Town Planning Review

Japanese shopping arcades, pinpointing vivacity amidst obsolescence

Town Planning Review (2016), 87, (2), 205–232.

Abstract

The shopping arcade is a commercial format easily found throughout the world. Its origins can be traced back to when commercial exchanges were removed from the streets and relocated to individual stores inside one or several adjacent buildings. Due to the building of modern and postmodern shopping malls in districts located outside the main shopping precincts, many of these commercial arcades began losing their centrality as trading places. This paper’s purpose is threefold: (1) to characterise the main features of this commercial format in Japan; (2) to identify the reasons for its recent decline and renovation; and (3) to discuss the socio-economic forces leading shoppers away from this format and into western-style shopping malls. The argument is that the weakening of shotengai represents a story of unplanned obsolescence relatively similar to what has occurred in a multitude of western cities and towns. The paper generates new knowledge and offers a set of lessons on the specific nuances of the Japanese shopping street at the beginning of the twenty-first century, including the extensiveness, liveliness and vibrancy of the Japanese shopping street.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ABRAMSON, D. (2012), ‘From obsolescence to sustainability, back again, and beyond’, Design and Culture, 4, 279–98. From obsolescence to sustainability, back again, and beyond Design and Culture 4 279 98 Google Scholar

ALDEN, J., HIROHARA, M. and ABE, H. (1994), ‘The impact of recent urbanization on inner city development in Japan’, in P. Shapira, I. Masser and D. Edgington (eds), Planning for Cities and Regions in Japan, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 33–58. The impact of recent urbanization on inner city development in Japan Planning for Cities and Regions in Japan 33 58 Google Scholar

BARBER, B. (2006), Consumed, How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole, New York, Norton. Consumed, How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole Google Scholar

BESTOR, T. (1985), ‘Tradition and Japanese social organization: institutional development in a Tokyo neighbourhood’, Ethnology, 24, 121–35. Tradition and Japanese social organization: institutional development in a Tokyo neighbourhood Ethnology 24 121 35 Google Scholar

BI-MATSUI, T. (2009), ‘Consensus building in shopping district associations and downtown commercial re-vitalization in Japan’, Berkeley Planning Journal, 22, 71–82. Consensus building in shopping district associations and downtown commercial re-vitalization in Japan Berkeley Planning Journal 22 71 82 Google Scholar

BUHNIK, S. (2010), ‘From shrinking cities to toshi no shukusho: identifying patterns of urban shrinkage in the Osaka Metropolitan Area’, Berkeley Planning Journal, 23, 132–55. From shrinking cities to toshi no shukusho: identifying patterns of urban shrinkage in the Osaka Metropolitan Area Berkeley Planning Journal 23 132 55 Google Scholar

CAVASIN, N. (2005), ‘The landscape of the retail commerce in Japan’, (Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Geographers (AAG), Denver – Colorado, 5–9 April). The landscape of the retail commerce in Japan Google Scholar

CITY OF ONOMICHI (2012), Onomichi High Street Shopping District Investigation Report (in Japanese), http://www.city.onomichi.hiroshima.jp/ (accessed 28 February, 2014). Google Scholar

CLAMMER, J. (2011), Contemporary Urban Japan, A Sociology Of Consumption, Second edition, Oxford, Blackwell. Contemporary Urban Japan, A Sociology Of Consumption Google Scholar

CYBRIWSKY, R. (1998), Tokyo, the Shogun’s City at the Twenty-First Century, New York, John Wiley. Tokyo, the Shogun’s City at the Twenty-First Century Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, R. (2011), ‘Parks, malls, and the art of war’, Association of Pacific Coast Geographers Yearbook, 73, 27–51. Parks, malls, and the art of war Association of Pacific Coast Geographers Yearbook 73 27 51 Google Scholar

EDGINGTON, D. (2000), ‘Osaka’, Cities, 17, 305–18. Osaka Cities 17 305 18 Google Scholar

ERCOSKUN, O. and OZUDURU, B. (2014), ‘Urban resilience and main streets in Ankara’, International Development Planning Review, 36, 313–36. Urban resilience and main streets in Ankara International Development Planning Review 36 313 36 Google Scholar

EVANS, N. (2002), Machi-zukuri as a new paradigm in Japanese urban planning: reality or myth?, Japan Forum, 14, 443–64. Machi-zukuri as a new paradigm in Japanese urban planning: reality or myth? Japan Forum 14 443 64 Google Scholar

FINDLAY, A. and SPARKS, L. (2012), ‘Far from the “magic of the mall”: retail (change) in “other places”’, Scottish Geographical Journal, 128, 24–41. Far from the “magic of the mall”: retail (change) in “other places” Scottish Geographical Journal 128 24 41 Google Scholar

FRANCKS, P. (2009), The Japanese Consumer: An Alternative Economic History of Modern Japan, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. The Japanese Consumer: An Alternative Economic History of Modern Japan Google Scholar

GARON, S. and MACLACHLAN, P. (2006), The Ambivalent Consumer: Questioning Consumption in East Asia and the West, Ithaca, Cornell University Press. The Ambivalent Consumer: Questioning Consumption in East Asia and the West Google Scholar

GEHRT, K., ONZO, N., FUJITA, K. and RAJAN, M. (2007), ‘The emergence of internet shopping in Japan: identification of shopping orientation-defined segments’, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 15, 167–77. The emergence of internet shopping in Japan: identification of shopping orientation-defined segments Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 15 167 77 Google Scholar

GILMAN, T. (2000), No Miracles Here, Fighting Urban Decline in Japan and the United States, Albany, State University of New York Press. No Miracles Here, Fighting Urban Decline in Japan and the United States Google Scholar

GOEBEL, R. (1998), ‘Benjamin’s Flaneur in Japan: urban modernity and conceptual relocation’, The German Quarterly, 71, 377–91. Benjamin’s Flaneur in Japan: urban modernity and conceptual relocation The German Quarterly 71 377 91 Google Scholar

HIRANO, T. (1999), ‘Retailing in urban Japan, 1868–1945’, Urban History, 26, 373–92. Retailing in urban Japan, 1868–1945 Urban History 26 373 92 Google Scholar

HORIOKA, C. (2013), ‘Recent trends in consumption in Japan and the other G7 countries’, Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 18, 195–202. Recent trends in consumption in Japan and the other G7 countries Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy 18 195 202 Google Scholar

HUR, N. (2000), Prayer and Play in Late Tokugawa Japan, Cambridge, Harvard University Press. Prayer and Play in Late Tokugawa Japan Google Scholar

JACOBS, A. (2001), ‘Planning for a vibrant central city: the case of Nagoya, Japan’, International Urban Planning Settings: Lessons of Success, 12, 21–59. Planning for a vibrant central city: the case of Nagoya, Japan International Urban Planning Settings: Lessons of Success 12 21 59 Google Scholar

KAWABATA, Y. (1930[2005]), The Scarlet Gang of Asakusa, Berkeley, University of California Press. The Scarlet Gang of Asakusa Google Scholar

KIDOKORO, T. (2008), ‘Urban regeneration and the shift of planning approaches: the case of Japanese regional cities’, in T. Kidokoro, N. Harata, L. Subanu, J. Jessen, A. Motte and E. Seltzer (eds), Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance, New York, Springer, 145–62. Urban regeneration and the shift of planning approaches: the case of Japanese regional cities Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance 145 62 Google Scholar

KINOSHITA, M. (2006), ‘Revitalization of the Shinsaibashi area through a special district for urban renaissance’, Osaka and Its Technology Osaka Municipal Government, 49, 7–10. Revitalization of the Shinsaibashi area through a special district for urban renaissance Osaka and Its Technology Osaka Municipal Government 49 7 10 Google Scholar

KYOGOKU, R. (2006), ‘Can revised laws revive languishing city centres?’, Daily Yomiuri, 21 January. Can revised laws revive languishing city centres? Daily Yomiuri Google Scholar

LARKE, R. and CAUSTON, M. (2005), Japan: A Modern Retail Superpower, New York, Palgrave Macmillan. Japan: A Modern Retail Superpower Google Scholar

MATSUO, T. and MURATA, A. (2008), ‘Care for home-bound older adults and revitalization of local shopping arcade’, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Computational Intelligence and Applications, IEEE, Hiroshima, 10–11 December, 204–09. Care for home-bound older adults and revitalization of local shopping arcade 204 09 Google Scholar

MATSUSHITA, K. (2001), ‘Depato’, in J. Chung, J. Inaba, R. Koolhaas and L. Sze (eds), Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping, New York, Taschen, 243–69. Depato Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping 243 69 Google Scholar

MEYER-OHLE, H. (2010), ‘Exploring shopping malls and shopping arcades in and around Japan’s provincial cities: problems, policies and perspectives’, in S. Yamada and J. Breen, Understanding Contemporary Japan, Kyoto, International Research Center for Japanese Studies, 53–67. Exploring shopping malls and shopping arcades in and around Japan’s provincial cities: problems, policies and perspectives Understanding Contemporary Japan 53 67 Google Scholar

MMF (MORI MEMORIAL FOUNDATION) (2008), City and Lifestyle Related Research, An Overview of Traditional Japanese Shopping Streets ‘Shoten-gai’, Tokyo, MMF. Google Scholar

MORRIS, B. (2010), ‘Unwrapping Shibuya Place, media, and punctualization’, Space and Culture, 13, 285–303. Unwrapping Shibuya Place, media, and punctualization Space and Culture 13 285 303 Google Scholar

MURAKI, M. (2001), ‘Revitalization of town centres in Japanese regional cities’, Metroscape, 27–30. Revitalization of town centres in Japanese regional cities Metroscape 27 30 Google Scholar

MURAYAMA, Y. (2000), Japanese Urban System, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Japanese Urban System Google Scholar

NASHIMA, M. (1997), ‘Old-style shopping arcades struggling to survive’, Japan Times, 25 August, 13. Old-style shopping arcades struggling to survive Japan Times Google Scholar

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH ADVANCEMENT (2012), ‘Revitalizing medical care and the aging city: measures for promoting the concentration of medical care in downtown areas’, http://www.nira.or.jp/pdf/1105report.pdf (accessed 17 March, 2014). Google Scholar

ONISHI, Y. (1994), ‘Urban commercial redevelopment in Japan and its evaluation’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 1, 107–12. Urban commercial redevelopment in Japan and its evaluation Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 1 107 12 Google Scholar

QUIN, S. (2002), ‘Japan’s town centres struggle in absence of UK style policies’, Urban Environment Today, 16 May, 12. Japan’s town centres struggle in absence of UK style policies Urban Environment Today Google Scholar

SCHULZ, E. (2010), ‘Trends of revitalizing central city peripheries in Tokyo’, disP – The Planning Review, 46, 32–35. Trends of revitalizing central city peripheries in Tokyo disP – The Planning Review 46 32 35 Google Scholar

SETA, F. (2008), ‘Activities of local organizations for downtown revitalization in regional cities’, in T. Kidokoro, N. Harata, L. Subanu, J. Jessen, A. Motte and E. Seltzer (eds), Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance, New York, Springer, 163–81. Activities of local organizations for downtown revitalization in regional cities Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance 163 81 Google Scholar

SHELTON, B.(2012), Learning from the Japanese City: Looking East in Urban Design, London, Routledge. Learning from the Japanese City: Looking East in Urban Design Google Scholar

SHEN, Z., YAO, X., KAWAKAMI, M. and CHEN, P. (2011), ‘Simulating spatial market share patterns for impacts analysis of large-scale shopping centres on downtown revitalization’, Environment and Planning B, 38, 142–62. Simulating spatial market share patterns for impacts analysis of large-scale shopping centres on downtown revitalization Environment and Planning B 38 142 62 Google Scholar

SMITKA, M. (2010), ‘Changing retail, changing lifestyles, from mom and pop store to malls’, The Oriental Economist, 10 February, 12–13. Changing retail, changing lifestyles, from mom and pop store to malls The Oriental Economist 12 13 Google Scholar

SORENSEN, A. (2002), The Making of Urban Japan, New York, Routledge. The Making of Urban Japan Google Scholar

SORENSEN, A. (2010), ‘Urban sustainability and compact cities ideas in Japan’, in P. Healey (ed.), Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices, London, Routledge, 118–140. Urban sustainability and compact cities ideas in Japan Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices 118 140 Google Scholar

SOUTHWORTH, M. (2005), ‘Reinventing Main Street: from mall to townscape mall’, Journal of Urban Design, 10, 151–170. Reinventing Main Street: from mall to townscape mall Journal of Urban Design 10 151 170 Google Scholar

TAKAMI, K. (2006), ‘Car use and sustainability, reflection on retail development control systems’, in H. Tamagawa (ed.), Sustainable Cities, Japanese Perspectives on Physical and Social Structures, Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 139–66. Car use and sustainability, reflection on retail development control systems Sustainable Cities, Japanese Perspectives on Physical and Social Structures 139 66 Google Scholar

TATSUKI, M. (2006), ‘The rise of the mass market and modern retailers in Japan’, Business History, 37, 70–88. The rise of the mass market and modern retailers in Japan Business History 37 70 88 Google Scholar

TELLER, C. (2008), ‘Shopping streets versus shopping malls: determinants of agglomeration format attractiveness from consumers’ point of view’, The International Review of Retail, Distribution and consumer Research, 18, 381–403. Shopping streets versus shopping malls: determinants of agglomeration format attractiveness from consumers The International Review of Retail, Distribution and consumer Research 18 381 403 Google Scholar

THE YOMIURI SHIMBUN (2012), ‘Assist “disadvantaged shoppers”, revitalize local economies’, The Yomiuri Shimbun, 25 June. Google Scholar

THOMSEN, A. AND FLIER, K. (2011), ‘Understanding obsolescence: a conceptual model for buildings’, Building Research and Information, 39, 352–62. Understanding obsolescence: a conceptual model for buildings Building Research and Information 39 352 62 Google Scholar

THURSTAIN-GOODWIN, M. AND BATTY, M. (2001), ‘The sustainable town centre’, in A. Layard, S. Davoudi and S. Batty (eds), Planning for a Sustainable Future, London, Spon Press, 251–268. The sustainable town centre Planning for a Sustainable Future 251 268 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

TORII, I., OKADA, Y., NIWA, T., ONOGI, M. and ISHII, N. (2010), ‘Information visualization system for activation of shopping streets’, in R. Setchi, I. Jordanov, R. Howlett and L. Jain (eds) Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 6278, Berlin, Springer, 113–122. Information visualization system for activation of shopping streets Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 113 122 Google Scholar

TREIB, M. (1994), ‘Osaka’, in Z, Çelik, D. Favro and R. Ingersoll (eds), Streets, Critical Perspectives on Public Space, Berkeley, University of California Press, 35–44. Osaka Streets, Critical Perspectives on Public Space 35 44 Google Scholar

WALEY, P. (2002), ‘Moving the margins of Tokyo’, Urban Studies, 39, 1533–50. Moving the margins of Tokyo Urban Studies 39 1533 50 Google Scholar

WARNABY, G. (2013), ‘Synchronizing retail and space: using urban squares for competitive place differentiations’, Consumption Markets & Culture, 16, 25–44. Synchronizing retail and space: using urban squares for competitive place differentiations Consumption Markets & Culture 16 25 44 Google Scholar

WEBER, R. (2002), ‘Extracting value from the city: neoliberalism and urban redevelopment’, Antipode, 34, 519–40. Extracting value from the city: neoliberalism and urban redevelopment Antipode 34 519 40 Google Scholar

WILKINSON, S., REMØY, H. and LANGSTON, C. (2014), Sustainable Building Adaptation: Innovations in Decision-making, Hoboken, John Wiley. Sustainable Building Adaptation: Innovations in Decision-making Google Scholar

WRIGLEY, N. and DOLEGA, L. (2011), ‘Resilience, fragility, and adaptation: new evidence on the performance of UK high streets during global economic crisis and its policy implications’, Environment and Planning A, 43, 2337–63. Resilience, fragility, and adaptation: new evidence on the performance of UK high streets during global economic crisis and its policy implications Environment and Planning A 43 2337 63 Google Scholar

YASUI, M. and KINOSHITA, H. (2013), ‘Challenges in district management in Japanese city centres: establishing independent business models using local resources’, Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, 6, 264–77. Challenges in district management in Japanese city centres: establishing independent business models using local resources Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal 6 264 77 Google Scholar

ABRAMSON, D. (2012), ‘From obsolescence to sustainability, back again, and beyond’, Design and Culture, 4, 279–98. From obsolescence to sustainability, back again, and beyond Design and Culture 4 279 98 Google Scholar

ALDEN, J., HIROHARA, M. and ABE, H. (1994), ‘The impact of recent urbanization on inner city development in Japan’, in P. Shapira, I. Masser and D. Edgington (eds), Planning for Cities and Regions in Japan, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 33–58. The impact of recent urbanization on inner city development in Japan Planning for Cities and Regions in Japan 33 58 Google Scholar

BARBER, B. (2006), Consumed, How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole, New York, Norton. Consumed, How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole Google Scholar

BESTOR, T. (1985), ‘Tradition and Japanese social organization: institutional development in a Tokyo neighbourhood’, Ethnology, 24, 121–35. Tradition and Japanese social organization: institutional development in a Tokyo neighbourhood Ethnology 24 121 35 Google Scholar

BI-MATSUI, T. (2009), ‘Consensus building in shopping district associations and downtown commercial re-vitalization in Japan’, Berkeley Planning Journal, 22, 71–82. Consensus building in shopping district associations and downtown commercial re-vitalization in Japan Berkeley Planning Journal 22 71 82 Google Scholar

BUHNIK, S. (2010), ‘From shrinking cities to toshi no shukusho: identifying patterns of urban shrinkage in the Osaka Metropolitan Area’, Berkeley Planning Journal, 23, 132–55. From shrinking cities to toshi no shukusho: identifying patterns of urban shrinkage in the Osaka Metropolitan Area Berkeley Planning Journal 23 132 55 Google Scholar

CAVASIN, N. (2005), ‘The landscape of the retail commerce in Japan’, (Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Geographers (AAG), Denver – Colorado, 5–9 April). The landscape of the retail commerce in Japan Google Scholar

CITY OF ONOMICHI (2012), Onomichi High Street Shopping District Investigation Report (in Japanese), http://www.city.onomichi.hiroshima.jp/ (accessed 28 February, 2014). Google Scholar

CLAMMER, J. (2011), Contemporary Urban Japan, A Sociology Of Consumption, Second edition, Oxford, Blackwell. Contemporary Urban Japan, A Sociology Of Consumption Google Scholar

CYBRIWSKY, R. (1998), Tokyo, the Shogun’s City at the Twenty-First Century, New York, John Wiley. Tokyo, the Shogun’s City at the Twenty-First Century Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, R. (2011), ‘Parks, malls, and the art of war’, Association of Pacific Coast Geographers Yearbook, 73, 27–51. Parks, malls, and the art of war Association of Pacific Coast Geographers Yearbook 73 27 51 Google Scholar

EDGINGTON, D. (2000), ‘Osaka’, Cities, 17, 305–18. Osaka Cities 17 305 18 Google Scholar

ERCOSKUN, O. and OZUDURU, B. (2014), ‘Urban resilience and main streets in Ankara’, International Development Planning Review, 36, 313–36. Urban resilience and main streets in Ankara International Development Planning Review 36 313 36 Google Scholar

EVANS, N. (2002), Machi-zukuri as a new paradigm in Japanese urban planning: reality or myth?, Japan Forum, 14, 443–64. Machi-zukuri as a new paradigm in Japanese urban planning: reality or myth? Japan Forum 14 443 64 Google Scholar

FINDLAY, A. and SPARKS, L. (2012), ‘Far from the “magic of the mall”: retail (change) in “other places”’, Scottish Geographical Journal, 128, 24–41. Far from the “magic of the mall”: retail (change) in “other places” Scottish Geographical Journal 128 24 41 Google Scholar

FRANCKS, P. (2009), The Japanese Consumer: An Alternative Economic History of Modern Japan, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. The Japanese Consumer: An Alternative Economic History of Modern Japan Google Scholar

GARON, S. and MACLACHLAN, P. (2006), The Ambivalent Consumer: Questioning Consumption in East Asia and the West, Ithaca, Cornell University Press. The Ambivalent Consumer: Questioning Consumption in East Asia and the West Google Scholar

GEHRT, K., ONZO, N., FUJITA, K. and RAJAN, M. (2007), ‘The emergence of internet shopping in Japan: identification of shopping orientation-defined segments’, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 15, 167–77. The emergence of internet shopping in Japan: identification of shopping orientation-defined segments Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 15 167 77 Google Scholar

GILMAN, T. (2000), No Miracles Here, Fighting Urban Decline in Japan and the United States, Albany, State University of New York Press. No Miracles Here, Fighting Urban Decline in Japan and the United States Google Scholar

GOEBEL, R. (1998), ‘Benjamin’s Flaneur in Japan: urban modernity and conceptual relocation’, The German Quarterly, 71, 377–91. Benjamin’s Flaneur in Japan: urban modernity and conceptual relocation The German Quarterly 71 377 91 Google Scholar

HIRANO, T. (1999), ‘Retailing in urban Japan, 1868–1945’, Urban History, 26, 373–92. Retailing in urban Japan, 1868–1945 Urban History 26 373 92 Google Scholar

HORIOKA, C. (2013), ‘Recent trends in consumption in Japan and the other G7 countries’, Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 18, 195–202. Recent trends in consumption in Japan and the other G7 countries Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy 18 195 202 Google Scholar

HUR, N. (2000), Prayer and Play in Late Tokugawa Japan, Cambridge, Harvard University Press. Prayer and Play in Late Tokugawa Japan Google Scholar

JACOBS, A. (2001), ‘Planning for a vibrant central city: the case of Nagoya, Japan’, International Urban Planning Settings: Lessons of Success, 12, 21–59. Planning for a vibrant central city: the case of Nagoya, Japan International Urban Planning Settings: Lessons of Success 12 21 59 Google Scholar

KAWABATA, Y. (1930[2005]), The Scarlet Gang of Asakusa, Berkeley, University of California Press. The Scarlet Gang of Asakusa Google Scholar

KIDOKORO, T. (2008), ‘Urban regeneration and the shift of planning approaches: the case of Japanese regional cities’, in T. Kidokoro, N. Harata, L. Subanu, J. Jessen, A. Motte and E. Seltzer (eds), Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance, New York, Springer, 145–62. Urban regeneration and the shift of planning approaches: the case of Japanese regional cities Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance 145 62 Google Scholar

KINOSHITA, M. (2006), ‘Revitalization of the Shinsaibashi area through a special district for urban renaissance’, Osaka and Its Technology Osaka Municipal Government, 49, 7–10. Revitalization of the Shinsaibashi area through a special district for urban renaissance Osaka and Its Technology Osaka Municipal Government 49 7 10 Google Scholar

KYOGOKU, R. (2006), ‘Can revised laws revive languishing city centres?’, Daily Yomiuri, 21 January. Can revised laws revive languishing city centres? Daily Yomiuri Google Scholar

LARKE, R. and CAUSTON, M. (2005), Japan: A Modern Retail Superpower, New York, Palgrave Macmillan. Japan: A Modern Retail Superpower Google Scholar

MATSUO, T. and MURATA, A. (2008), ‘Care for home-bound older adults and revitalization of local shopping arcade’, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Computational Intelligence and Applications, IEEE, Hiroshima, 10–11 December, 204–09. Care for home-bound older adults and revitalization of local shopping arcade 204 09 Google Scholar

MATSUSHITA, K. (2001), ‘Depato’, in J. Chung, J. Inaba, R. Koolhaas and L. Sze (eds), Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping, New York, Taschen, 243–69. Depato Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping 243 69 Google Scholar

MEYER-OHLE, H. (2010), ‘Exploring shopping malls and shopping arcades in and around Japan’s provincial cities: problems, policies and perspectives’, in S. Yamada and J. Breen, Understanding Contemporary Japan, Kyoto, International Research Center for Japanese Studies, 53–67. Exploring shopping malls and shopping arcades in and around Japan’s provincial cities: problems, policies and perspectives Understanding Contemporary Japan 53 67 Google Scholar

MMF (MORI MEMORIAL FOUNDATION) (2008), City and Lifestyle Related Research, An Overview of Traditional Japanese Shopping Streets ‘Shoten-gai’, Tokyo, MMF. Google Scholar

MORRIS, B. (2010), ‘Unwrapping Shibuya Place, media, and punctualization’, Space and Culture, 13, 285–303. Unwrapping Shibuya Place, media, and punctualization Space and Culture 13 285 303 Google Scholar

MURAKI, M. (2001), ‘Revitalization of town centres in Japanese regional cities’, Metroscape, 27–30. Revitalization of town centres in Japanese regional cities Metroscape 27 30 Google Scholar

MURAYAMA, Y. (2000), Japanese Urban System, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Japanese Urban System Google Scholar

NASHIMA, M. (1997), ‘Old-style shopping arcades struggling to survive’, Japan Times, 25 August, 13. Old-style shopping arcades struggling to survive Japan Times Google Scholar

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH ADVANCEMENT (2012), ‘Revitalizing medical care and the aging city: measures for promoting the concentration of medical care in downtown areas’, http://www.nira.or.jp/pdf/1105report.pdf (accessed 17 March, 2014). Google Scholar

ONISHI, Y. (1994), ‘Urban commercial redevelopment in Japan and its evaluation’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 1, 107–12. Urban commercial redevelopment in Japan and its evaluation Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 1 107 12 Google Scholar

QUIN, S. (2002), ‘Japan’s town centres struggle in absence of UK style policies’, Urban Environment Today, 16 May, 12. Japan’s town centres struggle in absence of UK style policies Urban Environment Today Google Scholar

SCHULZ, E. (2010), ‘Trends of revitalizing central city peripheries in Tokyo’, disP – The Planning Review, 46, 32–35. Trends of revitalizing central city peripheries in Tokyo disP – The Planning Review 46 32 35 Google Scholar

SETA, F. (2008), ‘Activities of local organizations for downtown revitalization in regional cities’, in T. Kidokoro, N. Harata, L. Subanu, J. Jessen, A. Motte and E. Seltzer (eds), Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance, New York, Springer, 163–81. Activities of local organizations for downtown revitalization in regional cities Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance 163 81 Google Scholar

SHELTON, B.(2012), Learning from the Japanese City: Looking East in Urban Design, London, Routledge. Learning from the Japanese City: Looking East in Urban Design Google Scholar

SHEN, Z., YAO, X., KAWAKAMI, M. and CHEN, P. (2011), ‘Simulating spatial market share patterns for impacts analysis of large-scale shopping centres on downtown revitalization’, Environment and Planning B, 38, 142–62. Simulating spatial market share patterns for impacts analysis of large-scale shopping centres on downtown revitalization Environment and Planning B 38 142 62 Google Scholar

SMITKA, M. (2010), ‘Changing retail, changing lifestyles, from mom and pop store to malls’, The Oriental Economist, 10 February, 12–13. Changing retail, changing lifestyles, from mom and pop store to malls The Oriental Economist 12 13 Google Scholar

SORENSEN, A. (2002), The Making of Urban Japan, New York, Routledge. The Making of Urban Japan Google Scholar

SORENSEN, A. (2010), ‘Urban sustainability and compact cities ideas in Japan’, in P. Healey (ed.), Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices, London, Routledge, 118–140. Urban sustainability and compact cities ideas in Japan Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices 118 140 Google Scholar

SOUTHWORTH, M. (2005), ‘Reinventing Main Street: from mall to townscape mall’, Journal of Urban Design, 10, 151–170. Reinventing Main Street: from mall to townscape mall Journal of Urban Design 10 151 170 Google Scholar

TAKAMI, K. (2006), ‘Car use and sustainability, reflection on retail development control systems’, in H. Tamagawa (ed.), Sustainable Cities, Japanese Perspectives on Physical and Social Structures, Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 139–66. Car use and sustainability, reflection on retail development control systems Sustainable Cities, Japanese Perspectives on Physical and Social Structures 139 66 Google Scholar

TATSUKI, M. (2006), ‘The rise of the mass market and modern retailers in Japan’, Business History, 37, 70–88. The rise of the mass market and modern retailers in Japan Business History 37 70 88 Google Scholar

TELLER, C. (2008), ‘Shopping streets versus shopping malls: determinants of agglomeration format attractiveness from consumers’ point of view’, The International Review of Retail, Distribution and consumer Research, 18, 381–403. Shopping streets versus shopping malls: determinants of agglomeration format attractiveness from consumers The International Review of Retail, Distribution and consumer Research 18 381 403 Google Scholar

THE YOMIURI SHIMBUN (2012), ‘Assist “disadvantaged shoppers”, revitalize local economies’, The Yomiuri Shimbun, 25 June. Google Scholar

THOMSEN, A. AND FLIER, K. (2011), ‘Understanding obsolescence: a conceptual model for buildings’, Building Research and Information, 39, 352–62. Understanding obsolescence: a conceptual model for buildings Building Research and Information 39 352 62 Google Scholar

THURSTAIN-GOODWIN, M. AND BATTY, M. (2001), ‘The sustainable town centre’, in A. Layard, S. Davoudi and S. Batty (eds), Planning for a Sustainable Future, London, Spon Press, 251–268. The sustainable town centre Planning for a Sustainable Future 251 268 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

TORII, I., OKADA, Y., NIWA, T., ONOGI, M. and ISHII, N. (2010), ‘Information visualization system for activation of shopping streets’, in R. Setchi, I. Jordanov, R. Howlett and L. Jain (eds) Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 6278, Berlin, Springer, 113–122. Information visualization system for activation of shopping streets Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 113 122 Google Scholar

TREIB, M. (1994), ‘Osaka’, in Z, Çelik, D. Favro and R. Ingersoll (eds), Streets, Critical Perspectives on Public Space, Berkeley, University of California Press, 35–44. Osaka Streets, Critical Perspectives on Public Space 35 44 Google Scholar

WALEY, P. (2002), ‘Moving the margins of Tokyo’, Urban Studies, 39, 1533–50. Moving the margins of Tokyo Urban Studies 39 1533 50 Google Scholar

WARNABY, G. (2013), ‘Synchronizing retail and space: using urban squares for competitive place differentiations’, Consumption Markets & Culture, 16, 25–44. Synchronizing retail and space: using urban squares for competitive place differentiations Consumption Markets & Culture 16 25 44 Google Scholar

WEBER, R. (2002), ‘Extracting value from the city: neoliberalism and urban redevelopment’, Antipode, 34, 519–40. Extracting value from the city: neoliberalism and urban redevelopment Antipode 34 519 40 Google Scholar

WILKINSON, S., REMØY, H. and LANGSTON, C. (2014), Sustainable Building Adaptation: Innovations in Decision-making, Hoboken, John Wiley. Sustainable Building Adaptation: Innovations in Decision-making Google Scholar

WRIGLEY, N. and DOLEGA, L. (2011), ‘Resilience, fragility, and adaptation: new evidence on the performance of UK high streets during global economic crisis and its policy implications’, Environment and Planning A, 43, 2337–63. Resilience, fragility, and adaptation: new evidence on the performance of UK high streets during global economic crisis and its policy implications Environment and Planning A 43 2337 63 Google Scholar

YASUI, M. and KINOSHITA, H. (2013), ‘Challenges in district management in Japanese city centres: establishing independent business models using local resources’, Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, 6, 264–77. Challenges in district management in Japanese city centres: establishing independent business models using local resources Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal 6 264 77 Google Scholar

ABRAMSON, D. (2012), ‘From obsolescence to sustainability, back again, and beyond’, Design and Culture, 4, 279–98. From obsolescence to sustainability, back again, and beyond Design and Culture 4 279 98 Google Scholar

ALDEN, J., HIROHARA, M. and ABE, H. (1994), ‘The impact of recent urbanization on inner city development in Japan’, in P. Shapira, I. Masser and D. Edgington (eds), Planning for Cities and Regions in Japan, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 33–58. The impact of recent urbanization on inner city development in Japan Planning for Cities and Regions in Japan 33 58 Google Scholar

BARBER, B. (2006), Consumed, How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole, New York, Norton. Consumed, How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole Google Scholar

BESTOR, T. (1985), ‘Tradition and Japanese social organization: institutional development in a Tokyo neighbourhood’, Ethnology, 24, 121–35. Tradition and Japanese social organization: institutional development in a Tokyo neighbourhood Ethnology 24 121 35 Google Scholar

BI-MATSUI, T. (2009), ‘Consensus building in shopping district associations and downtown commercial re-vitalization in Japan’, Berkeley Planning Journal, 22, 71–82. Consensus building in shopping district associations and downtown commercial re-vitalization in Japan Berkeley Planning Journal 22 71 82 Google Scholar

BUHNIK, S. (2010), ‘From shrinking cities to toshi no shukusho: identifying patterns of urban shrinkage in the Osaka Metropolitan Area’, Berkeley Planning Journal, 23, 132–55. From shrinking cities to toshi no shukusho: identifying patterns of urban shrinkage in the Osaka Metropolitan Area Berkeley Planning Journal 23 132 55 Google Scholar

CAVASIN, N. (2005), ‘The landscape of the retail commerce in Japan’, (Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Geographers (AAG), Denver – Colorado, 5–9 April). The landscape of the retail commerce in Japan Google Scholar

CITY OF ONOMICHI (2012), Onomichi High Street Shopping District Investigation Report (in Japanese), http://www.city.onomichi.hiroshima.jp/ (accessed 28 February, 2014). Google Scholar

CLAMMER, J. (2011), Contemporary Urban Japan, A Sociology Of Consumption, Second edition, Oxford, Blackwell. Contemporary Urban Japan, A Sociology Of Consumption Google Scholar

CYBRIWSKY, R. (1998), Tokyo, the Shogun’s City at the Twenty-First Century, New York, John Wiley. Tokyo, the Shogun’s City at the Twenty-First Century Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, R. (2011), ‘Parks, malls, and the art of war’, Association of Pacific Coast Geographers Yearbook, 73, 27–51. Parks, malls, and the art of war Association of Pacific Coast Geographers Yearbook 73 27 51 Google Scholar

EDGINGTON, D. (2000), ‘Osaka’, Cities, 17, 305–18. Osaka Cities 17 305 18 Google Scholar

ERCOSKUN, O. and OZUDURU, B. (2014), ‘Urban resilience and main streets in Ankara’, International Development Planning Review, 36, 313–36. Urban resilience and main streets in Ankara International Development Planning Review 36 313 36 Google Scholar

EVANS, N. (2002), Machi-zukuri as a new paradigm in Japanese urban planning: reality or myth?, Japan Forum, 14, 443–64. Machi-zukuri as a new paradigm in Japanese urban planning: reality or myth? Japan Forum 14 443 64 Google Scholar

FINDLAY, A. and SPARKS, L. (2012), ‘Far from the “magic of the mall”: retail (change) in “other places”’, Scottish Geographical Journal, 128, 24–41. Far from the “magic of the mall”: retail (change) in “other places” Scottish Geographical Journal 128 24 41 Google Scholar

FRANCKS, P. (2009), The Japanese Consumer: An Alternative Economic History of Modern Japan, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. The Japanese Consumer: An Alternative Economic History of Modern Japan Google Scholar

GARON, S. and MACLACHLAN, P. (2006), The Ambivalent Consumer: Questioning Consumption in East Asia and the West, Ithaca, Cornell University Press. The Ambivalent Consumer: Questioning Consumption in East Asia and the West Google Scholar

GEHRT, K., ONZO, N., FUJITA, K. and RAJAN, M. (2007), ‘The emergence of internet shopping in Japan: identification of shopping orientation-defined segments’, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 15, 167–77. The emergence of internet shopping in Japan: identification of shopping orientation-defined segments Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 15 167 77 Google Scholar

GILMAN, T. (2000), No Miracles Here, Fighting Urban Decline in Japan and the United States, Albany, State University of New York Press. No Miracles Here, Fighting Urban Decline in Japan and the United States Google Scholar

GOEBEL, R. (1998), ‘Benjamin’s Flaneur in Japan: urban modernity and conceptual relocation’, The German Quarterly, 71, 377–91. Benjamin’s Flaneur in Japan: urban modernity and conceptual relocation The German Quarterly 71 377 91 Google Scholar

HIRANO, T. (1999), ‘Retailing in urban Japan, 1868–1945’, Urban History, 26, 373–92. Retailing in urban Japan, 1868–1945 Urban History 26 373 92 Google Scholar

HORIOKA, C. (2013), ‘Recent trends in consumption in Japan and the other G7 countries’, Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 18, 195–202. Recent trends in consumption in Japan and the other G7 countries Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy 18 195 202 Google Scholar

HUR, N. (2000), Prayer and Play in Late Tokugawa Japan, Cambridge, Harvard University Press. Prayer and Play in Late Tokugawa Japan Google Scholar

JACOBS, A. (2001), ‘Planning for a vibrant central city: the case of Nagoya, Japan’, International Urban Planning Settings: Lessons of Success, 12, 21–59. Planning for a vibrant central city: the case of Nagoya, Japan International Urban Planning Settings: Lessons of Success 12 21 59 Google Scholar

KAWABATA, Y. (1930[2005]), The Scarlet Gang of Asakusa, Berkeley, University of California Press. The Scarlet Gang of Asakusa Google Scholar

KIDOKORO, T. (2008), ‘Urban regeneration and the shift of planning approaches: the case of Japanese regional cities’, in T. Kidokoro, N. Harata, L. Subanu, J. Jessen, A. Motte and E. Seltzer (eds), Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance, New York, Springer, 145–62. Urban regeneration and the shift of planning approaches: the case of Japanese regional cities Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance 145 62 Google Scholar

KINOSHITA, M. (2006), ‘Revitalization of the Shinsaibashi area through a special district for urban renaissance’, Osaka and Its Technology Osaka Municipal Government, 49, 7–10. Revitalization of the Shinsaibashi area through a special district for urban renaissance Osaka and Its Technology Osaka Municipal Government 49 7 10 Google Scholar

KYOGOKU, R. (2006), ‘Can revised laws revive languishing city centres?’, Daily Yomiuri, 21 January. Can revised laws revive languishing city centres? Daily Yomiuri Google Scholar

LARKE, R. and CAUSTON, M. (2005), Japan: A Modern Retail Superpower, New York, Palgrave Macmillan. Japan: A Modern Retail Superpower Google Scholar

MATSUO, T. and MURATA, A. (2008), ‘Care for home-bound older adults and revitalization of local shopping arcade’, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Computational Intelligence and Applications, IEEE, Hiroshima, 10–11 December, 204–09. Care for home-bound older adults and revitalization of local shopping arcade 204 09 Google Scholar

MATSUSHITA, K. (2001), ‘Depato’, in J. Chung, J. Inaba, R. Koolhaas and L. Sze (eds), Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping, New York, Taschen, 243–69. Depato Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping 243 69 Google Scholar

MEYER-OHLE, H. (2010), ‘Exploring shopping malls and shopping arcades in and around Japan’s provincial cities: problems, policies and perspectives’, in S. Yamada and J. Breen, Understanding Contemporary Japan, Kyoto, International Research Center for Japanese Studies, 53–67. Exploring shopping malls and shopping arcades in and around Japan’s provincial cities: problems, policies and perspectives Understanding Contemporary Japan 53 67 Google Scholar

MMF (MORI MEMORIAL FOUNDATION) (2008), City and Lifestyle Related Research, An Overview of Traditional Japanese Shopping Streets ‘Shoten-gai’, Tokyo, MMF. Google Scholar

MORRIS, B. (2010), ‘Unwrapping Shibuya Place, media, and punctualization’, Space and Culture, 13, 285–303. Unwrapping Shibuya Place, media, and punctualization Space and Culture 13 285 303 Google Scholar

MURAKI, M. (2001), ‘Revitalization of town centres in Japanese regional cities’, Metroscape, 27–30. Revitalization of town centres in Japanese regional cities Metroscape 27 30 Google Scholar

MURAYAMA, Y. (2000), Japanese Urban System, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Japanese Urban System Google Scholar

NASHIMA, M. (1997), ‘Old-style shopping arcades struggling to survive’, Japan Times, 25 August, 13. Old-style shopping arcades struggling to survive Japan Times Google Scholar

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH ADVANCEMENT (2012), ‘Revitalizing medical care and the aging city: measures for promoting the concentration of medical care in downtown areas’, http://www.nira.or.jp/pdf/1105report.pdf (accessed 17 March, 2014). Google Scholar

ONISHI, Y. (1994), ‘Urban commercial redevelopment in Japan and its evaluation’, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 1, 107–12. Urban commercial redevelopment in Japan and its evaluation Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 1 107 12 Google Scholar

QUIN, S. (2002), ‘Japan’s town centres struggle in absence of UK style policies’, Urban Environment Today, 16 May, 12. Japan’s town centres struggle in absence of UK style policies Urban Environment Today Google Scholar

SCHULZ, E. (2010), ‘Trends of revitalizing central city peripheries in Tokyo’, disP – The Planning Review, 46, 32–35. Trends of revitalizing central city peripheries in Tokyo disP – The Planning Review 46 32 35 Google Scholar

SETA, F. (2008), ‘Activities of local organizations for downtown revitalization in regional cities’, in T. Kidokoro, N. Harata, L. Subanu, J. Jessen, A. Motte and E. Seltzer (eds), Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance, New York, Springer, 163–81. Activities of local organizations for downtown revitalization in regional cities Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance 163 81 Google Scholar

SHELTON, B.(2012), Learning from the Japanese City: Looking East in Urban Design, London, Routledge. Learning from the Japanese City: Looking East in Urban Design Google Scholar

SHEN, Z., YAO, X., KAWAKAMI, M. and CHEN, P. (2011), ‘Simulating spatial market share patterns for impacts analysis of large-scale shopping centres on downtown revitalization’, Environment and Planning B, 38, 142–62. Simulating spatial market share patterns for impacts analysis of large-scale shopping centres on downtown revitalization Environment and Planning B 38 142 62 Google Scholar

SMITKA, M. (2010), ‘Changing retail, changing lifestyles, from mom and pop store to malls’, The Oriental Economist, 10 February, 12–13. Changing retail, changing lifestyles, from mom and pop store to malls The Oriental Economist 12 13 Google Scholar

SORENSEN, A. (2002), The Making of Urban Japan, New York, Routledge. The Making of Urban Japan Google Scholar

SORENSEN, A. (2010), ‘Urban sustainability and compact cities ideas in Japan’, in P. Healey (ed.), Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices, London, Routledge, 118–140. Urban sustainability and compact cities ideas in Japan Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices 118 140 Google Scholar

SOUTHWORTH, M. (2005), ‘Reinventing Main Street: from mall to townscape mall’, Journal of Urban Design, 10, 151–170. Reinventing Main Street: from mall to townscape mall Journal of Urban Design 10 151 170 Google Scholar

TAKAMI, K. (2006), ‘Car use and sustainability, reflection on retail development control systems’, in H. Tamagawa (ed.), Sustainable Cities, Japanese Perspectives on Physical and Social Structures, Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 139–66. Car use and sustainability, reflection on retail development control systems Sustainable Cities, Japanese Perspectives on Physical and Social Structures 139 66 Google Scholar

TATSUKI, M. (2006), ‘The rise of the mass market and modern retailers in Japan’, Business History, 37, 70–88. The rise of the mass market and modern retailers in Japan Business History 37 70 88 Google Scholar

TELLER, C. (2008), ‘Shopping streets versus shopping malls: determinants of agglomeration format attractiveness from consumers’ point of view’, The International Review of Retail, Distribution and consumer Research, 18, 381–403. Shopping streets versus shopping malls: determinants of agglomeration format attractiveness from consumers The International Review of Retail, Distribution and consumer Research 18 381 403 Google Scholar

THE YOMIURI SHIMBUN (2012), ‘Assist “disadvantaged shoppers”, revitalize local economies’, The Yomiuri Shimbun, 25 June. Google Scholar

THOMSEN, A. AND FLIER, K. (2011), ‘Understanding obsolescence: a conceptual model for buildings’, Building Research and Information, 39, 352–62. Understanding obsolescence: a conceptual model for buildings Building Research and Information 39 352 62 Google Scholar

THURSTAIN-GOODWIN, M. AND BATTY, M. (2001), ‘The sustainable town centre’, in A. Layard, S. Davoudi and S. Batty (eds), Planning for a Sustainable Future, London, Spon Press, 251–268. The sustainable town centre Planning for a Sustainable Future 251 268 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

TORII, I., OKADA, Y., NIWA, T., ONOGI, M. and ISHII, N. (2010), ‘Information visualization system for activation of shopping streets’, in R. Setchi, I. Jordanov, R. Howlett and L. Jain (eds) Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 6278, Berlin, Springer, 113–122. Information visualization system for activation of shopping streets Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 113 122 Google Scholar

TREIB, M. (1994), ‘Osaka’, in Z, Çelik, D. Favro and R. Ingersoll (eds), Streets, Critical Perspectives on Public Space, Berkeley, University of California Press, 35–44. Osaka Streets, Critical Perspectives on Public Space 35 44 Google Scholar

WALEY, P. (2002), ‘Moving the margins of Tokyo’, Urban Studies, 39, 1533–50. Moving the margins of Tokyo Urban Studies 39 1533 50 Google Scholar

WARNABY, G. (2013), ‘Synchronizing retail and space: using urban squares for competitive place differentiations’, Consumption Markets & Culture, 16, 25–44. Synchronizing retail and space: using urban squares for competitive place differentiations Consumption Markets & Culture 16 25 44 Google Scholar

WEBER, R. (2002), ‘Extracting value from the city: neoliberalism and urban redevelopment’, Antipode, 34, 519–40. Extracting value from the city: neoliberalism and urban redevelopment Antipode 34 519 40 Google Scholar

WILKINSON, S., REMØY, H. and LANGSTON, C. (2014), Sustainable Building Adaptation: Innovations in Decision-making, Hoboken, John Wiley. Sustainable Building Adaptation: Innovations in Decision-making Google Scholar

WRIGLEY, N. and DOLEGA, L. (2011), ‘Resilience, fragility, and adaptation: new evidence on the performance of UK high streets during global economic crisis and its policy implications’, Environment and Planning A, 43, 2337–63. Resilience, fragility, and adaptation: new evidence on the performance of UK high streets during global economic crisis and its policy implications Environment and Planning A 43 2337 63 Google Scholar

YASUI, M. and KINOSHITA, H. (2013), ‘Challenges in district management in Japanese city centres: establishing independent business models using local resources’, Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, 6, 264–77. Challenges in district management in Japanese city centres: establishing independent business models using local resources Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal 6 264 77 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Balsas, Carlos