International Development Planning Review

An institutional analysis of housing and basic infrastructure services for all: the case of urban India

International Development Planning Review (2014), 36, (2), 227–256.

Abstract

Despite high and sustained GDP growth rates over the past two decades, and the emergence of a sizable middle class in most Indian cities, the vast majority of urban residents continue to live in sub-standard or informal housing, with few basic amenities. Many of those who live in formal housing pay a disproportionately high proportion of their incomes. Even then, basic services like water are not assured. This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework within which to consider existing and future policies to deliver housing and basic infrastructure services for all in urban India. The framework attempts to map the inter-linkages between underlying housing market factors (demographics, existing housing stock, affordability, housing finance, land acquisition) and local and macro institutional conditions (economic, legal, planning, financial systems, housing policy), so that existing interventions can be understood and evaluated comprehensively. The framework can help develop interventions that take into account the complex linkages that exist in delivering housing and basic infrastructure services for all. Better understanding of the overall dynamics and linkages within and among housing and infrastructure sectors can guide more targeted and productive investment and policies. This paper uses the framework as a lens to evaluate current issues in providing housing and basic infrastructure services for all in India and also proposes the beginnings of a roadmap to devise better, more holistic interventions.

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WADHWA, K. (1988), ‘Housing Programmes for Urban Poor: Shifting Priorities’, Economic and Political Weekly, 23, 1762-67. ‘Housing Programmes for Urban Poor: Shifting Priorities’ Economic and Political Weekly 23 1762 67 Google Scholar

WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. and SCANLON, K. (eds) (2007), Social Housing in Europe, London School of Economics and Political Sciences, London. Social Housing in Europe Google Scholar

YATES, J. and MILLIGAN, V. (2007), ‘Housing affordability: a 21st century problem’, Report No 105, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. Google Scholar

BAVADAM, L. (2002), ‘Mumbai, Past in Present’, Frontline, 19 http://www.frontline.in/static/html/fl1913/19130670.htm Google Scholar

BERRY, M. (2006a), ‘Housing affordability and the economy: a review of labour market impacts and policy issues’, Research Paper 5, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. ‘Housing affordability and the economy: a review of labour market impacts and policy issues’ Google Scholar

BERRY, M. (2006b), ‘Housing affordability and the economy: a review of macroeconomic impacts and policy issues’, Research Paper 4, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. ‘Housing affordability and the economy: a review of macroeconomic impacts and policy issues’ Google Scholar

BERTAUD, A. (2007), ‘Affordable housing: the supply side’, presentation for Workshop on Middle & Low Income Housing in Chin, a organised by Development Research Center of the State Council (DRC), World Bank (WB) and International Finance Corporation (IFC), Beijing, 19 July 19. ‘Affordable housing: the supply side’ Google Scholar

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BHATNAGAR, V. and RAMANUJAM, S. R. (2011), Addressing the Challenge of Financial Sustainability in Urban Water Supply Services: Role of Performance, Monitoring, and Planning, India Infrastructure Report 2011, New Delhi, Oxford University Press. Addressing the Challenge of Financial Sustainability in Urban Water Supply Services: Role of Performance, Monitoring, and Planning Google Scholar

BOONYABANCHA, S. (2009). ‘Baan Mankong: going to scale with "slum" and squatter upgrading in Thailand’, Environment and Urbanization, 17, 21-46. ‘Baan Mankong: going to scale with "slum" and squatter upgrading in Thailand’ Environment and Urbanization 17 21 46 Google Scholar

CENSUS (2001), Census of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, New Delhi, Government of India. Google Scholar

DEB, A., KARAMCHANDANI, A. and SINGH, R. (2010), Building Houses, Financing Homes http://www.mim.monitor.com/downloads/whitepaper-BuildingHousesFinancingHomes-final-screen.pdf Google Scholar

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DOLR (DEPARTMENT OF LAND RESOURCES) (2012), ‘Revised draft land titling bill 2011’, Government of India, New Delhi, Ministry of Rural Development http://dolr.nic.in/landtitling-bill_notice.htm Google Scholar

GULYANI, S. and CONNORS, G. (2002), Urban upgrading in Africa: A summary of rapid assessment in ten countries, Africa: Regional Urban Upgrading Initiative, Africa Infrastructure Department, The World Bank. Urban upgrading in Africa: A summary of rapid assessment in ten countries Google Scholar

HPEC (2011), Report on Indian Urban Infrastructure and Services, The High-Powered Expert Committee for Estimating the Investment Requirements for Urban Infrastructure Services, Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi, Government of India. Google Scholar

JNNURM (2013), ‘Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission Monitoring Formats: Funds Allocation and Utilization (BSUP/IHSDP)’, Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, New Delhi, Government of India http://mhupa.gov.in/W_new/DMU_REPORT_JNNURM.pdf Google Scholar

KEOGH, G. and D'ARCY, E. (1999), ‘Property market efficiency: an institutional economics perspective.’ Urban Studies, 36, 2401-14. ‘Property market efficiency: an institutional economics perspective’ Urban Studies 36 2401 14 Google Scholar

KMAHADEVIA, D. (2010), Tenure security and urban social protection - Findings and policy implications in India, CSP Research Report 05, Institute of Development Studies, UK. Tenure security and urban social protection - Findings and policy implications in India Google Scholar

MCKINSEY GLOBAL INSTITUTE (2010), ‘India's urban awakening: Building inclusive cities, sustaining economic growth' http://www.mckinsey.com/mgi/publications/india_urbanization/index.asp Google Scholar

MHUPA (MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND URBAN POVERTY ALLEVIATION) (2007), National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy 2007, Government of India, New Delhi. Google Scholar

MOUD (MINISTRY OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT) (2007), Report of the working group on urban housing for the Eleventh Five Year Plan, Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation, New Delhi, Government of India. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

NSSO (NATIONAL SAMPLE SURVEY OFFICE) (2010), Housing Conditions and Amenities in India 2008-09, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, New Delhi, Government of India. Google Scholar

OAK, G. (2012), ‘Why has Mumbai not risen high enough?’, CRISIL URBANscan, Mumbai, CRISIL Risk & Infrastructure Solutions Limited. ‘Why has Mumbai not risen high enough?’ Google Scholar

PAREKH, D. (2008), ‘Presentation on the Report of the Task Force on Affordable Housing for All’, January, Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, New Delhi, India. ‘Presentation on the Report of the Task Force on Affordable Housing for All’ Google Scholar

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ROCHE, E. and SRIVASTAVA, M. (2013), ‘Cabinet approves changes in land title laws’, Live Mint, 5 June http://www.livemint.com/ Google Scholar

SCANLON, K. (2007), Social housing in Europe: now and tomorrow in The Future of Social Housing in Europe, 22 November 2007, Paris, France (unpublished). Google Scholar

SCANLON, K. and WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. (2004), International Trends in Housing Tenure and Mortgage Finance, Council of Mortgage Lenders, London. International Trends in Housing Tenure and Mortgage Finance Google Scholar

SCHWARTZ, A. F. (2013), Housing Policy in the United States, Abingdon, Routledge. Housing Policy in the United States Google Scholar

SREEKUMAR, K. (2010), ‘The Indian microfinance crisis’, VC Circle http://www.vccircle.com/500/news/the-indian-microfinance-circle Google Scholar

STRUYK, R. and GIDDING, S. (2009), ‘The challenge of a urban world: An opportunity for U.S. foreign assistance’, International Housing Coalition (IHC) Housing for All, Washington, DC www.intlhc.org Google Scholar

TIWARI, P. (2012), ‘Mortgage Market Character and Trends: India’, International Encyclopaedia on Housing and Home, Elsevier. International Encyclopaedia on Housing and Home Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

TIWARI, P. and PANDEY, A. (2011), ‘Overview’, India Infrastructure Report 2011, New Delhi, Oxford University Press. India Infrastructure Report 2011 Google Scholar

TIWARI, P. and WHITE, M. (2011), International Real Estate Economics, London, Palgrave Macmillan. International Real Estate Economics Google Scholar

UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME (2003), The challenge of slums: global report on human settlements 2003, London, Earthscan. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

UPADHYAY, V. (2011), ‘Water Rights and the ‘New’ Water Laws in India: Emerging Issues and Concerns in a Rights Based Perspective’, India Infrastructure Report 2011, New Delhi, Oxford University Press. India Infrastructure Report 2011 Google Scholar

VAGHOLIKAR, N. (2011), ‘Dams and environmental governance in North-east India’, India Infrastructure Report 2011, New Delhi, Oxford University Press. India Infrastructure Report 2011 Google Scholar

WADHWA, K. (1988), ‘Housing Programmes for Urban Poor: Shifting Priorities’, Economic and Political Weekly, 23, 1762-67. ‘Housing Programmes for Urban Poor: Shifting Priorities’ Economic and Political Weekly 23 1762 67 Google Scholar

WHITEHEAD, C. M. E. and SCANLON, K. (eds) (2007), Social Housing in Europe, London School of Economics and Political Sciences, London. Social Housing in Europe Google Scholar

YATES, J. and MILLIGAN, V. (2007), ‘Housing affordability: a 21st century problem’, Report No 105, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. Google Scholar

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Author details

Tiwari, Piyush

Hingorani, Pritika

Tiwari, Piyush

Hingorani, Pritika