International Development Planning Review

Local development planning and the tourism sector: prospects for reducing volatility in tourism impacts in Kenya

International Development Planning Review (2012), 34, (2), 167–187.

Abstract

Tourism has seen exponential growth over the past 60 years. In Africa there has been rapid growth, but considerably more variability. The impacts of this volatility are experienced most directly by local communities who typically have little input into decision-making about tourism and related investments. This article considers the case of Kenya, where in recent years tourism has become the leading source of foreign exchange. The article considers whether a more explicit focus on tourism planning by local development authorities with a focus on investments geared to support local tourism infrastructure would enable greater participation and generate longer-term benefits by reinforcing local planning capacity for tourism and other critical sectors. The article also addresses the feasibility of the administrative reforms which this strategy would entail.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

AKAMA, J. (1997), ‘Tourism development in Kenya: problems and policy alternatives’, Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, 3, 95-105. ‘Tourism development in Kenya: problems and policy alternatives’ Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research 3 95 105 Google Scholar

AKAMA, J. (1999), ‘The evolution of tourism in Kenya’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 7, 6-25. ‘The evolution of tourism in Kenya’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism 7 6 25 Google Scholar

AKAMA, J. (2002), ‘The role of government in the development of tourism in Kenya’, International Journal of Tourism Research, 4, 1-13. ‘The role of government in the development of tourism in Kenya’ International Journal of Tourism Research 4 1 13 Google Scholar

ARNSTEIN, S. (1969), ‘A ladder of citizen participation’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 35, 216-24. ‘A ladder of citizen participation’ Journal of the American Planning Association 35 216 24 Google Scholar

BACHMANN, P. (1988) Tourism in Kenya: A Basic Need for Whom? New York, Peter Lang. Tourism in Kenya: A Basic Need for Whom? Google Scholar

BBC NEWS (2008), ‘Around Kenya: after the violence,’ BBC NEWS online. http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/africa/7239554.stm Google Scholar

BECKERLEG, S. AND HUNDT, G. L. (2004), ‘Structural violence in a tourist paradise,’ Development, 47, 109-14. ‘Structural violence in a tourist paradise,’ Development 47 109 14 Google Scholar

BEIRMAN, D. (2009), Managing Kenya^s Tourism Crisis - Crisis Management. http://www.eturbonews.com/641/MANAGING-KENYA'S-TOURISM-CRISIS Google Scholar

BINNS, J. A. AND NEL, E. L. (2002), ‘Tourism as a local development strategy in South Africa’, Geographical Journal, 168, 235-47. ‘Tourism as a local development strategy in South Africa’ Geographical Journal 168 235 47 Google Scholar

BLACKSTOCK, K. (2005), ‘A critical look at community based tourism’, Community Development Journal, 40, 39-49. ‘A critical look at community based tourism’ Community Development Journal 40 39 49 Google Scholar

BLAKELY, E. AND BRADSHAW, T. (2002), Planning Local Economic Development: Theory and Practice, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications. Planning Local Economic Development: Theory and Practice Google Scholar

BLANK, U. (1989), The Community Tourism Industry Imperative: The Necessity, the Opportunities, Its Potential, State College, PA, Venture Publishing. The Community Tourism Industry Imperative: The Necessity, the Opportunities, Its Potential Google Scholar

BRINKERHOFF, D. W. (2005), ‘Rebuilding governance in failed states and post-conflict societies: core concepts and cross-cutting themes’, Public Administration and Development, 25, 3-14. ‘Rebuilding governance in failed states and post-conflict societies: core concepts and cross-cutting themes’ Public Administration and Development 25 3 14 Google Scholar

BROHMAN, J. (1996), ‘New directions in tourism for third world development’, Annals of Tourism Research, 23, 48-70. ‘New directions in tourism for third world development’ Annals of Tourism Research 23 48 70 Google Scholar

BUTLER, R. (1980), ‘The concept of a tourism area cycle of evolution: implications for resources’, Canadian Geographer, 24, 5-12. ‘The concept of a tourism area cycle of evolution: implications for resources’ Canadian Geographer 24 5 12 Google Scholar

DEBBAGE, K. (1990), ‘Oligopoly and the resort cycle in the Bahamas’, Annals of Tourism Research, 17, 513-27. ‘Oligopoly and the resort cycle in the Bahamas’ Annals of Tourism Research 17 513 27 Google Scholar

DIAGNE, A. K. (2004), ‘Tourism development and its impacts in the Senegalese Petit Côte: a geographical case study in centre-periphery relations’, Tourism Geographies, 6, 472-92. ‘Tourism development and its impacts in the Senegalese Petit Côte: a geographical case study in centre-periphery relations’ Tourism Geographies 6 472 92 Google Scholar

DOAN, P. (2006), ‘Tourism and regional instability: the consequences of rapid expansion of the tourism sector in Jordan’, International Development Planning Review, 28, 26-46. ‘Tourism and regional instability: the consequences of rapid expansion of the tourism sector in Jordan’ International Development Planning Review 28 26 46 Google Scholar

GETTLEMAN, J. (2008), ‘Signs in Kenya of a land redrawn by ethnicity’, The New York Times, 15 February. ‘Signs in Kenya of a land redrawn by ethnicity’ The New York Times Google Scholar

GETZ, D. (1992), ‘Tourism planning and destination lifecycle’, Annals of Tourism, 19, 752-70. ‘Tourism planning and destination lifecycle’ Annals of Tourism 19 752 70 Google Scholar

GIBB, M. AND NEL, E. (2007), ‘Small town redevelopment: the benefits and costs of local economic development in Alicedale’, Urban Forum, 18, 69-84. ‘Small town redevelopment: the benefits and costs of local economic development in Alicedale’ Urban Forum 18 69 84 Google Scholar

GIMODE, E. (2001), ‘An anatomy of violent crime and insecurity in Kenya: the case of Nairobi’, Africa Development, 26, 295-335. ‘An anatomy of violent crime and insecurity in Kenya: the case of Nairobi’ Africa Development 26 295 335 Google Scholar

GOODWIN, H. (2008), ‘Tourism, local economic development and poverty reduction’, Applied Research in Economic Development, 5, 55-64. ‘Tourism, local economic development and poverty reduction’ Applied Research in Economic Development 5 55 64 Google Scholar

GÖSSLING, S. (2001), ‘Tourism, economic transition, and ecosystem degradation: interacting process in a Tanzanian coastal community’, Tourism Geographies, 3, 430-53. ‘Tourism, economic transition, and ecosystem degradation: interacting process in a Tanzanian coastal community’ Tourism Geographies 3 430 53 Google Scholar

HALL, C. M. (2000), Tourism Planning: Policies, Processes, and Relationships, Harlow, UK, Pearson Education. Tourism Planning: Policies, Processes, and Relationships Google Scholar

HASSE, J. AND MILNE, S. (2005), ‘Participatory approaches and geographical information systems (PAGIS) in tourism planning’, Tourism Geographies, 7, 272-89. ‘Participatory approaches and geographical information systems (PAGIS) in tourism planning’ Tourism Geographies 7 272 89 Google Scholar

HAWKINS, D. AND MANN, S. (2007), ‘The World Bank^s role in tourism development’, Annals of Tourism Research, 34, 348-63. ‘The World Bank^s role in tourism development’ Annals of Tourism Research 34 348 63 Google Scholar

HAYAKAWA, T. AND RIVERO, M. (2009), ‘Local economic development and tourism’, En Breve: Responsible Tourism Series, No. 145, Washington, DC, World Bank. ‘Local economic development and tourism’ Google Scholar

HELMSING, A. H. J. (2003), ‘Local economic development: new generations of actors, policies and instruments for Africa’, Public Administration & Development, 23, 67-76. ‘Local economic development: new generations of actors, policies and instruments for Africa’ Public Administration & Development 23 67 76 Google Scholar

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH (2002), Playing With Fire: Weapons Proliferation, Political Violence, and Human Rights in Kenya, New York, Author. Google Scholar

ILO (INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION), Country Office for Indonesia. (2010), ‘Local economic development in the form of tourism in Jayawijaya, Papua Highlands’ (Booklet, Publication November 2010) http://www.ilo.org/jakarta/info/public/nl/lang-en/docName-WCMS_146163/index.htm Google Scholar

JAMAL, T. B. AND GETZ, D. (1995), ‘Collaboration theory and community tourism planning’, Annals of Tourism Research, 22, 186-204. ‘Collaboration theory and community tourism planning’ Annals of Tourism Research 22 186 204 Google Scholar

KAGSAGI, D. (2006), ‘Financing needs of the tourism sector in Kenya’, presented at Tourism Trust Fun, Tourism Investment Conference, Nairobi, Kenya. ‘Financing needs of the tourism sector in Kenya’ Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

KIBICHO, W. (2004), ‘Community tourism: lessons from Kenya^s coastal region’, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10, 33-42. ‘Community tourism: lessons from Kenya^s coastal region’ Journal of Vacation Marketing 10 33 42 Google Scholar

KISS, A. (2004), ‘Is community-based ecotourism a good use of biodiversity conservation funds?’ Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19, 232-37. ‘Is community-based ecotourism a good use of biodiversity conservation funds?’ Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19 232 37 Google Scholar

LEPP, A. AND GIBSON, H. (2003), ‘Tourist roles, perceived risk, and international tourism’, Annals of Tourism Research, 30, 606-24. ‘Tourist roles, perceived risk, and international tourism’ Annals of Tourism Research 30 606 24 Google Scholar

LIM, C. (1999), ‘A meta-analytic review of international tourism demand’, Journal of Travel Research, 37, 273-84. ‘A meta-analytic review of international tourism demand’ Journal of Travel Research 37 273 84 Google Scholar

MALIZIA, E. E. AND FESER, E. J. (1998), Understanding Local Economic Development, New York, NY, Rutgers University Press. Understanding Local Economic Development Google Scholar

MANYARA, G. AND JONES, E. (2005), ‘Policy options for the development of an indigenous tourism SME sector’ in Kenya', in Jones, E. and Haven-Tang (eds), Tourism SME^s, Service Quality, and Destination Competitiveness, Wallingford, CABI. Tourism SME^s, Service Quality, and Destination Competitiveness Google Scholar

MANYARA, G., JONES, E. AND BOTTERIL, D. (2006), ‘Tourism and poverty alleviation: the case of enterprise development in Kenya’, Tourism, Culture, and Development, 7, 19-37. ‘Tourism and poverty alleviation: the case of enterprise development in Kenya’ Tourism, Culture, and Development 7 19 37 Google Scholar

MARETE, G. (2008), ‘Tourist arrivals drop by 90%’, Daily Nation, 12 February 2008. ‘Tourist arrivals drop by 90%’ Daily Nation Google Scholar

MEHTA, J. N. AND HEINEN, J. T. (2001), ‘Does community-based conservation shape favorable attitudes among locals? An empirical study from Nepal’, Environmental Management, 28, 165-77. ‘Does community-based conservation shape favorable attitudes among locals? An empirical study from Nepal’ Environmental Management 28 165 77 Google Scholar

MILNE, S. AND ATELJEVIC, I. (2001), ‘Tourism, economic development and the global-local nexus: theory embracing complexity’, Tourism Geographies, 3, 369-94. ‘Tourism, economic development and the global-local nexus: theory embracing complexity’ Tourism Geographies 3 369 94 Google Scholar

MITCHELL, R. AND REID, D. (2001), ‘Community integration: island tourism in Peru’, Annals of Tourism Research, 28, 113-39. ‘Community integration: island tourism in Peru’ Annals of Tourism Research 28 113 39 Google Scholar

MURPHY, P. E. (1985), Tourism: A Community Management Approach, New York, Methuen. Tourism: A Community Management Approach Google Scholar

NEUMAYER, E. (2004), ‘The impact of political violence on tourism: dynamic cross-national estimation’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 48, 259-81. ‘The impact of political violence on tourism: dynamic cross-national estimation’ Journal of Conflict Resolution 48 259 81 Google Scholar

OLOWU, D., AYEE, J. R. A. AND WUNSCH, J. S. (2004), Local Governance in Africa: The Challenges of Democratic Decentralization, Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers. Local Governance in Africa: The Challenges of Democratic Decentralization Google Scholar

ONDICHO, T. (2000), ‘International tourism in Kenya: development, problems and challenges’, Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, 16, 49-70. ‘International tourism in Kenya: development, problems and challenges’ Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review 16 49 70 Google Scholar

PEARCE, D.G. (1992), Tourist Organizations, Harlow, UK, Longman. Tourist Organizations Google Scholar

REPUBLIC OF KENYA (2006A), National Tourism Policy: Final Draft, Nairobi, Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife. Google Scholar

REPUBLIC OF KENYA (2006B), S&P Credit Research Report (23 October). Google Scholar

REPUBLIC OF KENYA (2008), Kenya: Vision 2030, Nairobi, Kenya, Government Printer. Google Scholar

RICHTER, L. (1999), ‘After political turmoil: the lessons of rebuilding tourism in three Asian countries’, Journal of Travel Research, 38, 41-45. ‘After political turmoil: the lessons of rebuilding tourism in three Asian countries’ Journal of Travel Research 38 41 45 Google Scholar

RODRÍGUEZ-POSE, A. AND TIJMSTRA, S. (2005), Local Economic Development as an Alternative Approach to Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa (No. Evaluating and Disseminating Experiences in LED), Washington, DC, World Bank. Local Economic Development as an Alternative Approach to Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2002), ‘Tourism-led local economic development: the South African experience’, Urban Forum, 13, 95-119. ‘Tourism-led local economic development: the South African experience’ Urban Forum 13 95 119 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. (2007), ‘Tourism routes as vehicles for local economic development in South Africa’, Urban Forum, 18, 49-68. ‘Tourism routes as vehicles for local economic development in South Africa’ Urban Forum 18 49 68 Google Scholar

ROGERSON, C. M. AND ROGERSON, J. M. (2010), ‘Local economic development in Africa: global context and research directions,’ Development Southern Africa, 27, 465-80. ‘Local economic development in Africa: global context and research directions,’ Development Southern Africa 27 465 80 Google Scholar

RYAN, C. (1993), ‘Crime, violence, terrorism, and tourism: an accidental or intrinsic relationship’, Tourism Management, 13, 173-83. ‘Crime, violence, terrorism, and tourism: an accidental or intrinsic relationship’ Tourism Management 13 173 83 Google Scholar

SEBELE, L. S. (2009), ‘Community-based tourism ventures, benefits and challenges: Khama Rhino Sanctuary Trust, Central District, Botswana’, Tourism Management, 31, 1-11. ‘Community-based tourism ventures, benefits and challenges: Khama Rhino Sanctuary Trust, Central District, Botswana’ Tourism Management 31 1 11 Google Scholar

SINCLAIR, M. (1998), ‘Tourism and economic development: a survey’, The Journal of Development Studies, 34, 1-51. ‘Tourism and economic development: a survey’ The Journal of Development Studies 34 1 51 Google Scholar

SINDIGA, I. (1996), ‘Domestic tourism in Kenya’, Annals of Tourism Research, 23, 19-31. ‘Domestic tourism in Kenya’ Annals of Tourism Research 23 19 31 Google Scholar

SÖNMEZ, S. F. (1998), ‘Tourism, terrorism, and political instability’, Annals of Tourism Research, 25, 416-56. ‘Tourism, terrorism, and political instability’ Annals of Tourism Research 25 416 56 Google Scholar

SMOKE, P. (2003), ‘Decentralization in Africa: goals, dimensions, myths, and challenges’, Public Administration and Development, 23, 7-16. ‘Decentralization in Africa: goals, dimensions, myths, and challenges’ Public Administration and Development 23 7 16 Google Scholar

SMOKE, P. (2008), ‘The evolution of subnational development planning under decentralization reforms in Kenya and Uganda’, in V. Beard, F. Miraftab and C. Silver (eds), Planning and Decentralization: Contested Spaces for Public Action in the Global South, London, Routledge, 89-105. Planning and Decentralization: Contested Spaces for Public Action in the Global South 89 105 Google Scholar

TAYLOR, G. (1995), ‘The community approach: does it really work?’ Tourism Management, 16, 487-89. ‘The community approach: does it really work?’ Tourism Management 16 487 89 Google Scholar

TEYE, V. (1999), ‘Commentary: tourism plans and planning challenges in Ghana’, Tourism Geographies, 1, 283-92. ‘Commentary: tourism plans and planning challenges in Ghana’ Tourism Geographies 1 283 92 Google Scholar

TOSUN, C. (2000), ‘Limits to community participation in the tourism development process in developing countries’, Tourism Management, 21, 613-33. ‘Limits to community participation in the tourism development process in developing countries’ Tourism Management 21 613 33 Google Scholar

TOSUN, C. (2005), ‘Stages in the emergence of a participatory tourism development approach in the developing world’, Geoforum, 36, 333-52. ‘Stages in the emergence of a participatory tourism development approach in the developing world’ Geoforum 36 333 52 Google Scholar

TREJOS, B. AND CHIANG, L. N. (2009), ‘Local economic linkages to community-based tourism in rural Costa Rica’, Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 30, 373-87. ‘Local economic linkages to community-based tourism in rural Costa Rica’ Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 30 373 87 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (2007), Kenya: Unleashing the Potential for Trade and Growth (No. 37688-KE), Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

WTO (WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION) (Various years), Compendium of Tourism Statistics, Madrid, WTO. Google Scholar

WTO (WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION) (Various years). World Tourism Barometer, Madrid, WTO. Google Scholar

WTO (WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION) (2009a), Historical Perspective of World Tourism, Madrid, WTO http://www.world-tourism.org/facts/menu.html Google Scholar

WTO (WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION) (2009b), ‘UNWTO calls on tourism stakeholders to join roadmap for recovery’ (speech given by Taleb Rifai, in Berlin, Germany, 11 March 2009) http://www.unwto.org/media/news/en/press_det.php?id=3801 Google Scholar

WORLD TRAVEL AND TOURISM COUNCIL VIEWPOINT (2002), P.1-2. http://www.wttc.org/download.php?file=http://www.wttc.org/bin/pdf/original_pdf_file/viewpoint4q02.pdf Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Harris, John

Doan, Petra

Wilson, Kate