International Development Planning Review

Harare: from a European settler-colonial ‘sunshine city’ to a ‘zhing-zhong’ African city

International Development Planning Review (2017), 39, (4), 375–398.

Abstract

Fifteen years after Zimbabwe’s political independence and Black majority rule, Rakodi (1995) concluded that Harare, the capital city, remained quintessentially a settler-colonial city. Then, Harare had not yet experienced the full impacts of ‘neo-liberalism’ as in Nairobi or the suburbanisation of office and commercial development as in Johannesburg. In view of significant political economy transformations since the 1990s, this paper aims to provide a systematic interpretation of ongoing transitions that characterise the city. Informed by a systemic spatio-temporal and historical analysis it illustrates how ongoing post-1990s foundational restructuring of the economy centred on jambanja has transformed Harare from a settler-colonial city to a highly informalised ‘zhing-zhong’ African city.

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Potts, D. (1995) ‘Shall we go home? Increasing urban poverty in African cities and migration processes’, Geographical Journal, 161(93), 245–64. Shall we go home? Increasing urban poverty in African cities and migration processes Geographical Journal 161 245 64 Google Scholar

Potts, D. (2006) ‘“Restoring order”. The interrelationships between Operation Murambatsvina and urban poverty, informal housing and employment’, Development Southern Africa, 32(2), 273–291. “Restoring order”. The interrelationships between Operation Murambatsvina and urban poverty, informal housing and employment Development Southern Africa 32 273 291 Google Scholar

Potts, D. (2008) ‘The urban informal sector in sub-Saharan Africa: from bad to good (and back again?)’, Development Southern Africa, 25(2), 151–67. The urban informal sector in sub-Saharan Africa: from bad to good (and back again?) Development Southern Africa 25 151 67 Google Scholar

Potts, D. (2010) Circular migration in Zimbabwe and contemporary sub-Saharan Africa, Oxford, James Currey. Circular migration in Zimbabwe and contemporary sub-Saharan Africa Google Scholar

Rakodi, C. (1995) Harare: inheriting a settler-colonial city: change or continuity?, Chichester, John Wiley and Sons. Harare: inheriting a settler-colonial city: change or continuity? Google Scholar

Rogerson, C. M. (2016) ‘Responding to informality in urban Africa; street trading in Harare, Zimbabwe’, Urban Forum, 27(2), 229–51. Responding to informality in urban Africa; street trading in Harare, Zimbabwe Urban Forum 27 229 51 Google Scholar

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Taylor, I. (2009) China’s new role in Africa, Boulder, Co, Lynne Rienner. China’s new role in Africa Google Scholar

The Sunday Mail (2013) ‘China comes to town’, 22 December 2013, Harare, 1. Google Scholar

Thompson, A., Baily, L., Pearson, D. and Hemslock, E. M. (2010) Mugabe and the White African (video recording, DVD), London, Dogwoof. Mugabe and the White African Google Scholar

Thompson, D. K. and Grant, R. (2015) ‘Enclaves on the edge: strategy and tactics in immigrant spaces of Johannesburg’, Urban Forum, 26, 243–62. Enclaves on the edge: strategy and tactics in immigrant spaces of Johannesburg Urban Forum 26 243 62 Google Scholar

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Zack, T. (2015) ‘“Jeppe” – where low-end globalisation, ethnic entrepreneurialism and the arrival city meet’, Urban Forum, 26(2), 131–50. “Jeppe” – where low-end globalisation, ethnic entrepreneurialism and the arrival city meet Urban Forum 26 131 50 Google Scholar

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Auret, M. (1994) Churu Farm: a chronicle of despair, Harare, The Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace (CCJP). Churu Farm: a chronicle of despair Google Scholar

Banana, E., Chitekwe-Biti, B and Walnycki, A. (2016) ‘Co-producing inclusive city-wide sanitation strategies: lessons from Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe’, Environment and Urbanization, 27(1), 35–54. Co-producing inclusive city-wide sanitation strategies: lessons from Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe Environment and Urbanization 27 35 54 Google Scholar

Bond P. and Manyanya M. (2002) Zimbabwe’s plunge: exhausted nationalism, neoliberalism and the search for social justice, Pietermaritzburg, The Merlin Press. Zimbabwe’s plunge: exhausted nationalism, neoliberalism and the search for social justice Google Scholar

Brautigam, D. (2009) The dragon’s gift: the real story of China in Africa, New York, Oxford University Press. The dragon’s gift: the real story of China in Africa Google Scholar

Buckle, C. (2001) African tears: the Zimbabwe land invasions, Johannesburg, Covos Day. African tears: the Zimbabwe land invasions Google Scholar

Carmody, P. (2011) The new scramble for Africa, Malden, MA, Polity Press. The new scramble for Africa Google Scholar

Chabal, P. and Daloz, J. (1999) Africa works: disorder as political instrument, Bloomington, IN, The International African Institute and Indiana University Press. Africa works: disorder as political instrument Google Scholar

Chan, S. and Patel, H. (2007) ‘Zimbabwe’s Foreign policy: a conversation’, in R. Primorac and S. Chan (eds) Zimbabwe in crisis: the international response and the space of silence, London and New York, Routledge, 1–16. Zimbabwe’s Foreign policy: a conversation Zimbabwe in crisis: the international response and the space of silence 1 16 Google Scholar

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Chun, Z. (2014) China-Zimbabwe relations: a model of China-Africa relations? (Occasional Paper 205, Global Powers and Africa Programme), Pretoria, South African Institute of International Affairs. China-Zimbabwe relations: a model of China-Africa relations? Google Scholar

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Fingaz (2004) ‘Exiles warm up to forex incentives’, The Financial Gazette, Harare, 6 May 2004, http://www.financialgazette.co.zw/ (accessed 10 December 2004). Google Scholar

Fontein, J. (2009) ‘Anticipating the Tsunami: rumours, planning and the arbitrary state in Zimbabwe’, Journal of the International African Institute, 79(3), 369–98. Anticipating the Tsunami: rumours, planning and the arbitrary state in Zimbabwe Journal of the International African Institute 79 369 98 Google Scholar

Gillespie, T. (2016) ‘Accumulation by urban dispossession: struggles over urban space in Accra, Ghana’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 41(1), 66–77. Accumulation by urban dispossession: struggles over urban space in Accra, Ghana Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 41 66 77 Google Scholar

Godwin, P. (2006) When a crocodile eats the sun: a memoir of Africa, Johannesburg, Picador Africa. When a crocodile eats the sun: a memoir of Africa Google Scholar

Gono, G. (2008) Zimbabwe’s casino economy: extraordinary measures for extraordinary challenges, Harare, ZPH Publishers Pvt. Ltd. Zimbabwe’s casino economy: extraordinary measures for extraordinary challenges Google Scholar

Gough, K. V. and Willis, K. (2016) ‘Current trends and agendas in development research: an introduction to a special issue in honour of Bill Gould’, International Development Planning Review, 37(1), 1–5. Current trends and agendas in development research: an introduction to a special issue in honour of Bill Gould International Development Planning Review 37 1 5 Google Scholar

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GoZ (Government of Zimbabwe) (2005) Responses by Government of Zimbabwe to the report by the UN Special Envoy on Operation Murambatsvina/Restore Order, Harare, Government of Zimbabwe. Google Scholar

GoZ/USAID (Government of Zimbabwe/United States Agency for International Development) (1994) Zimbabwe private sector housing program monitoring and evaluation system: baseline survey and findings (report prepared by PADCO, Inc. and Plan Inc. P/L), Harare, Ministry of Public Construction and National Housing. Google Scholar

Harvey, D. (1985) The urbanisation of capital: studies in the history and theory of capitalist urbanisation, Oxford, Basil Blackwell Ltd. The urbanisation of capital: studies in the history and theory of capitalist urbanisation Google Scholar

Harvey, D. (2003) The new imperialism, Oxford, Oxford University Press. The new imperialism Google Scholar

Harvey, D. (2014) Seventeen contradictions and the end of capitalism, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Seventeen contradictions and the end of capitalism Google Scholar

Hlatswayo, B. (1994) ‘Churu and Elsworth farm designations: fighting illegality with illegality’, Legal Forum, 6(2), 11–13, (Harare, Legal Resources Foundation). Churu and Elsworth farm designations: fighting illegality with illegality Legal Forum 6 11 13 Google Scholar

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Kamusoko, C., Gamba, J. and Murakami H. (2013) ‘Monitoring urban spatial growth in Harare Metropolitan Province, Zimbabwe’, Advances in Remote Sensing, 2(4), 322–31. Monitoring urban spatial growth in Harare Metropolitan Province, Zimbabwe Advances in Remote Sensing 2 322 31 Google Scholar

McGregor, J. and Primorac, R. (eds) (2010) Zimbabwe’s new diaspora: displacement and the cultural politics of survival, Oxford, Berghahn Books. Zimbabwe’s new diaspora: displacement and the cultural politics of survival Google Scholar

Marongwe, N. (2003) ‘The fast track resettlement and urban development nexus: the case of Harare’ (paper presented at the Symposium on Delivering Land and Securing Rural Livelihoods: Post-Independence Land Reform and Resettlement in Zimbabwe, Mont Clair, Nyanga, 26–28 March 2003), Harare: Zimbabwe Regional Environment Organisation (ZERO). The fast track resettlement and urban development nexus: the case of Harare Google Scholar

Mbiba, B. (2000) ‘Urban agriculture in Harare: between suspicion and repression’, in N. Bakker, M. Dubbeling, S. Guendel, U. Sabel-Koschella and H. de. Zeeuw (eds) Growing cities growing food; urban agriculture on the policy agenda, Germany, DSE, 285–301. Urban agriculture in Harare: between suspicion and repression Growing cities growing food; urban agriculture on the policy agenda 285 301 Google Scholar

Mbiba, B. (2005) ‘Zimbabwe’s global citizens in “Harare North”: some preliminary observations’, in P. Mai and P. Ranks (eds) Skinning the skunk: facing Zimbabwean futures, Uppsala, The Nordic Africa Institute, 26–38. Zimbabwe’s global citizens in “Harare North”: some preliminary observations Skinning the skunk: facing Zimbabwean futures 26 38 Google Scholar

Mbiba, B. (2010) ‘Burial at home? Dealing with death in the diaspora and in Harare’, in J. McGregor and R. Primorac (eds) Zimbabwe’s new diaspora: displacement and the cultural politics of survival, Oxford, Berghahn Books, 144–64. Burial at home? Dealing with death in the diaspora and in Harare Zimbabwe’s new diaspora: displacement and the cultural politics of survival 144 64 Google Scholar

Mbiba, B. (2017) ‘On the periphery: missing urbanisation in Zimbabwe’, Counterpoints, Africa Research Institute, London, Counterpoints, Africa Research Institute, http://www.africaresearchinstitute.org/newsite/publications/periphery-missing-urbanisation-zimbabwe/ (accessed 11 April 2017). Google Scholar

Mbiba, B. and M. Huchzermeyer. (2002) ‘Contentious development: peri-urban studies in sub-Saharan Africa’, Progress in Development Studies, 2(2), 113–31. Contentious development: peri-urban studies in sub-Saharan Africa Progress in Development Studies 2 113 31 Google Scholar

Minujin, A. (1995) ‘Squeezed: the middle class in Latin America’, Environment and Urbanization, 7(2), 153–65. Squeezed: the middle class in Latin America Environment and Urbanization 7 153 65 Google Scholar

Muchadenyika, D. (2015) ‘Land for housing; a political resource – reflections from Zimbabwe’s urban areas’, Journal of Southern African Studies, 41(6), 1219–38. Land for housing; a political resource – reflections from Zimbabwe’s urban areas Journal of Southern African Studies 41 1219 38 Google Scholar

Muchadenyika, D. and Williams, J. J. (2017) ‘Politics and the practice of planning; the case of Zimbabwean cities’, Cities, 63, 33–40. Politics and the practice of planning; the case of Zimbabwean cities Cities 63 33 40 Google Scholar

Muzondidya, J. (2010) ‘Makwerekwere: migration, citizenship and identity among Zimbabweans in South Africa’, in J. McGregor and R. Primorac (eds), 37–58. Makwerekwere: migration, citizenship and identity among Zimbabweans in South Africa 37 58 Google Scholar

New Zimbabwe (2004) ‘Mugabe banker’s UK trip sparks protests’, http://www.newzimbabwe.com/pages/sanctions11.11965.html (accessed 13 December 2013). Google Scholar

Njaya, T. (2014a) ‘Challenges of negotiating sectoral governance of street vending sector in Harare Metropolitan Zimbabwe’, Asian Journal of Economic Modelling, 2(2), 69–84. Challenges of negotiating sectoral governance of street vending sector in Harare Metropolitan Zimbabwe Asian Journal of Economic Modelling 2 69 84 Google Scholar

Njaya, T. (2014b) ‘Coping with informality and illegality: the case of street entrepreneurs of Harare Metropolitan Zimbabwe’, Development Southern Africa, 2(2), 93–102. Coping with informality and illegality: the case of street entrepreneurs of Harare Metropolitan Zimbabwe Development Southern Africa 2 93 102 Google Scholar

OECD/AfDB (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/African Development Bank) (2016) African economic outlook: sustainable cities and structural transformation, Paris, OECD; Dakar, AfDB. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Potts, D. (1995) ‘Shall we go home? Increasing urban poverty in African cities and migration processes’, Geographical Journal, 161(93), 245–64. Shall we go home? Increasing urban poverty in African cities and migration processes Geographical Journal 161 245 64 Google Scholar

Potts, D. (2006) ‘“Restoring order”. The interrelationships between Operation Murambatsvina and urban poverty, informal housing and employment’, Development Southern Africa, 32(2), 273–291. “Restoring order”. The interrelationships between Operation Murambatsvina and urban poverty, informal housing and employment Development Southern Africa 32 273 291 Google Scholar

Potts, D. (2008) ‘The urban informal sector in sub-Saharan Africa: from bad to good (and back again?)’, Development Southern Africa, 25(2), 151–67. The urban informal sector in sub-Saharan Africa: from bad to good (and back again?) Development Southern Africa 25 151 67 Google Scholar

Potts, D. (2010) Circular migration in Zimbabwe and contemporary sub-Saharan Africa, Oxford, James Currey. Circular migration in Zimbabwe and contemporary sub-Saharan Africa Google Scholar

Rakodi, C. (1995) Harare: inheriting a settler-colonial city: change or continuity?, Chichester, John Wiley and Sons. Harare: inheriting a settler-colonial city: change or continuity? Google Scholar

Rogerson, C. M. (2016) ‘Responding to informality in urban Africa; street trading in Harare, Zimbabwe’, Urban Forum, 27(2), 229–51. Responding to informality in urban Africa; street trading in Harare, Zimbabwe Urban Forum 27 229 51 Google Scholar

Roy, A. (2011) ‘The 21st century metropolis: new geographies of theory’, in M. Neuman and A. Hill (eds) The futures of the city region, Oxford, Routledge, 31–42. The 21st century metropolis: new geographies of theory The futures of the city region 31 42 Google Scholar

Taylor, I. (2009) China’s new role in Africa, Boulder, Co, Lynne Rienner. China’s new role in Africa Google Scholar

The Sunday Mail (2013) ‘China comes to town’, 22 December 2013, Harare, 1. Google Scholar

Thompson, A., Baily, L., Pearson, D. and Hemslock, E. M. (2010) Mugabe and the White African (video recording, DVD), London, Dogwoof. Mugabe and the White African Google Scholar

Thompson, D. K. and Grant, R. (2015) ‘Enclaves on the edge: strategy and tactics in immigrant spaces of Johannesburg’, Urban Forum, 26, 243–62. Enclaves on the edge: strategy and tactics in immigrant spaces of Johannesburg Urban Forum 26 243 62 Google Scholar

UN-Habitat (United Nations Human Settlements Programme) (2010) The state of African cities, 2010: governance, inequality and urban land markets, Nairobi, United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat)/UNEP. Google Scholar

Zack, T. (2015) ‘“Jeppe” – where low-end globalisation, ethnic entrepreneurialism and the arrival city meet’, Urban Forum, 26(2), 131–50. “Jeppe” – where low-end globalisation, ethnic entrepreneurialism and the arrival city meet Urban Forum 26 131 50 Google Scholar

Zimbabwe Hansard (2017) ‘Motion on the ratification of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, 6 April 2017’, Parliament of Zimbabwe, National Assembly Hansard, 43(54), 1–34, http://www.parlzim.gov.zw/national-assembly-hansard/national-assembly-hansard-06-april-2017-vol-43-no-54 (accessed 4 August 2017). Google Scholar

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ZimStat (Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency) (2013) Quarterly Digest of Statistics, 1st Quarter, 2013 (report by Zimbabwe National Statistical Agency (ZimStat), http://196.43.99.13/sites/default/files/img/publications/Digest/Digest2013/DigestQ12013.pdf (accessed 4 August 2017). Google Scholar

Zinyama, L. M., Tevera, D. S. and Cumming, S. D. (eds) (1993) Harare: the growth and problems of the city, Harare, University of Zimbabwe Publications. Harare: the growth and problems of the city Google Scholar

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Mbiba, Beacon