Town Planning Review

The form and organisation of urban areas: Colin Buchanan and Traffic in Towns 50 years on

Town Planning Review (2013), 84, (3), 313–336.

Abstract

In the early 1990s, Professor Sir Colin Buchanan embarked on the process of reordering his personal files relating to town planning and transportation extending back over 60 years. The material was then boxed and put aside, but in 2010 Sir Colin's son, Malcolm Buchanan, unearthed the files and passed on the archive to Imperial College London. This article provides an initial description of the content of the archive. A number of key concepts are first identified and then used to guide the analysis. In this paper it is argued that the common sense approach to planning advocated by Buchanan not only had a deep effect on the development of planning as a discipline, but also poses important questions related to the role and purpose of the planning system that are still relevant to these days.

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BEESLEY, M. E. and KAIN, J. F. (1964), ‘Urban form, car ownership and public policy: an appraisal of Traffic in Towns’, Urban Studies, 1, 174-203. ‘Urban form, car ownership and public policy: an appraisal of Traffic in Towns’ Urban Studies 1 174 203 Google Scholar

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BUCHANAN, C. (1963a), Traffic in Towns: A Study on the Long Term Problems of Traffic in Urban Areas, London, HMSO. Traffic in Towns: A Study on the Long Term Problems of Traffic in Urban Areas Google Scholar

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BUCHANAN, C. (1964a), ‘The expanding cities’ (paper delivered at the Melbourne Symposium: Living with the Motor Car), B/BCD/13. ‘The expanding cities’ Google Scholar

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BUCHANAN, C. (1964c), ‘The urban environment’ (paper delivered at the Town Planning Institute Golden Jubilee Conference, 24 June 1964), B/BCD/25. ‘The urban environment’ Google Scholar

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BUCHANAN, C. (1965b), ‘Traffic in towns 2 years on’, 2nd draft of an article published in The Observer, 28 November 1965, B/BCD/06. ‘Traffic in towns 2 years on’ The Observer 28 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1966), ‘Traffic and the environment’, paper presented at the TCPA National Conference: Transport and the Environment, 26 October 1966, B/BCD/05. ‘Traffic and the environment’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1967a), ‘The role of the lay opinion’ (second draft of paper delivered at conference held on 22 February 1967 location and host unknown), B/BCD/14. ‘The role of the lay opinion’ Google Scholar

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BUCHANAN, C. (1967c), ‘Basis for urban transport policy’ (paper delivered at the Conservative party local government conference in March 1967), B/BCD/01. ‘Basis for urban transport policy’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1968a), ‘Can man plan? A reassessment’ (paper delivered in Birmingham on 20 February 1968), B/BCD/05. ‘Can man plan? A reassessment’ Google Scholar

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BUCHANAN, C. (1969), ‘The Future of Britain’, Transcript of the programme. Pre recorded 26 November 1969, transmission 3 December 1969, Cambridge, Third Programme, B/BCD/07. ‘The Future of Britain’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1970), ‘Professor Colin Buchanan’, The Brian Connell Interviews (second series), London, Anglia television Ltd, B/BCD/07. The Brian Connell Interviews Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1971), ‘The price of posterity’ (paper prepared for the British Road Federation Conference: People, Roads and Cities, 17 October 1971, then cancelled), B/BCD/14. ‘The price of posterity’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1972), The State of Britain, London, Faber and Faber. The State of Britain Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1974a), ‘The city as a dynamic system’, Plan 74 (South Africa), 4-9, B/BCD/07. ‘The city as a dynamic system’ Plan 74 4 9 Google Scholar

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BUCHANAN, C. (1974c) ‘Confessions of a planner’, The Observer, 12 November 1974, 13, B/BCD/07. ‘Confessions of a planner’ The Observer 12 13 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1975), ‘Cities in crisis: an overview’ (paper delivered at the RTPI annual conference in Bristol, June 1975), B/BCD/25. ‘Cities in crisis: an overview’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1979), ‘Whose side are the angels on?’ (paper delivered at Manchester University, 2 November 1979), B/BCD/27. ‘Whose side are the angels on?’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1981a), ‘The Third of Six Letters to a Politician’, in The Highway Engineer, August/September 1981, 26-7, B/BCD/08. ‘The Third of Six Letters to a Politician’ The Highway Engineer 26 7 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1981b), ‘The Sixth of Six Letters to a Politician’, in The Highway Engineer, December 1981, 14-20. ‘The Sixth of Six Letters to a Politician’ The Highway Engineer 14 20 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1983a), ‘Traffic in towns: an assessment after twenty years’, Built Environment, 9, 93-98. ‘Traffic in towns: an assessment after twenty years’ Built Environment 9 93 98 Google Scholar

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BUCHANAN, C. (1985), ‘House of Lords Paper’ (presented as an interested observer concerning the abolition of the Greater London Council (GLC), April 1985), B/BCD/03. ‘House of Lords Paper’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1987), ‘Conservation - an overall view’ (paper delivered at the Cheltenham College, 9 October 1987), B/BCD/11. ‘Conservation - an overall view’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1988), ‘Development and motorway pressures’ (paper presented to the Buckinghamshire Society of Architects, High Wycombe, 23 May 1988), B/BCD/03. ‘Development and motorway pressures’ Google Scholar

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BUCHANAN, C. (2001), ‘I told you so’ (second version of autobiography), London, Colin Buchanan and Partners. ‘I told you so’ (second version of autobiography) Google Scholar

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BUCHANAN, C. (n.d.), ‘Planning and the Motor Vehicle’ (proof of RSH Congress Papers, 13538, 102-105), B/BCD/09. ‘Planning and the Motor Vehicle’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, M. (2004), ‘More or less traffic in towns?’, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Transport, 157, 27-41. ‘More or less traffic in towns?’ Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Transport 157 27 41 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, M. (2009), ‘Have we reached the end of traffic in towns?’, Traffic Engineering and Control, 50, 17-20. ‘Have we reached the end of traffic in towns?’ Traffic Engineering and Control 50 17 20 Google Scholar

DAVIES, H. W. E. (1998), ‘Continuity and change: the evolution of the British planning system, 1947-97’, Town Planning Review, 69, 135-52. ‘Continuity and change: the evolution of the British planning system, 1947-97’ Town Planning Review 69 135 52 Google Scholar

DELAFONS, J. (1998), ‘Reforming the British planning system 1964-65: the Planning Advisory Group and the genesis of the Planning Act of 1968’, Planning Perspectives, 13, 373-87. ‘Reforming the British planning system 1964-65: the Planning Advisory Group and the genesis of the Planning Act of 1968’ Planning Perspectives 13 373 87 Google Scholar

GIDDINGS, B. and HOPWOOD, B. (2006), ‘From evangelistic bureaucrat to visionary developer: the changing character of the master plan in Britain’, Planning Practice & Research, 21, 337-48. ‘From evangelistic bureaucrat to visionary developer: the changing character of the master plan in Britain’ Planning Practice & Research 21 337 48 Google Scholar

GOODWIN, P. (1999), ‘Transformation of transport policy in Great Britain’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 33, 655-69. ‘Transformation of transport policy in Great Britain’ Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 33 655 69 Google Scholar

GUNN, S. (2011), ‘The Buchanan Report, environment and the problem of traffic in 1960s Britain’, Twentieth Century British History, 22, 521-42. ‘The Buchanan Report, environment and the problem of traffic in 1960s Britain’ Twentieth Century British History 22 521 42 Google Scholar

HALL, P. (1964), ‘Review of The Buchanan Report’, The Geographical Journal, 130, 125-28. ‘Review of The Buchanan Report’ The Geographical Journal 130 125 28 Google Scholar

HALL, P. (2003), ‘The Buchanan Report: 40 years on’, in Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Transport, 157, 7-14. ‘The Buchanan Report: 40 years on’, in Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Transport 157 7 14 Google Scholar

HART, T. (1992), ‘Transport, the urban pattern and regional change, 1960-2010’, Urban Studies, 29, 483-503. ‘Transport, the urban pattern and regional change, 1960-2010’ Urban Studies 29 483 503 Google Scholar

HEBBERT, M. (2005), ‘Engineering, urbanism and the struggle for street design’, Journal of Urban Design, 10, 39-59. ‘Engineering, urbanism and the struggle for street design’ Journal of Urban Design 10 39 59 Google Scholar

HUGHES, T. P. and HUGHES, A. C. (eds) (1990), Lewis Mumford: Public Intellectual, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Lewis Mumford: Public Intellectual Google Scholar

JAMES, J. R. (1963), ‘The next 50 years’ (paper presented at the general meeting of the Town Planning Institute, 4 December 1963), B/BCD/13. ‘The next 50 years’ Google Scholar

MILLER, D. L. (1989), Lewis Mumford: A Life, New York, Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Lewis Mumford: A Life Google Scholar

MORRISION, M. (1995), ‘The monster that's so damned useful’, Planning Week, 3 (33), 10-14. ‘The monster that's so damned useful’ Planning Week 3 10 14 Google Scholar

PENDLEBURY, J. (2005), ‘The modern historic city: evolving ideas in mid-20th century Britain’, Journal of Urban Design, 10, 253-73. ‘The modern historic city: evolving ideas in mid-20th century Britain’ Journal of Urban Design 10 253 73 Google Scholar

PHARAOH, T. (1996), ‘Reducing the need to travel: a new planning objective in the UK?’, Land Use Policy, 13, 23-36. ‘Reducing the need to travel: a new planning objective in the UK?’ Land Use Policy 13 23 36 Google Scholar

PROUDLOVE, J. A. (1964), ‘Traffic in towns: A review of the Buchanan and Crowther Reports’, Town Planning Review, 34, 253-68. ‘Traffic in towns: A review of the Buchanan and Crowther Reports’ Town Planning Review 34 253 68 Google Scholar

SMEED, R. J. (1963), ‘The road space required for traffic in towns’, Town Planning Review, 33, 279-92. ‘The road space required for traffic in towns’ Town Planning Review 33 279 92 Google Scholar

SMEED, R. J. (1964), ‘The traffic problem in towns: a review of possible long term solutions’, Town Planning Review, 35, 133-58. ‘The traffic problem in towns: a review of possible long term solutions’ Town Planning Review 35 133 58 Google Scholar

STARKIE, D. (1982), The Motorway Age: Road and Traffic policies in Post-war Britain, London, Pergamon Press. The Motorway Age: Road and Traffic policies in Post-war Britain Google Scholar

TAYLOR, N. (2003), ‘The aesthetic experience of traffic in the modern city’, Urban Studies, 40, 1609-25. ‘The aesthetic experience of traffic in the modern city’ Urban Studies 40 1609 25 Google Scholar

TEWDWR-JONES, M. (2011), Urban Reflections: Narratives of Place, Planning and Change, Bristol, Policy Press. Urban Reflections: Narratives of Place, Planning and Change Google Scholar

TIBBALDS, F. (2001), Making People-Friendly Towns: Improving the Public Environment in Towns and Cities, London, Spon Press. Making People-Friendly Towns: Improving the Public Environment in Towns and Cities Google Scholar

VIGAR, G. (2001), ‘Reappraising UK transport policy 1950-99: the myth of "mono-modality" and the nature of "paradigm shifts"’, Planning Perspectives, 16, 269-91. ‘Reappraising UK transport policy 1950-99: the myth of "mono-modality" and the nature of "paradigm shifts"’ Planning Perspectives 16 269 91 Google Scholar

WARD, S. (2007), ‘Cross-national learning in the formation of British planning policies 1940-99: a comparison of the Barlow, Buchanan and Rogers Reports’, Town Planning Review, 78, 369-400. ‘Cross-national learning in the formation of British planning policies 1940-99: a comparison of the Barlow, Buchanan and Rogers Reports’ Town Planning Review 78 369 400 Google Scholar

BEESLEY, M. E. and KAIN, J. F. (1964), ‘Urban form, car ownership and public policy: an appraisal of Traffic in Towns’, Urban Studies, 1, 174-203. ‘Urban form, car ownership and public policy: an appraisal of Traffic in Towns’ Urban Studies 1 174 203 Google Scholar

BRUTON, M. (1981), ‘Colin Buchanan’, in G. Cheery (ed), Pioneers in British Planning, London, Architectural Press, 203-24. Pioneers in British Planning 203 24 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1961b), ‘Comprehensive redevelopment: the opportunity for traffic’, Traffic Engineering and Control, 121 (June) 106-7, 127, B/BCD/14. ‘Comprehensive redevelopment: the opportunity for traffic’ Traffic Engineering and Control 121 106 7 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1963a), Traffic in Towns: A Study on the Long Term Problems of Traffic in Urban Areas, London, HMSO. Traffic in Towns: A Study on the Long Term Problems of Traffic in Urban Areas Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1963b), ‘People and cities’ (paper delivered at the British Road Federation Conference, December 1963), B/BCD/06. ‘People and cities’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1964a), ‘The expanding cities’ (paper delivered at the Melbourne Symposium: Living with the Motor Car), B/BCD/13. ‘The expanding cities’ Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1964c), ‘The urban environment’ (paper delivered at the Town Planning Institute Golden Jubilee Conference, 24 June 1964), B/BCD/25. ‘The urban environment’ Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1965b), ‘Traffic in towns 2 years on’, 2nd draft of an article published in The Observer, 28 November 1965, B/BCD/06. ‘Traffic in towns 2 years on’ The Observer 28 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1966), ‘Traffic and the environment’, paper presented at the TCPA National Conference: Transport and the Environment, 26 October 1966, B/BCD/05. ‘Traffic and the environment’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1967a), ‘The role of the lay opinion’ (second draft of paper delivered at conference held on 22 February 1967 location and host unknown), B/BCD/14. ‘The role of the lay opinion’ Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1967c), ‘Basis for urban transport policy’ (paper delivered at the Conservative party local government conference in March 1967), B/BCD/01. ‘Basis for urban transport policy’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1968a), ‘Can man plan? A reassessment’ (paper delivered in Birmingham on 20 February 1968), B/BCD/05. ‘Can man plan? A reassessment’ Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1969), ‘The Future of Britain’, Transcript of the programme. Pre recorded 26 November 1969, transmission 3 December 1969, Cambridge, Third Programme, B/BCD/07. ‘The Future of Britain’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1970), ‘Professor Colin Buchanan’, The Brian Connell Interviews (second series), London, Anglia television Ltd, B/BCD/07. The Brian Connell Interviews Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1971), ‘The price of posterity’ (paper prepared for the British Road Federation Conference: People, Roads and Cities, 17 October 1971, then cancelled), B/BCD/14. ‘The price of posterity’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1972), The State of Britain, London, Faber and Faber. The State of Britain Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1974a), ‘The city as a dynamic system’, Plan 74 (South Africa), 4-9, B/BCD/07. ‘The city as a dynamic system’ Plan 74 4 9 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1974c) ‘Confessions of a planner’, The Observer, 12 November 1974, 13, B/BCD/07. ‘Confessions of a planner’ The Observer 12 13 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1975), ‘Cities in crisis: an overview’ (paper delivered at the RTPI annual conference in Bristol, June 1975), B/BCD/25. ‘Cities in crisis: an overview’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1979), ‘Whose side are the angels on?’ (paper delivered at Manchester University, 2 November 1979), B/BCD/27. ‘Whose side are the angels on?’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1981a), ‘The Third of Six Letters to a Politician’, in The Highway Engineer, August/September 1981, 26-7, B/BCD/08. ‘The Third of Six Letters to a Politician’ The Highway Engineer 26 7 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1981b), ‘The Sixth of Six Letters to a Politician’, in The Highway Engineer, December 1981, 14-20. ‘The Sixth of Six Letters to a Politician’ The Highway Engineer 14 20 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1983a), ‘Traffic in towns: an assessment after twenty years’, Built Environment, 9, 93-98. ‘Traffic in towns: an assessment after twenty years’ Built Environment 9 93 98 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1985), ‘House of Lords Paper’ (presented as an interested observer concerning the abolition of the Greater London Council (GLC), April 1985), B/BCD/03. ‘House of Lords Paper’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1987), ‘Conservation - an overall view’ (paper delivered at the Cheltenham College, 9 October 1987), B/BCD/11. ‘Conservation - an overall view’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (1988), ‘Development and motorway pressures’ (paper presented to the Buckinghamshire Society of Architects, High Wycombe, 23 May 1988), B/BCD/03. ‘Development and motorway pressures’ Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (2001), ‘I told you so’ (second version of autobiography), London, Colin Buchanan and Partners. ‘I told you so’ (second version of autobiography) Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, C. (n.d.), ‘Planning and the Motor Vehicle’ (proof of RSH Congress Papers, 13538, 102-105), B/BCD/09. ‘Planning and the Motor Vehicle’ Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, M. (2004), ‘More or less traffic in towns?’, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Transport, 157, 27-41. ‘More or less traffic in towns?’ Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Transport 157 27 41 Google Scholar

BUCHANAN, M. (2009), ‘Have we reached the end of traffic in towns?’, Traffic Engineering and Control, 50, 17-20. ‘Have we reached the end of traffic in towns?’ Traffic Engineering and Control 50 17 20 Google Scholar

DAVIES, H. W. E. (1998), ‘Continuity and change: the evolution of the British planning system, 1947-97’, Town Planning Review, 69, 135-52. ‘Continuity and change: the evolution of the British planning system, 1947-97’ Town Planning Review 69 135 52 Google Scholar

DELAFONS, J. (1998), ‘Reforming the British planning system 1964-65: the Planning Advisory Group and the genesis of the Planning Act of 1968’, Planning Perspectives, 13, 373-87. ‘Reforming the British planning system 1964-65: the Planning Advisory Group and the genesis of the Planning Act of 1968’ Planning Perspectives 13 373 87 Google Scholar

GIDDINGS, B. and HOPWOOD, B. (2006), ‘From evangelistic bureaucrat to visionary developer: the changing character of the master plan in Britain’, Planning Practice & Research, 21, 337-48. ‘From evangelistic bureaucrat to visionary developer: the changing character of the master plan in Britain’ Planning Practice & Research 21 337 48 Google Scholar

GOODWIN, P. (1999), ‘Transformation of transport policy in Great Britain’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 33, 655-69. ‘Transformation of transport policy in Great Britain’ Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 33 655 69 Google Scholar

GUNN, S. (2011), ‘The Buchanan Report, environment and the problem of traffic in 1960s Britain’, Twentieth Century British History, 22, 521-42. ‘The Buchanan Report, environment and the problem of traffic in 1960s Britain’ Twentieth Century British History 22 521 42 Google Scholar

HALL, P. (1964), ‘Review of The Buchanan Report’, The Geographical Journal, 130, 125-28. ‘Review of The Buchanan Report’ The Geographical Journal 130 125 28 Google Scholar

HALL, P. (2003), ‘The Buchanan Report: 40 years on’, in Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Transport, 157, 7-14. ‘The Buchanan Report: 40 years on’, in Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Transport 157 7 14 Google Scholar

HART, T. (1992), ‘Transport, the urban pattern and regional change, 1960-2010’, Urban Studies, 29, 483-503. ‘Transport, the urban pattern and regional change, 1960-2010’ Urban Studies 29 483 503 Google Scholar

HEBBERT, M. (2005), ‘Engineering, urbanism and the struggle for street design’, Journal of Urban Design, 10, 39-59. ‘Engineering, urbanism and the struggle for street design’ Journal of Urban Design 10 39 59 Google Scholar

HUGHES, T. P. and HUGHES, A. C. (eds) (1990), Lewis Mumford: Public Intellectual, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Lewis Mumford: Public Intellectual Google Scholar

JAMES, J. R. (1963), ‘The next 50 years’ (paper presented at the general meeting of the Town Planning Institute, 4 December 1963), B/BCD/13. ‘The next 50 years’ Google Scholar

MILLER, D. L. (1989), Lewis Mumford: A Life, New York, Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Lewis Mumford: A Life Google Scholar

MORRISION, M. (1995), ‘The monster that's so damned useful’, Planning Week, 3 (33), 10-14. ‘The monster that's so damned useful’ Planning Week 3 10 14 Google Scholar

PENDLEBURY, J. (2005), ‘The modern historic city: evolving ideas in mid-20th century Britain’, Journal of Urban Design, 10, 253-73. ‘The modern historic city: evolving ideas in mid-20th century Britain’ Journal of Urban Design 10 253 73 Google Scholar

PHARAOH, T. (1996), ‘Reducing the need to travel: a new planning objective in the UK?’, Land Use Policy, 13, 23-36. ‘Reducing the need to travel: a new planning objective in the UK?’ Land Use Policy 13 23 36 Google Scholar

PROUDLOVE, J. A. (1964), ‘Traffic in towns: A review of the Buchanan and Crowther Reports’, Town Planning Review, 34, 253-68. ‘Traffic in towns: A review of the Buchanan and Crowther Reports’ Town Planning Review 34 253 68 Google Scholar

SMEED, R. J. (1963), ‘The road space required for traffic in towns’, Town Planning Review, 33, 279-92. ‘The road space required for traffic in towns’ Town Planning Review 33 279 92 Google Scholar

SMEED, R. J. (1964), ‘The traffic problem in towns: a review of possible long term solutions’, Town Planning Review, 35, 133-58. ‘The traffic problem in towns: a review of possible long term solutions’ Town Planning Review 35 133 58 Google Scholar

STARKIE, D. (1982), The Motorway Age: Road and Traffic policies in Post-war Britain, London, Pergamon Press. The Motorway Age: Road and Traffic policies in Post-war Britain Google Scholar

TAYLOR, N. (2003), ‘The aesthetic experience of traffic in the modern city’, Urban Studies, 40, 1609-25. ‘The aesthetic experience of traffic in the modern city’ Urban Studies 40 1609 25 Google Scholar

TEWDWR-JONES, M. (2011), Urban Reflections: Narratives of Place, Planning and Change, Bristol, Policy Press. Urban Reflections: Narratives of Place, Planning and Change Google Scholar

TIBBALDS, F. (2001), Making People-Friendly Towns: Improving the Public Environment in Towns and Cities, London, Spon Press. Making People-Friendly Towns: Improving the Public Environment in Towns and Cities Google Scholar

VIGAR, G. (2001), ‘Reappraising UK transport policy 1950-99: the myth of "mono-modality" and the nature of "paradigm shifts"’, Planning Perspectives, 16, 269-91. ‘Reappraising UK transport policy 1950-99: the myth of "mono-modality" and the nature of "paradigm shifts"’ Planning Perspectives 16 269 91 Google Scholar

WARD, S. (2007), ‘Cross-national learning in the formation of British planning policies 1940-99: a comparison of the Barlow, Buchanan and Rogers Reports’, Town Planning Review, 78, 369-400. ‘Cross-national learning in the formation of British planning policies 1940-99: a comparison of the Barlow, Buchanan and Rogers Reports’ Town Planning Review 78 369 400 Google Scholar

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Bianconi, Marco

Tewdwr-Jones, Mark