Town Planning Review

Derailed: understanding the implementation failures of Merseytram

Town Planning Review (2014), 85, (2), 237–260.

Abstract

The implementation of light rail schemes in UK cities has experienced mixed fortunes despite considerable promotion and effort. We investigate the implementation failure of the Merseytram scheme in Liverpool, which was abandoned immediately prior to construction. We attempt to understand how such a failure occurred despite what seemed to be successful efforts at integration between partners. Our findings present several implications for the future development of light rail schemes and infrastructure proposals, and how uncertainty is understood in policy, plan and programme production processes.

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ATKINSON, R. and FLINT, J., (2004), ‘Snowball Sampling’ in Lewis-Beck, M.S., Bryman, A. and Liao, T.F. (eds), (2004) The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods, Thousand Oaks, SAGE. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods Google Scholar

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DIAZ, D. (2012) ‘Perspectives on French Light Rail Success’, Transportation Research Board Conference, January 23, 2012 http://research.lctr.org/trblrt/PPTs/SYSTRA%20Diego%20Diaz%20The%20French%20Tram%20experience-%2020%20min%20uploaded.pdf Google Scholar

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HEALEY, P. (1998), ‘Reflections on Integration’, (paper presented at the Regional Studies Association Annual Conference; New Lifestyles, New Regions, Newcastle Upon Tyne, November 1998). ‘Reflections on Integration’ Google Scholar

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HULL. A. (2008), ‘Policy integration: What will it take to achieve more sustainable transport solutions in cities?’, Transport Policy, 15, 94-103. ‘Policy integration: What will it take to achieve more sustainable transport solutions in cities?’ Transport Policy 15 94 103 Google Scholar

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KNOWLES, R.D. (2007), ‘What future for light rail in the UK after ten year transport plan targets are scrapped?’, Transport Policy, 14, 81-93. ‘What future for light rail in the UK after ten year transport plan targets are scrapped?’ Transport Policy 14 81 93 Google Scholar

KNOWLES, R.D. (1996), ‘Transport impacts of Greater Manchester's Metrolink light rail System’, Journal of Transport Geography, 4, 1-14. ‘Transport impacts of Greater Manchester's Metrolink light rail System’ Journal of Transport Geography 4 1 14 Google Scholar

KNOWLES, R.D. and WHITE, P. (2003), ‘Light Rail and London Underground’ in DOCHERTY, I. and SHAW, J. (eds) (2003), A New Deal for Transport?, Oxford, Blackwell. A New Deal for Transport? Google Scholar

LEWIS-BRECK, M.S., BRYMAN, A. and FUTING LIAO. T. (2004) The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods, SAGE http://srmo.sagepub.com/view/the-sage-encyclopedia-of-social-science-research-methods/n931.xml Google Scholar

LIVERPOOL ECHO. (2005), ‘Wanted for £200m robbery: Butch Darling and the Sundance Twigg’, Liverpool Echo, 30 November 2005, 1. Google Scholar

LTT (LOCAL TRANSPORT TODAY) (2006), ‘Merseytravel seeks clarification of PTAs role to save tram plans’, Local Transport Today, 436, 4-5. Google Scholar

LTT (LOCAL TRANSPORT TODAY) (2005a), ‘Moving on’, Local Transport Today, 432, 7. Google Scholar

LTT (LOCAL TRANSPORT TODAY) (2005b), ‘Court battle looms for Darling as PTE keeps up Merseytram fight’, Local Transport Today, 432, 1. Google Scholar

LTT (LOCAL TRANSPORT TODAY) (2005c), ‘Liverpool warned about legality of tram funding’, Local Transport Today, 431, 5. Google Scholar

LTT (LOCAL TRANSPORT TODAY) (2005d), ‘Merseytravel accuses Liverpool of trying to scupper tram line two’, Local Transport Today, 416, 6. Google Scholar

LTT (LOCAL TRANSPORT TODAY) (1999), ‘Merseytravel shocked by Prescotts rejection of £49 million rapid transit plan’, Local Transport Today, 264, 1. Google Scholar

LCC (LIVERPOOL CITY COUNCIL) (2004), Merseytram Line 1 SPG, Liverpool, Liverpool City Council. Google Scholar

LCC (LIVERPOOL CITY COUNCIL) (2000), The City of Liverpool UDP, Liverpool, Liverpool City Council. Google Scholar

MACKETT, R.L and SUTCLIFFE, E.B. (2003), ‘New urban rail systems: a policy-based technique to make them more successful’, Journal of Transport Geography, 11, 151-64. ‘New urban rail systems: a policy-based technique to make them more successful’ Journal of Transport Geography 11 151 64 Google Scholar

MACKETT, R.L. and EDWARDS, M. (1998), ‘The impact of new urban public transport systems: Will the expectations be met?’, Transportation Research Part A, 32, 231-45. ‘The impact of new urban public transport systems: Will the expectations be met?’ Transportation Research Part A 32 231 45 Google Scholar

MAY, A.D. KELLY, C. and SHEPHERD, S. (2006), ‘The principles of integration in urban transport strategies’, Transport Policy, 13, 319-27. ‘The principles of integration in urban transport strategies’ Transport Policy 13 319 27 Google Scholar

MERSEYTRAVEL (2003), Merseytram Design Guide Line 1 - Liverpool to Kirkby, Liverpool, Merseytravel. Google Scholar

MERSEYTRAVEL (2000), Merseyside Local Transport Plan 2001/2-2005/6: Opportunities for all, Liverpool, Merseytravel. Google Scholar

MORPHET, J. (2009), ‘Local integrated spatial planning - the changing role in England’, Town Planning Review, 80, 394-414. ‘Local integrated spatial planning - the changing role in England’ Town Planning Review 80 394 414 Google Scholar

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NADIN, V. (2006), The role and scope of spatial planning, London, Department for Communities and Local Government. The role and scope of spatial planning Google Scholar

NEILD, L. (2006), ‘Trams row sparked fall-out that led to double-act split’, Liverpool Daily Post, 31 January 2006, 4. ‘Trams row sparked fall-out that led to double-act split’ Liverpool Daily Post 4 Google Scholar

NEF (NEW ECONOMICS FOUNDATION) (2013), ‘High Speed 2: the best we can do? Creating more value from £33 bilion’ http://s.bsd.net/nefoundation/default/page/-/publications/NEF_HS2_Report_Final_Web.pdf Google Scholar

NOLAND, R.B. (2007), ‘Transport planning and environmental assessment: implications of induced travel effects’, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 1, 1-28. ‘Transport planning and environmental assessment: implications of induced travel effects’ International Journal of Sustainable Transportation 1 1 28 Google Scholar

OWENS, S. RAYNER, T. and BINA, O. (2004), ‘New agendas for appraisal: reflections on theory, practice, and research’, Environment and Planning A, 36, pp 1943-1959. ‘New agendas for appraisal: reflections on theory, practice, and research’ Environment and Planning A 36 1943 1959 Google Scholar

PARKINSON, M. (1988), ‘Urban regeneration and development corporations: Liverpool style’, Local Economy, 3, 109-18. ‘Urban regeneration and development corporations: Liverpool style’ Local Economy 3 109 18 Google Scholar

POLLARD, S.J.T. DAVIES, G.J. COLEY, F. and LEMON, M. (2008), ‘Better environmental decision making - Recent progress and future trends’, Science of the total environment, 400, 20-31. ‘Better environmental decision making - Recent progress and future trends’ Science of the total environment 400 20 31 Google Scholar

PRESSMAN, J.L. and WILDAVSKY, A.B. (1973), Implementation: how Great Expectations in Washington are Dashed in Oakland, Berkeley, University of California Press. Implementation: how Great Expectations in Washington are Dashed in Oakland Google Scholar

RYCROFT-MALONE, J. (2010), ‘Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (parihs)’, in RYCROFT-MALONE, J. and BUCKNALL, T. (eds) (2010), Models and frameworks for implementing evidence-based practice: linking evidence to action, Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell. Models and frameworks for implementing evidence-based practice: linking evidence to action Google Scholar

SMITH, M.C. (2013), ‘Integrating policies, plans and programmes in local government: an exploration from a spatial planning perspective’, Local Government Studies, (in press). ‘Integrating policies, plans and programmes in local government: an exploration from a spatial planning perspective’ Local Government Studies Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

SMITH, M.C., ROCKS, S.A. and POLLARD, S.J.T. (2011), Uncertainty, risk and decision making in local government, (Report for larci (Research Council's UK)), Cranfield, Cranfield University http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/research/xrcprogrammes/OtherProgs/larci/AboutLARCI/Pages/Themes.aspx#managingrisk Google Scholar

SNOWDEN, D.J. (2010), ‘The origins of cynefin’ http://www.cognitive-edge.com/ceresources/articles/100825%20Origins%20of%20Cynefin.pdf Google Scholar

SNOWDEN, D.J. and BOONE, M.E. (2007), ‘A leaders framework for decision making’, Harvard Business Review, November, 69-76. ‘A leaders framework for decision making’ Harvard Business Review 69 76 Google Scholar

STEAD, D. GEERLINGS, H. and MEIJERS, E. (eds) (2003), Integrated Land Use Planning, Transport and Environmental Policy-Making: An International Comparison, Delft, Delft University Press. Integrated Land Use Planning, Transport and Environmental Policy-Making: An International Comparison Google Scholar

STEAD, D. and MEIJERS, E. (2009), ‘Spatial Planning and Policy Integration: Concepts, Facilitators and Inhibitors’, Planning Theory and Practice, 10, 317-32. ‘Spatial Planning and Policy Integration: Concepts, Facilitators and Inhibitors’ Planning Theory and Practice 10 317 32 Google Scholar

TAYLOR, N. (1998), Urban Planning Theory since 1945, London, SAGE. Urban Planning Theory since 1945 Google Scholar

TIPPING, C.J. (2004), Merseytram Transport and Works Act Order Report, Merseyside, The Planning Inspectorate. Merseytram Transport and Works Act Order Report Google Scholar

VIGAR, G. and STEAD, D. (2003), ‘Local Transport Planning under Labour’, in Docherty, I. and Shaw, J. (eds) (2003), A New Deal for Transport?, Oxford, Blackwell. A New Deal for Transport? Google Scholar

WRAY, I. (2012), ‘Rails, revivals… and shopkeepers’, Town and Country Planning, 81, 302-3. ‘Rails, revivals… and shopkeepers’ Town and Country Planning 81 302 3 Google Scholar

ATKINSON, R. and FLINT, J., (2004), ‘Snowball Sampling’ in Lewis-Beck, M.S., Bryman, A. and Liao, T.F. (eds), (2004) The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods, Thousand Oaks, SAGE. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BANISTER, D. (2002), Transport Planning, Abingdon, Taylor and Francis. Transport Planning Google Scholar

BARKER, A. and FISCHER, T.B. (2003), ‘English regionalization and sustainability: towards the development of an integrated approach to strategic environmental assessment’, European Planning Studies, 11, 697-716. ‘English regionalization and sustainability: towards the development of an integrated approach to strategic environmental assessment’ European Planning Studies 11 697 716 Google Scholar

BEGG, D. (2001), ‘Trams are us’, The Guardian, 20 August 2001. ‘Trams are us’ The Guardian Google Scholar

CHOTE, R. EMMERSON, C. and TETLOW, G. (2009), ‘Chapter 5: The fiscal rules and policy framework’, in Chote, R. Emmerson, C. Miles, D. and Shaw, J. (eds) (2009), The IFS Green Budget 2009, London, Institute for Fiscal Studies. The IFS Green Budget 2009 Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (1998), A New Deal for Transport: Better for Everyone - White Paper, TSO, London. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.dft.gov.uk/about/strategy/whitepapers/previous/anewdealfortransportbetterfo5695 Google Scholar

DETR (DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT TRANSPORT AND THE REGIONS) (2000) Transport 10 Year Plan http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.dft.gov.uk/about/strategy/whitepapers/previous/transporttenyearplan2000 Google Scholar

DOT (DEPARTMENT FOR TRANSPORT) (2011), Green Light for Light Rail, London, TSO. Google Scholar

DIAZ, D. (2012) ‘Perspectives on French Light Rail Success’, Transportation Research Board Conference, January 23, 2012 http://research.lctr.org/trblrt/PPTs/SYSTRA%20Diego%20Diaz%20The%20French%20Tram%20experience-%2020%20min%20uploaded.pdf Google Scholar

EDDINGTON, R. (2006), Eddington Transport Study, Norwich, TSO. Eddington Transport Study Google Scholar

FISCHER, T.B. (2007), Theory and practice of strategic environmental assessment - Towards a more systematic approach, London, Earthscan. Theory and practice of strategic environmental assessment - Towards a more systematic approach Google Scholar

FISCHER, T.B. (1999), ‘The consideration of sustainability aspects in transport infrastructure related policies, plans and programmes: a comparative analysis of north west England, Noord-Holland and Brandenburg-Berlin’, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 44, 189-99. ‘The consideration of sustainability aspects in transport infrastructure related policies, plans and programmes: a comparative analysis of north west England, Noord-Holland and Brandenburg-Berlin’ Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 44 189 99 Google Scholar

FLYVBJERG, B. SKAMRIS HOLM, M.K. and BUHL, S.L. (2004), ‘What Causes Cost Overrun in Transport Infrastructure Projects?’, Transport Reviews, 24, 3-18. ‘What Causes Cost Overrun in Transport Infrastructure Projects?’ Transport Reviews 24 3 18 Google Scholar

FREEMARK, Y. (2012) Commitment to Tramways Makes France a World Model for New Urban Rail, The Transport Politic http://www.thetransportpolitic.com/2012/06/24/commitmentto-tramways-makes-france-a-world-model-for-new-urban-rail/ Google Scholar

GEERLINGS, H. and STEAD, D. (2002), ‘Integrating Transport, Land Use Planning and Environment Policy in European Countries’, paper presented at the STELLA Focus Group 4 Meeting, 3-4 May 2002, Helsinki. ‘Integrating Transport, Land Use Planning and Environment Policy in European Countries’ Google Scholar

GLAISTER, S. BURNHAM, J. STEVENS, H. and TRAVERS, T. (2006), Transport Policy in Britain - 2nd edition, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Transport Policy in Britain Google Scholar

HARRIS, N. and HOOPER, A. (2004), ‘Rediscovering the ‘spatial’ in public policy and planning: an examination of the spatial content of sectoral policy documents’, Planning Theory and Practice, 5, 147-69. ‘Rediscovering the ‘spatial’ in public policy and planning: an examination of the spatial content of sectoral policy documents’ Planning Theory and Practice 5 147 69 Google Scholar

HALL, P. (1980), Great Planning Disasters, London, Weidenfeld. Great Planning Disasters Google Scholar

HEALEY, P. (1998), ‘Reflections on Integration’, (paper presented at the Regional Studies Association Annual Conference; New Lifestyles, New Regions, Newcastle Upon Tyne, November 1998). ‘Reflections on Integration’ Google Scholar

HERNON, I. and COLIGAN, N. (2005), ‘Trams: it's over’, Liverpool Echo, 29 November 2005, 1-2. ‘Trams: it's over’ Liverpool Echo 1 2 Google Scholar

HERNON, I. (2004), ‘Tram plan ‘disaster’’, Liverpool Echo, 8 October 2004, 1. ‘Tram plan ‘disaster’’ Liverpool Echo 1 Google Scholar

HOGWOOD, B.W. and GUNN, L.A. (1984), Policy Analysis for the Real World, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Policy Analysis for the Real World Google Scholar

HULL. A. (2008), ‘Policy integration: What will it take to achieve more sustainable transport solutions in cities?’, Transport Policy, 15, 94-103. ‘Policy integration: What will it take to achieve more sustainable transport solutions in cities?’ Transport Policy 15 94 103 Google Scholar

KELLY, A. (2005), ‘How Liverpool's top team fell apart’, Liverpool Daily Post, 23 May 2005, 4-5. ‘How Liverpool's top team fell apart’ Liverpool Daily Post 4 5 Google Scholar

KELLY, A. (2004), ‘City Council climbs down in row over tram routes; Merseytravel told: the ball's in your court so get on with it’, Liverpool Daily Post, 7 October 2004, 4. ‘City Council climbs down in row over tram routes; Merseytravel told: the ball's in your court so get on with it’ Liverpool Daily Post 4 Google Scholar

KIDD, S. (2007), ‘Towards a framework of integration in spatial planning: an exploration from a health perspective’, Planning Theory and Practice, 8, 161-81. ‘Towards a framework of integration in spatial planning: an exploration from a health perspective’ Planning Theory and Practice 8 161 81 Google Scholar

KNOWLES, R.D. (2007), ‘What future for light rail in the UK after ten year transport plan targets are scrapped?’, Transport Policy, 14, 81-93. ‘What future for light rail in the UK after ten year transport plan targets are scrapped?’ Transport Policy 14 81 93 Google Scholar

KNOWLES, R.D. (1996), ‘Transport impacts of Greater Manchester's Metrolink light rail System’, Journal of Transport Geography, 4, 1-14. ‘Transport impacts of Greater Manchester's Metrolink light rail System’ Journal of Transport Geography 4 1 14 Google Scholar

KNOWLES, R.D. and WHITE, P. (2003), ‘Light Rail and London Underground’ in DOCHERTY, I. and SHAW, J. (eds) (2003), A New Deal for Transport?, Oxford, Blackwell. A New Deal for Transport? Google Scholar

LEWIS-BRECK, M.S., BRYMAN, A. and FUTING LIAO. T. (2004) The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods, SAGE http://srmo.sagepub.com/view/the-sage-encyclopedia-of-social-science-research-methods/n931.xml Google Scholar

LIVERPOOL ECHO. (2005), ‘Wanted for £200m robbery: Butch Darling and the Sundance Twigg’, Liverpool Echo, 30 November 2005, 1. Google Scholar

LTT (LOCAL TRANSPORT TODAY) (2006), ‘Merseytravel seeks clarification of PTAs role to save tram plans’, Local Transport Today, 436, 4-5. Google Scholar

LTT (LOCAL TRANSPORT TODAY) (2005a), ‘Moving on’, Local Transport Today, 432, 7. Google Scholar

LTT (LOCAL TRANSPORT TODAY) (2005b), ‘Court battle looms for Darling as PTE keeps up Merseytram fight’, Local Transport Today, 432, 1. Google Scholar

LTT (LOCAL TRANSPORT TODAY) (2005c), ‘Liverpool warned about legality of tram funding’, Local Transport Today, 431, 5. Google Scholar

LTT (LOCAL TRANSPORT TODAY) (2005d), ‘Merseytravel accuses Liverpool of trying to scupper tram line two’, Local Transport Today, 416, 6. Google Scholar

LTT (LOCAL TRANSPORT TODAY) (1999), ‘Merseytravel shocked by Prescotts rejection of £49 million rapid transit plan’, Local Transport Today, 264, 1. Google Scholar

LCC (LIVERPOOL CITY COUNCIL) (2004), Merseytram Line 1 SPG, Liverpool, Liverpool City Council. Google Scholar

LCC (LIVERPOOL CITY COUNCIL) (2000), The City of Liverpool UDP, Liverpool, Liverpool City Council. Google Scholar

MACKETT, R.L and SUTCLIFFE, E.B. (2003), ‘New urban rail systems: a policy-based technique to make them more successful’, Journal of Transport Geography, 11, 151-64. ‘New urban rail systems: a policy-based technique to make them more successful’ Journal of Transport Geography 11 151 64 Google Scholar

MACKETT, R.L. and EDWARDS, M. (1998), ‘The impact of new urban public transport systems: Will the expectations be met?’, Transportation Research Part A, 32, 231-45. ‘The impact of new urban public transport systems: Will the expectations be met?’ Transportation Research Part A 32 231 45 Google Scholar

MAY, A.D. KELLY, C. and SHEPHERD, S. (2006), ‘The principles of integration in urban transport strategies’, Transport Policy, 13, 319-27. ‘The principles of integration in urban transport strategies’ Transport Policy 13 319 27 Google Scholar

MERSEYTRAVEL (2003), Merseytram Design Guide Line 1 - Liverpool to Kirkby, Liverpool, Merseytravel. Google Scholar

MERSEYTRAVEL (2000), Merseyside Local Transport Plan 2001/2-2005/6: Opportunities for all, Liverpool, Merseytravel. Google Scholar

MORPHET, J. (2009), ‘Local integrated spatial planning - the changing role in England’, Town Planning Review, 80, 394-414. ‘Local integrated spatial planning - the changing role in England’ Town Planning Review 80 394 414 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

NADIN, V. (2006), The role and scope of spatial planning, London, Department for Communities and Local Government. The role and scope of spatial planning Google Scholar

NEILD, L. (2006), ‘Trams row sparked fall-out that led to double-act split’, Liverpool Daily Post, 31 January 2006, 4. ‘Trams row sparked fall-out that led to double-act split’ Liverpool Daily Post 4 Google Scholar

NEF (NEW ECONOMICS FOUNDATION) (2013), ‘High Speed 2: the best we can do? Creating more value from £33 bilion’ http://s.bsd.net/nefoundation/default/page/-/publications/NEF_HS2_Report_Final_Web.pdf Google Scholar

NOLAND, R.B. (2007), ‘Transport planning and environmental assessment: implications of induced travel effects’, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 1, 1-28. ‘Transport planning and environmental assessment: implications of induced travel effects’ International Journal of Sustainable Transportation 1 1 28 Google Scholar

OWENS, S. RAYNER, T. and BINA, O. (2004), ‘New agendas for appraisal: reflections on theory, practice, and research’, Environment and Planning A, 36, pp 1943-1959. ‘New agendas for appraisal: reflections on theory, practice, and research’ Environment and Planning A 36 1943 1959 Google Scholar

PARKINSON, M. (1988), ‘Urban regeneration and development corporations: Liverpool style’, Local Economy, 3, 109-18. ‘Urban regeneration and development corporations: Liverpool style’ Local Economy 3 109 18 Google Scholar

POLLARD, S.J.T. DAVIES, G.J. COLEY, F. and LEMON, M. (2008), ‘Better environmental decision making - Recent progress and future trends’, Science of the total environment, 400, 20-31. ‘Better environmental decision making - Recent progress and future trends’ Science of the total environment 400 20 31 Google Scholar

PRESSMAN, J.L. and WILDAVSKY, A.B. (1973), Implementation: how Great Expectations in Washington are Dashed in Oakland, Berkeley, University of California Press. Implementation: how Great Expectations in Washington are Dashed in Oakland Google Scholar

RYCROFT-MALONE, J. (2010), ‘Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (parihs)’, in RYCROFT-MALONE, J. and BUCKNALL, T. (eds) (2010), Models and frameworks for implementing evidence-based practice: linking evidence to action, Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell. Models and frameworks for implementing evidence-based practice: linking evidence to action Google Scholar

SMITH, M.C. (2013), ‘Integrating policies, plans and programmes in local government: an exploration from a spatial planning perspective’, Local Government Studies, (in press). ‘Integrating policies, plans and programmes in local government: an exploration from a spatial planning perspective’ Local Government Studies Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

SMITH, M.C., ROCKS, S.A. and POLLARD, S.J.T. (2011), Uncertainty, risk and decision making in local government, (Report for larci (Research Council's UK)), Cranfield, Cranfield University http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/research/xrcprogrammes/OtherProgs/larci/AboutLARCI/Pages/Themes.aspx#managingrisk Google Scholar

SNOWDEN, D.J. (2010), ‘The origins of cynefin’ http://www.cognitive-edge.com/ceresources/articles/100825%20Origins%20of%20Cynefin.pdf Google Scholar

SNOWDEN, D.J. and BOONE, M.E. (2007), ‘A leaders framework for decision making’, Harvard Business Review, November, 69-76. ‘A leaders framework for decision making’ Harvard Business Review 69 76 Google Scholar

STEAD, D. GEERLINGS, H. and MEIJERS, E. (eds) (2003), Integrated Land Use Planning, Transport and Environmental Policy-Making: An International Comparison, Delft, Delft University Press. Integrated Land Use Planning, Transport and Environmental Policy-Making: An International Comparison Google Scholar

STEAD, D. and MEIJERS, E. (2009), ‘Spatial Planning and Policy Integration: Concepts, Facilitators and Inhibitors’, Planning Theory and Practice, 10, 317-32. ‘Spatial Planning and Policy Integration: Concepts, Facilitators and Inhibitors’ Planning Theory and Practice 10 317 32 Google Scholar

TAYLOR, N. (1998), Urban Planning Theory since 1945, London, SAGE. Urban Planning Theory since 1945 Google Scholar

TIPPING, C.J. (2004), Merseytram Transport and Works Act Order Report, Merseyside, The Planning Inspectorate. Merseytram Transport and Works Act Order Report Google Scholar

VIGAR, G. and STEAD, D. (2003), ‘Local Transport Planning under Labour’, in Docherty, I. and Shaw, J. (eds) (2003), A New Deal for Transport?, Oxford, Blackwell. A New Deal for Transport? Google Scholar

WRAY, I. (2012), ‘Rails, revivals… and shopkeepers’, Town and Country Planning, 81, 302-3. ‘Rails, revivals… and shopkeepers’ Town and Country Planning 81 302 3 Google Scholar

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Author details

Smith, Mark

Sykes, Olivier

Fischer, Thomas