Market Towns: Roles, Challenges and Prospects Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (2007), Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning of Our Times, London, Routledge. Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning of Our Times Google Scholar

HEINS, S., DAM, F.V. and GOETGELUK, R. (2002), 'The pseudo-countryside as a compromise between spatial planning goals and consumers' preferences', Built Environment, 28, 311–18. The pseudo-countryside as a compromise between spatial planning goals and consumers' preferences Built Environment 28 311 18 Google Scholar

HOWLEY, P., SCOTT, M. and REDMOND, D. (2009), 'Sustainability versus liveability: an investigation of neighbourhood satisfaction', Journal of Environmental Planning and Landscape, 52, 847–64. Sustainability versus liveability: an investigation of neighbourhood satisfaction Journal of Environmental Planning and Landscape 52 847 64 Google Scholar

JACOBS, M. (1997), Making Sense of Environmental Capital, London, Council for the Protection of Rural England. Making Sense of Environmental Capital Google Scholar

KING'S LYNN & WEST NORFOLK LOCAL PLAN (1998), Adopted Local Plan, King's Lynn, Borough of King's Lynn and West Norfolk. Google Scholar

KLOSTERMAN, R.E. (1985), 'Arguments for and against Planning', Town Planning Review, 56, 5–20. Arguments for and against Planning Town Planning Review 56 5 20 Google Scholar

KLWN (KING'S LYNN AND WEST NORFOLK) (2009), Core Strategy: Proposed Submission Document, King's Lynn, Borough of King's Lynn and West Norfolk. Google Scholar

MORPHET, J. (2011), Effective Practice in Spatial Planning, London, Routledge. Effective Practice in Spatial Planning Google Scholar

MURDOCH, J. and LOWE, P. (2003), 'The preservationist paradox: modernism, environmentalism and the politics of spatial division', Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 28, 318–32. The preservationist paradox: modernism, environmentalism and the politics of spatial division Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 28 318 32 Google Scholar

NADIN, V. (2007), 'The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England', Planning Practice & Research, 22, 43–62. The emergence of the spatial planning approach in England Planning Practice & Research 22 43 62 Google Scholar

NELSON, A.C., DAWKINS, C.J. and THOMAS, W.S. (2007), The Social Impacts of Urban Containment, Urban Planning and Environment, Aldershot, Ashgate. The Social Impacts of Urban Containment, Urban Planning and Environment Google Scholar

ODPM (OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER) (2005), Planning Policy Statement 1: Delivering Sustainable Development, London, TSO. Google Scholar

OXLEY, M. (2004), Economics, Planning and Housing, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Economics, Planning and Housing Google Scholar

PENDALL, R. (1999), 'Opposition to housing: NIMBY and beyond', Urban Affairs Review, 35, 112–36. Opposition to housing: NIMBY and beyond Urban Affairs Review 35 112 36 Google Scholar

POWE, N.A. (2006), 'Understanding urban attitudes towards country towns: considering their potential as visitor attractions', Journal of Retail and Leisure Property, 5, 255–69. Understanding urban attitudes towards country towns: considering their potential as visitor attractions Journal of Retail and Leisure Property 5 255 69 Google Scholar

POWE, N.A. and GUNN, S. (2008), 'Housing development in market towns: making a success of "local service centres"?', Town Planning Review, 78, 795–818. Housing development in market towns: making a success of "local service centres"? Town Planning Review 78 795 818 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

POWE, N.A. and HART, T. (2008), 'Market towns: understanding and maintaining functionality', Town Planning Review, 79, 1–14. Market towns: understanding and maintaining functionality Town Planning Review 79 1 14 Google Scholar

POWE, N.A., HART, T. and BEK, D. (2009), 'Market town centres in England: meeting the challenge of maintaining their contemporary relevance', Planning Practice and Research, 24, 301–319. Market town centres in England: meeting the challenge of maintaining their contemporary relevance Planning Practice and Research 24 301 319 Google Scholar

RENKOW, M. and HOOVER, D. (2000), 'Commuting, migration, and rural–urban population dynamics', Journal of Regional Science, 40, 261–87. Commuting, migration, and rural–urban population dynamics Journal of Regional Science 40 261 87 Google Scholar

SCHIVELY, C. (2007), 'Understanding the NIMBY and LULU phenomena: reassessing our knowledge base and informing future research', Journal of Planning Literature, 21, 255–66. Understanding the NIMBY and LULU phenomena: reassessing our knowledge base and informing future research Journal of Planning Literature 21 255 66 Google Scholar

SHAW, D. and LORD, A. (2007), 'The cultural turn? Culture change and what it means for spatial planning in England', Planning Practice and Research, 22, 63–78. The cultural turn? Culture change and what it means for spatial planning in England Planning Practice and Research 22 63 78 Google Scholar

SHUCKSMITH, M., WATKINS, L. and HENDERSON, M. (1993), 'Attitudes and policies towards residential development in the Scottish countryside', Journal of Rural Studies, 9, 243–55. Attitudes and policies towards residential development in the Scottish countryside Journal of Rural Studies 9 243 55 Google Scholar

SMITH, D.P. and PHILLIPS, D.A. (2001), 'Socio-cultural representations of gentrified Pennine rurality', Journal of Rural Studies, 17, 457–69. Socio-cultural representations of gentrified Pennine rurality Journal of Rural Studies 17 457 69 Google Scholar

SNCRP (SOUTH NORFOLK CRIME REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP) (2004), Crime and Disorder and Drugs Audit 2004, Norwich, South Norfolk Crime Reduction Partnership. Google Scholar

TAKAHASHI, L.M. and DEAR, M.J. (1997), 'The changing dynamics of community opposition to human service facilities', Journal of the American Planning Association, 63, 79–93. The changing dynamics of community opposition to human service facilities Journal of the American Planning Association 63 79 93 Google Scholar

TAYLOR, M. (2008), Living Working Countryside, The Taylor Review of Rural Economy and Affordable Housing, London, Department for Communities and Local Government. Living Working Countryside, The Taylor Review of Rural Economy and Affordable Housing Google Scholar

WNP (WEST NORFOLK PARTNERSHIP) (2008), Transforming West Norfolk (West Norfolk's Sustainable Community Strategy), King's Lynn, WNP. Google Scholar

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Author details

Powe, Neil

Hart, Trevor