Hunter Gatherer Research

Hadza gender rituals – epeme and maitoko – considered as counterparts

Hunter Gatherer Research (2015), 1, (3), 333–358.

Abstract

Relative to the large amount of behavioural ecology literature, little has been documented on Hadza ritual activity. Nor has it been placed in context of myth and narrative. This is a serious lack given the agreement of both social anthropology (Durkheim, Turner, Rappaport) and more recent evolutionary approaches, eg Sosis and Bulbulia, on the central importance of ritual as the medium for establishing symbols and showing commitment to the group. This paper examines the relationship of the two gender rituals, the more regular monthly epeme, and the less frequently performed female initiation, maitoko. Both sexes are participants in each ritual, but epeme is governed by male-held ‘secrets’, while maitoko is governed by female ones. Drawing on a case study where the two rituals ran concurrently, one by night, one by day, I will link them as counterparts in a gender contest. The key myth on origins of epeme – a male ‘secret’ – is also the source for dramatic ritual enactment by women and girls in maitoko. While epeme rules of respect underpin Hadza ritual and economic life, the importance of maitoko for women’s solidarity is indicated by its greater costliness. The relationship of these contesting but counterpart rituals fits a model of a ‘pendulum of power’ swinging between men and women (cf Lewis, Finnegan), implying that huntergatherer gender relations should be considered as dynamic.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Alcorta, CS & Sosis, R 2005. Ritual, emotion, and sacred symbols: the evolution of religion as an adaptive complex. Human Nature 16: 323–359. Ritual, emotion, and sacred symbols: the evolution of religion as an adaptive complex Human Nature 16 323 359 Google Scholar

Apicella, CL, Marlowe, FW, Fowler JH & Christakis, NA 2012. Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers. Nature 481: 497–501. Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers Nature 481 497 501 Google Scholar

Barnard A 1988. Structure and fluidity in Khoisan religious ideas. Journal of Religion in Africa 18: 216–236. Structure and fluidity in Khoisan religious ideas Journal of Religion in Africa 18 216 236 Google Scholar

Barnard, A 2012. The genesis of symbolic thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The genesis of symbolic thought Google Scholar

Biesele, M 1993. Women like meat. The folklore and foraging ideology of the Kalahari Ju/’hoan. Johannesburg & Indiana: Witwatersrand University Press. Women like meat. The folklore and foraging ideology of the Kalahari Ju/’hoan Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Bleek, DF 1930. Unpublished Hadza notebooks African Studies Library: University of Cape Town. Unpublished Hadza notebooks African Studies Library Google Scholar

Bleek, WH & Lloyd, LC 1911. Specimens of Bushman folklore London: George Allen & Co. Specimens of Bushman folklore Google Scholar

Bliege Bird, R & Smith, EA 2005. Signaling theory, strategic interaction, and symbolic capital. Current Anthropology 46: 221–248. Signaling theory, strategic interaction, and symbolic capital Current Anthropology 46 221 248 Google Scholar

Blurton-Jones, N, Hawkes, K & O’Connell, JF 2005. Older Hadza men and women as helpers: residence data. In Hewlett, BS & Lamb, ME (eds) Hunter-gatherer childhoods. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction: 214–236. Older Hadza men and women as helpers: residence data Hunter-gatherer childhoods 214 236 Google Scholar

Bulbulia, J & Sosis, R 2011. Signalling theory and the evolutionary study of religions. Religion 41: 363–388. Signalling theory and the evolutionary study of religions Religion 41 363 388 Google Scholar

Bulbulia. J 2007. Evolution and religion. In Dunbar, R & Barrett, L. (eds) Oxford handbook of evolutionary psychology. New York: Oxford University Press: 621–635. Evolution and religion Oxford handbook of evolutionary psychology 621 635 Google Scholar

Bunn, HT, Bartram, LE & Kroll, EM 1988. Variability in bone assemblage formation from Hadza hunting, scavenging and carcass processing. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 7: 412–457. Variability in bone assemblage formation from Hadza hunting, scavenging and carcass processing Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 7 412 457 Google Scholar

Crittenden, AN & Marlowe, F 2013. Cooperative childcare among the Hadza: situating multiple attachment in an evolutionary context. In Quinn, N & Mageo, JM (eds) Attachment reconsidered: cultural perspectives on a western theory: London: Palgrave: 67–84 Cooperative childcare among the Hadza: situating multiple attachment in an evolutionary context Attachment reconsidered: cultural perspectives on a western theory 67 84 Google Scholar

Deacon, T 1997. The symbolic species: the co-evolution of language and the human brain. London: Penguin. The symbolic species: the co-evolution of language and the human brain Google Scholar

Durkheim, E 1912. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Paris: Alcan. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Finnegan, M 2009. Political bodies: some thoughts on women’s power among Central African hunter-gatherers. Radical Anthropology 3: 31–37. Political bodies: some thoughts on women’s power among Central African hunter-gatherers Radical Anthropology 3 31 37 Google Scholar

Finnegan, M 2013. The politics of Eros. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N.S.) 19: 697–715. The politics of Eros Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 19 697 715 Google Scholar

Finnegan, M 2015. Dance, play, laugh: what capitalism can’t do. Hunter Gatherer Research 1(1): 85–105. Dance, play, laugh: what capitalism can’t do Hunter Gatherer Research 1 85 105 Google Scholar

Gintis, H, Smith, EA & Bowles, S 2001. Cooperation and costly signaling. Journal of Theoretical Biology 213: 103–119. Cooperation and costly signaling Journal of Theoretical Biology 213 103 119 Google Scholar

Guenther, M. 1999. Tricksters and trancers. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Tricksters and trancers Google Scholar

Hawkes, K, O’Connell, JF & Blurton Jones, N 1991. Hunting income patterns among the Hadza. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B, 334: 243–251. Hunting income patterns among the Hadza Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 334 243 251 Google Scholar

Hrdy, SB 2009. Mothers and others: The evolutionary origins of mutual understanding. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Mothers and others The evolutionary origins of mutual understanding Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Keeney, B & Keeney, H 2013. Re-entry into first creation: a contextual frame for the Ju/’hoan Bushman performance of puberty rites, storytelling and healing dance. Journal of Anthropological Research 69: 65–86. Re-entry into first creation: a contextual frame for the Ju/’hoan Bushman performance of puberty rites, storytelling and healing dance Journal of Anthropological Research 69 65 86 Google Scholar

Kirschner, S & Tomasello, M 2010. Joint music-making promotes prosocial behaviour in 4-year-old children. Evolution and Human Behavior 31: 354–364. Joint music-making promotes prosocial behaviour in 4-year-old children Evolution and Human Behavior 31 354 364 Google Scholar

Kisliuk, M 1998. Seize the dance. BaAka musical life and the ethnography of performance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Seize the dance. BaAka musical life and the ethnography of performance Google Scholar

Knight, C & Lewis, J 2014. Vocal deception, laughter, and the linguistic significance of reverse dominance. In Dor, D, Knight, C & Lewis, J (eds) The social origins of language. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 297–314. Vocal deception, laughter, and the linguistic significance of reverse dominance The social origins of language 297 314 Google Scholar

Knight, C 2013. Why does epeme have to be danced at dark moon? Paper presented at CHAGS 10., Liverpool University, June 2013. Why does epeme have to be danced at dark moon? Paper presented at CHAGS 10 Google Scholar

Kratz, CA 1994. Affecting performance. Meaning, movement and experience in Okiek women’s initiation. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Affecting performance. Meaning, movement and experience in Okiek women’s initiation Google Scholar

Lewis, J 2002. Forest hunter-gatherers and their world. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of London. Google Scholar

Lewis, J 2008. Ekila: blood, bodies, and egalitarian societies. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N. S.) 14: 297–315. Ekila: blood, bodies, and egalitarian societies Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N. S.) 14 297 315 Google Scholar

Lewis, J 2014. Egalitarian social organisation: the case of the Mbendjele BaYaka. In BS Hewlett (ed.) Hunter-gatherers of the Congo Basin. New Brunswick & London: Transaction Publishers: 219–243. Egalitarian social organisation: the case of the Mbendjele BaYaka Hunter-gatherers of the Congo Basin 219 243 Google Scholar

Lewis-Williams, JD 1981. Believing and seeing. Symbolic meanings in southern San rock paintings. London: Academic Press. Believing and seeing. Symbolic meanings in southern San rock paintings Google Scholar

Marlowe, FW 2009. Hadza cooperation: second-party punishment, yes; third-party punishment, no. Human Nature 20: 417–430. Hadza cooperation: second-party punishment, yes; third-party punishment, no Human Nature 20 417 430 Google Scholar

Marlowe, FW 2010. The Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. Berkeley, CA & London: University of California Press. The Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania Google Scholar

Maynard Smith, J & Harper, D 2003. Animal signals. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Animal signals Google Scholar

Maynard Smith, J & Szathmàry, E 1995. The major transitions in evolution. Oxford: WH Freeman. The major transitions in evolution Google Scholar

Miller, K (ed) 2013. A Hadza lexicon. (with Anyawire, M, Bala, GG & Sands, B) Mang’ola. A Hadza lexicon Google Scholar

Mouriki, E & Power, C 2005. The importance of the moon in hunter-gatherer ritual: the case of the Hadzabe. Paper presented at Theoretical Archaeology Group Conference., Sheffield,. 20 December 2005. The importance of the moon in hunter-gatherer ritual: the case of the Hadzabe Google Scholar

Peterson, D 2013. Hadzabe. By the light of a million fires. (with R. Baalow and J. Cox). Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota. Hadzabe. By the light of a million fires Google Scholar

Pickrell, JK, Patterson, N, Barbieri, C, Berthold F, Gerlach L et al 2012. The genetic prehistory of southern Africa. Nature Communications 3: 1143. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2140. PubMed: 23072811 The genetic prehistory of southern Africa Nature Communications 3 1143 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Power, C & Watts, I 1997. The woman with the zebra’s penis. Gender, mutability and performance. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N. S.) 3: 537–560. The woman with the zebra’s penis. Gender, mutability and performance Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 3 537 560 Google Scholar

Power, C & Watts, I 1999. First gender, wrong sex. In Moore, HL, Sanders, T & Kaare, B (eds) Those who play with fire: gender, fertility and transformation in east and southern Africa. London: Athlone Press: 101–132. First gender, wrong sex Those who play with fire: gender, fertility and transformation in east and southern Africa 101 132 Google Scholar

Rappaport R 1979. Ecology, meaning and religion. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. Ecology, meaning and religion Google Scholar

Rappaport, R 1999. Ritual and religion in the making of humanity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ritual and religion in the making of humanity Google Scholar

Reddish P, Fischer, R & Bulbulia, J 2013. Let’s dance together: Synchrony, shared intentionality and cooperation. PLoS ONE 8(8): e71182. doi: 10.1371/ journal. pone.0071182. Let’s dance together: Synchrony, shared intentionality and cooperation PLoS ONE 8 e71182 Google Scholar

Skaanes, T 2015. Notes on Hadza cosmology: epeme, objects and rituals. Hunter Gatherer Research 1(2): 247–267. Notes on Hadza cosmology epeme, objects and rituals Hunter Gatherer Research 1 247 267 Google Scholar

Snyder, KA 1999. Gender ideology and the domestic and public domains among the Iraqw. In Moore, HL, Sanders, T & Kaare, B (eds) Those who play with fire: gender, fertility and transformation in east and southern Africa. London: Athlone Press: 225–253. Gender ideology and the domestic and public domains among the Iraqw Those who play with fire: gender, fertility and transformation in east and southern Africa 225 253 Google Scholar

Sosis, R & Alcorta, C 2003. Signaling, solidarity, and the sacred: The evolution of religious behavior. Evolutionary Anthropology 12: 264–274. Signaling, solidarity, and the sacred: The evolution of religious behavior Evolutionary Anthropology 12 264 274 Google Scholar

Sosis, R 2003. Why aren’t we all hutterites? Costly signalling theory and religious behavior. Human Nature 14: 91–127. Why aren’t we all hutterites? Costly signalling theory and religious behavior Human Nature 14 91 127 Google Scholar

Tishkoff, SA, Gonder, M, Mortensen, M, Knight, A, Gignoux, C, Fernandopulle, F, Lema, G, Nyambo, T, Ramakrishnan, U, Reed, F & Mountain J 2007. History of click-speaking populations of Africa inferred from mtDNA and Y chromosome genetic variation. Mol. Biol. Evol. 24: 2180–2195. History of click-speaking populations of Africa inferred from mtDNA and Y chromosome genetic variation Mol. Biol. Evol. 24 2180 2195 Google Scholar

Turnbull, C 1993 [1961]. The forest people. Pimlico Press. The forest people Google Scholar

Turner, V 1967. The forest of symbols. Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press. The forest of symbols Google Scholar

Turner, V 1974. The ritual process. Harmondsworth: Penguin. The ritual process Google Scholar

Wagner, A 2000. Hadithi za waHadzabe kutoka Tanzania. Tubingen/Mang’ola, Arusha: Kwik Printers. Hadithi za waHadzabe kutoka Tanzania Google Scholar

Whitehouse, H & Lanmann, J 2014. The ties that bind us: ritual, fusion and identification. Current Anthropology 55: 674–695. The ties that bind us: ritual, fusion and identification Current Anthropology 55 674 695 Google Scholar

Wiessner, P 2005. Norm enforcement among the Ju/’hoansi Bushmen. A case of strong reciprocity? Human Nature 16: 115–145. Norm enforcement among the Ju/’hoansi Bushmen. A case of strong reciprocity? Human Nature 16 115 145 Google Scholar

Wood, BM & Marlowe, FW 2011. Dynamics of postmarital residence among the Hadza. Human Nature 22: 128–138. Dynamics of postmarital residence among the Hadza Human Nature 22 128 138 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 1968. Stability and flexibility in Hadza residential groups. In Lee, RB & DeVore, I (eds) Man the hunter. Chicago: Aldine: 103–110. Stability and flexibility in Hadza residential groups Man the hunter 103 110 Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 1982a. Egalitarian societies. Man 17: 431–451. Egalitarian societies Man 17 431 451 Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 1982b. Social dimensions of death in four African hunting and gathering societies. In Bloch, M & Parry, J (eds) Death and the regeneration of life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 187–210. Social dimensions of death in four African hunting and gathering societies Death and the regeneration of life 187 210 Google Scholar

Woodburn, J. 2005. Egalitarian societies revisited. In Widlok, T. & Tadesse, W. G. (eds) Property and Equality (vol 1). New York & Oxford: Berghahn Press: 18–31. Egalitarian societies revisited Property and Equality 1 18 31 Google Scholar

Zahavi, A & Zahavi, A 1997. The handicap principle. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press. The handicap principle Google Scholar

Alcorta, CS & Sosis, R 2005. Ritual, emotion, and sacred symbols: the evolution of religion as an adaptive complex. Human Nature 16: 323–359. Ritual, emotion, and sacred symbols: the evolution of religion as an adaptive complex Human Nature 16 323 359 Google Scholar

Apicella, CL, Marlowe, FW, Fowler JH & Christakis, NA 2012. Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers. Nature 481: 497–501. Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers Nature 481 497 501 Google Scholar

Barnard A 1988. Structure and fluidity in Khoisan religious ideas. Journal of Religion in Africa 18: 216–236. Structure and fluidity in Khoisan religious ideas Journal of Religion in Africa 18 216 236 Google Scholar

Barnard, A 2012. The genesis of symbolic thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The genesis of symbolic thought Google Scholar

Biesele, M 1993. Women like meat. The folklore and foraging ideology of the Kalahari Ju/’hoan. Johannesburg & Indiana: Witwatersrand University Press. Women like meat. The folklore and foraging ideology of the Kalahari Ju/’hoan Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Bleek, DF 1930. Unpublished Hadza notebooks African Studies Library: University of Cape Town. Unpublished Hadza notebooks African Studies Library Google Scholar

Bleek, WH & Lloyd, LC 1911. Specimens of Bushman folklore London: George Allen & Co. Specimens of Bushman folklore Google Scholar

Bliege Bird, R & Smith, EA 2005. Signaling theory, strategic interaction, and symbolic capital. Current Anthropology 46: 221–248. Signaling theory, strategic interaction, and symbolic capital Current Anthropology 46 221 248 Google Scholar

Blurton-Jones, N, Hawkes, K & O’Connell, JF 2005. Older Hadza men and women as helpers: residence data. In Hewlett, BS & Lamb, ME (eds) Hunter-gatherer childhoods. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction: 214–236. Older Hadza men and women as helpers: residence data Hunter-gatherer childhoods 214 236 Google Scholar

Bulbulia, J & Sosis, R 2011. Signalling theory and the evolutionary study of religions. Religion 41: 363–388. Signalling theory and the evolutionary study of religions Religion 41 363 388 Google Scholar

Bulbulia. J 2007. Evolution and religion. In Dunbar, R & Barrett, L. (eds) Oxford handbook of evolutionary psychology. New York: Oxford University Press: 621–635. Evolution and religion Oxford handbook of evolutionary psychology 621 635 Google Scholar

Bunn, HT, Bartram, LE & Kroll, EM 1988. Variability in bone assemblage formation from Hadza hunting, scavenging and carcass processing. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 7: 412–457. Variability in bone assemblage formation from Hadza hunting, scavenging and carcass processing Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 7 412 457 Google Scholar

Crittenden, AN & Marlowe, F 2013. Cooperative childcare among the Hadza: situating multiple attachment in an evolutionary context. In Quinn, N & Mageo, JM (eds) Attachment reconsidered: cultural perspectives on a western theory: London: Palgrave: 67–84 Cooperative childcare among the Hadza: situating multiple attachment in an evolutionary context Attachment reconsidered: cultural perspectives on a western theory 67 84 Google Scholar

Deacon, T 1997. The symbolic species: the co-evolution of language and the human brain. London: Penguin. The symbolic species: the co-evolution of language and the human brain Google Scholar

Durkheim, E 1912. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse. Paris: Alcan. Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Finnegan, M 2009. Political bodies: some thoughts on women’s power among Central African hunter-gatherers. Radical Anthropology 3: 31–37. Political bodies: some thoughts on women’s power among Central African hunter-gatherers Radical Anthropology 3 31 37 Google Scholar

Finnegan, M 2013. The politics of Eros. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N.S.) 19: 697–715. The politics of Eros Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 19 697 715 Google Scholar

Finnegan, M 2015. Dance, play, laugh: what capitalism can’t do. Hunter Gatherer Research 1(1): 85–105. Dance, play, laugh: what capitalism can’t do Hunter Gatherer Research 1 85 105 Google Scholar

Gintis, H, Smith, EA & Bowles, S 2001. Cooperation and costly signaling. Journal of Theoretical Biology 213: 103–119. Cooperation and costly signaling Journal of Theoretical Biology 213 103 119 Google Scholar

Guenther, M. 1999. Tricksters and trancers. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Tricksters and trancers Google Scholar

Hawkes, K, O’Connell, JF & Blurton Jones, N 1991. Hunting income patterns among the Hadza. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B, 334: 243–251. Hunting income patterns among the Hadza Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 334 243 251 Google Scholar

Hrdy, SB 2009. Mothers and others: The evolutionary origins of mutual understanding. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Mothers and others The evolutionary origins of mutual understanding Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Keeney, B & Keeney, H 2013. Re-entry into first creation: a contextual frame for the Ju/’hoan Bushman performance of puberty rites, storytelling and healing dance. Journal of Anthropological Research 69: 65–86. Re-entry into first creation: a contextual frame for the Ju/’hoan Bushman performance of puberty rites, storytelling and healing dance Journal of Anthropological Research 69 65 86 Google Scholar

Kirschner, S & Tomasello, M 2010. Joint music-making promotes prosocial behaviour in 4-year-old children. Evolution and Human Behavior 31: 354–364. Joint music-making promotes prosocial behaviour in 4-year-old children Evolution and Human Behavior 31 354 364 Google Scholar

Kisliuk, M 1998. Seize the dance. BaAka musical life and the ethnography of performance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Seize the dance. BaAka musical life and the ethnography of performance Google Scholar

Knight, C & Lewis, J 2014. Vocal deception, laughter, and the linguistic significance of reverse dominance. In Dor, D, Knight, C & Lewis, J (eds) The social origins of language. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 297–314. Vocal deception, laughter, and the linguistic significance of reverse dominance The social origins of language 297 314 Google Scholar

Knight, C 2013. Why does epeme have to be danced at dark moon? Paper presented at CHAGS 10., Liverpool University, June 2013. Why does epeme have to be danced at dark moon? Paper presented at CHAGS 10 Google Scholar

Kratz, CA 1994. Affecting performance. Meaning, movement and experience in Okiek women’s initiation. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Affecting performance. Meaning, movement and experience in Okiek women’s initiation Google Scholar

Lewis, J 2002. Forest hunter-gatherers and their world. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of London. Google Scholar

Lewis, J 2008. Ekila: blood, bodies, and egalitarian societies. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N. S.) 14: 297–315. Ekila: blood, bodies, and egalitarian societies Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N. S.) 14 297 315 Google Scholar

Lewis, J 2014. Egalitarian social organisation: the case of the Mbendjele BaYaka. In BS Hewlett (ed.) Hunter-gatherers of the Congo Basin. New Brunswick & London: Transaction Publishers: 219–243. Egalitarian social organisation: the case of the Mbendjele BaYaka Hunter-gatherers of the Congo Basin 219 243 Google Scholar

Lewis-Williams, JD 1981. Believing and seeing. Symbolic meanings in southern San rock paintings. London: Academic Press. Believing and seeing. Symbolic meanings in southern San rock paintings Google Scholar

Marlowe, FW 2009. Hadza cooperation: second-party punishment, yes; third-party punishment, no. Human Nature 20: 417–430. Hadza cooperation: second-party punishment, yes; third-party punishment, no Human Nature 20 417 430 Google Scholar

Marlowe, FW 2010. The Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. Berkeley, CA & London: University of California Press. The Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania Google Scholar

Maynard Smith, J & Harper, D 2003. Animal signals. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Animal signals Google Scholar

Maynard Smith, J & Szathmàry, E 1995. The major transitions in evolution. Oxford: WH Freeman. The major transitions in evolution Google Scholar

Miller, K (ed) 2013. A Hadza lexicon. (with Anyawire, M, Bala, GG & Sands, B) Mang’ola. A Hadza lexicon Google Scholar

Mouriki, E & Power, C 2005. The importance of the moon in hunter-gatherer ritual: the case of the Hadzabe. Paper presented at Theoretical Archaeology Group Conference., Sheffield,. 20 December 2005. The importance of the moon in hunter-gatherer ritual: the case of the Hadzabe Google Scholar

Peterson, D 2013. Hadzabe. By the light of a million fires. (with R. Baalow and J. Cox). Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota. Hadzabe. By the light of a million fires Google Scholar

Pickrell, JK, Patterson, N, Barbieri, C, Berthold F, Gerlach L et al 2012. The genetic prehistory of southern Africa. Nature Communications 3: 1143. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2140. PubMed: 23072811 The genetic prehistory of southern Africa Nature Communications 3 1143 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Power, C & Watts, I 1997. The woman with the zebra’s penis. Gender, mutability and performance. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N. S.) 3: 537–560. The woman with the zebra’s penis. Gender, mutability and performance Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 3 537 560 Google Scholar

Power, C & Watts, I 1999. First gender, wrong sex. In Moore, HL, Sanders, T & Kaare, B (eds) Those who play with fire: gender, fertility and transformation in east and southern Africa. London: Athlone Press: 101–132. First gender, wrong sex Those who play with fire: gender, fertility and transformation in east and southern Africa 101 132 Google Scholar

Rappaport R 1979. Ecology, meaning and religion. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. Ecology, meaning and religion Google Scholar

Rappaport, R 1999. Ritual and religion in the making of humanity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ritual and religion in the making of humanity Google Scholar

Reddish P, Fischer, R & Bulbulia, J 2013. Let’s dance together: Synchrony, shared intentionality and cooperation. PLoS ONE 8(8): e71182. doi: 10.1371/ journal. pone.0071182. Let’s dance together: Synchrony, shared intentionality and cooperation PLoS ONE 8 e71182 Google Scholar

Skaanes, T 2015. Notes on Hadza cosmology: epeme, objects and rituals. Hunter Gatherer Research 1(2): 247–267. Notes on Hadza cosmology epeme, objects and rituals Hunter Gatherer Research 1 247 267 Google Scholar

Snyder, KA 1999. Gender ideology and the domestic and public domains among the Iraqw. In Moore, HL, Sanders, T & Kaare, B (eds) Those who play with fire: gender, fertility and transformation in east and southern Africa. London: Athlone Press: 225–253. Gender ideology and the domestic and public domains among the Iraqw Those who play with fire: gender, fertility and transformation in east and southern Africa 225 253 Google Scholar

Sosis, R & Alcorta, C 2003. Signaling, solidarity, and the sacred: The evolution of religious behavior. Evolutionary Anthropology 12: 264–274. Signaling, solidarity, and the sacred: The evolution of religious behavior Evolutionary Anthropology 12 264 274 Google Scholar

Sosis, R 2003. Why aren’t we all hutterites? Costly signalling theory and religious behavior. Human Nature 14: 91–127. Why aren’t we all hutterites? Costly signalling theory and religious behavior Human Nature 14 91 127 Google Scholar

Tishkoff, SA, Gonder, M, Mortensen, M, Knight, A, Gignoux, C, Fernandopulle, F, Lema, G, Nyambo, T, Ramakrishnan, U, Reed, F & Mountain J 2007. History of click-speaking populations of Africa inferred from mtDNA and Y chromosome genetic variation. Mol. Biol. Evol. 24: 2180–2195. History of click-speaking populations of Africa inferred from mtDNA and Y chromosome genetic variation Mol. Biol. Evol. 24 2180 2195 Google Scholar

Turnbull, C 1993 [1961]. The forest people. Pimlico Press. The forest people Google Scholar

Turner, V 1967. The forest of symbols. Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press. The forest of symbols Google Scholar

Turner, V 1974. The ritual process. Harmondsworth: Penguin. The ritual process Google Scholar

Wagner, A 2000. Hadithi za waHadzabe kutoka Tanzania. Tubingen/Mang’ola, Arusha: Kwik Printers. Hadithi za waHadzabe kutoka Tanzania Google Scholar

Whitehouse, H & Lanmann, J 2014. The ties that bind us: ritual, fusion and identification. Current Anthropology 55: 674–695. The ties that bind us: ritual, fusion and identification Current Anthropology 55 674 695 Google Scholar

Wiessner, P 2005. Norm enforcement among the Ju/’hoansi Bushmen. A case of strong reciprocity? Human Nature 16: 115–145. Norm enforcement among the Ju/’hoansi Bushmen. A case of strong reciprocity? Human Nature 16 115 145 Google Scholar

Wood, BM & Marlowe, FW 2011. Dynamics of postmarital residence among the Hadza. Human Nature 22: 128–138. Dynamics of postmarital residence among the Hadza Human Nature 22 128 138 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 1968. Stability and flexibility in Hadza residential groups. In Lee, RB & DeVore, I (eds) Man the hunter. Chicago: Aldine: 103–110. Stability and flexibility in Hadza residential groups Man the hunter 103 110 Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 1982a. Egalitarian societies. Man 17: 431–451. Egalitarian societies Man 17 431 451 Google Scholar

Woodburn, J 1982b. Social dimensions of death in four African hunting and gathering societies. In Bloch, M & Parry, J (eds) Death and the regeneration of life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 187–210. Social dimensions of death in four African hunting and gathering societies Death and the regeneration of life 187 210 Google Scholar

Woodburn, J. 2005. Egalitarian societies revisited. In Widlok, T. & Tadesse, W. G. (eds) Property and Equality (vol 1). New York & Oxford: Berghahn Press: 18–31. Egalitarian societies revisited Property and Equality 1 18 31 Google Scholar

Zahavi, A & Zahavi, A 1997. The handicap principle. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press. The handicap principle Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Power, Camilla