International Development Planning Review

A mega urban project and two competing accumulation strategies: negotiating discourses of the Songdo International Business District development

International Development Planning Review (2017), 39, (3), 299–317.

Abstract

For the understanding of the accumulation strategy behind a mega urban development project, the distinction should be made between the two different strategies of capital accumulation, which we term the rentextraction strategy (RES) and the socio-economic transformation of space strategy (STSS). This distinction is important because each is preferred by actors at different scales, thereby creating conflicts between them. Local actors are likely to prefer RES because its benefits mainly fall in the local area. National actors often prefer STSS because it symbolises state-level commitment to a business-friendly economic environment. Negotiation between these two strategies constitutes a major part of the formation of accumulation strategy. We test this theoretical prediction against the case of Songdo International Business District in South Korea. We find that the history of the project is consistent with our theoretical prediction.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Altshuler, A. and Luberoff, D. (2004) Mega-projects: the changing politics of urban public investment, Washington, DC, Brookings Institution Press. Mega-projects: the changing politics of urban public investment Google Scholar

Brenner, N. (2004) New state spaces: urban governance and the rescaling of statehood, Oxford, Oxford University Press. New state spaces: urban governance and the rescaling of statehood Google Scholar

Brenner, N. and Theodore, N. (2002) ‘Cities and the geographies of actually existing neoliberalism’, Antipode, 34, 349–79. Cities and the geographies of actually existing neoliberalism Antipode 34 349 79 Google Scholar

Carvalho, l. (2015) ‘Smart cities from scratch? A socio-technical perspective’, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 8(1), 43–60. Smart cities from scratch? A socio-technical perspective Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 8 43 60 Google Scholar

Cox, K. R. and Mair, A. (1988) ‘Locality and community in the politics of local economic development’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 78(2), 307–25. Locality and community in the politics of local economic development Annals of the Association of American Geographers 78 307 25 Google Scholar

Fairclough, N., Jessop, B. and Sayer, A. (2004) ‘Critical realism and semiosis’, in J. Joseph and J. Roberts (eds), Realism, discourse and deconstruction, London, Routledge, 23–42. Critical realism and semiosis Realism, discourse and deconstruction 23 42 Google Scholar

Flyvbjerg, B., Bruzelius, N. and Rothengatter, W. (2003) Megaprojects and risk: an anatomy of ambition, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Megaprojects and risk: an anatomy of ambition Google Scholar

Harvey, D. (2010) Social justice and the city, Athens, University of Georgia Press. Social justice and the city Google Scholar

Inchon Media Club (2010) A Report on Inchon Citizens Forum (16 March), Inchon, Inchon Media Club. A Report on Inchon Citizens Forum Google Scholar

Jessop, B. (1990) State theory: putting the capitalist state in its place, Cambridge, Polity. State theory: putting the capitalist state in its place Google Scholar

Jessop, B. and Oosterlynck, S. (2008) ‘Cultural political economy: on making the cultural turn without falling into soft economic sociology’, Geoforum, 39, 1155–69. Cultural political economy: on making the cultural turn without falling into soft economic sociology Geoforum 39 1155 69 Google Scholar

Kim, C. (2010) ‘Place promotion and symbolic characterization of New Songdo City, South Korea’, Cities, 27(1), 13–19. Place promotion and symbolic characterization of New Songdo City, South Korea Cities 27 13 19 Google Scholar

Kim, J. I. (2014) ‘Making cities global: the new city development of Songdo, Yujiapu and Lingang’, Planning Perspectives, 29(3), 329–56. Making cities global: the new city development of Songdo, Yujiapu and Lingang Planning Perspectives 29 329 56 Google Scholar

Kim, Y., and Choi, M. J. (2015) ‘Why have big construction companies replaced real estate developers in Korea?’, International Journal of Urban Sciences, 19(2), 206–23. Why have big construction companies replaced real estate developers in Korea? International Journal of Urban Sciences 19 206 23 Google Scholar

Knox, P. (1991) ‘The restless urban landscape: economic and sociocultural change and the transformation of metropolitan Washington, DC’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 81, 181–209. The restless urban landscape: economic and sociocultural change and the transformation of metropolitan Washington, DC Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 81 181 209 Google Scholar

Kong, L. (2007) ‘Cultural icons and urban development in Asia: economic imperative, national identity and global city status’, Political Geography, 26, 383–404. Cultural icons and urban development in Asia: economic imperative, national identity and global city status Political Geography 26 383 404 Google Scholar

Kuyucu, T. and Ünsal, Ö. (2010) ‘“Urban transformation” as state-led property transfer: an analysis of two cases of urban renewal in Istanbul’, Urban Studies, 47(7), 1479–99. “Urban transformation” as state-led property transfer: an analysis of two cases of urban renewal in Istanbul Urban Studies 47 1479 99 Google Scholar

Lejano, R. P. and Kan, W.-S. (2015) ‘Seeing urban regeneration through an institutional lens: toward a new contextualism’, International Journal of Urban Sciences, 19(3), 257–68. Seeing urban regeneration through an institutional lens: toward a new contextualism International Journal of Urban Sciences 19 257 68 Google Scholar

Lee, S. C. (2005) ‘The development of Free Economic Zone project in Korea: the case of Inchon Free Economic Zone’, DongHyangGwaJeonMang, 65, 48–64 (in Korean). The development of Free Economic Zone project in Korea: the case of Inchon Free Economic Zone DongHyangGwaJeonMang Google Scholar

Lipietz, A. (1987) Mirages and miracles, London, Verso. Mirages and miracles Google Scholar

Logan, J. and Molotch, H. (1987) Urban fortunes: the political economy of place, Berkeley, University of California Press. Urban fortunes: the political economy of place Google Scholar

Majoor, S. (2011) ‘Framing large-scale projects’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 31, 143–56. Framing large-scale projects Journal of Planning Education and Research 31 143 56 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Moulaert, F., Jessop, B. and Mehmood, A. (2016) ‘Agency, structure, institutions, discourse (ASID) in urban and regional development’, International Journal of Urban Sciences, 20(2), 167–87. Agency, structure, institutions, discourse (ASID) in urban and regional development International Journal of Urban Sciences 20 167 87 Google Scholar

Moulaert, F., Martinelli, F., Gonzalez, S. and Swyngedouw, E. (2007) ‘Introduction: social innovation and governance in European cities’, European Urban and Regional Studies, 14(3), 195–209. Introduction: social innovation and governance in European cities European Urban and Regional Studies 14 195 209 Google Scholar

Mullins, P. D. and Shwayri, S. T. (2016) ‘Green cities and “IT839”: a new paradigm for economic growth in South Korea’, Journal of Urban Technology, 23(2), 47–64. Green cities and “IT839”: a new paradigm for economic growth in South Korea Journal of Urban Technology 23 47 64 Google Scholar

Olds, K. (2001) Globalization and urban change: capital, culture and Pacific Rim mega-projects, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Globalization and urban change: capital, culture and Pacific Rim mega-projects Google Scholar

Ong, A. (2000) ‘Graduated sovereignty in South-East Asia’, Theory, Culture & Society, 17(4), 55–75. Graduated sovereignty in South-East Asia Theory, Culture & Society 17 55 75 Google Scholar

Orueta, F. and Fainstein, S. (2008) ‘The new mega-projects: genesis and impacts’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 32(4), 759–67. The new mega-projects: genesis and impacts International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 32 759 67 Google Scholar

Park, B. G. (2005) ‘Spatially selective liberalization and graduated sovereignty: politics of neo-liberalism and “special economic zones” in South Korea’, Political Geography, 24(7), 850–73. Spatially selective liberalization and graduated sovereignty: politics of neo-liberalism and “special economic zones” in South Korea Political Geography 24 850 73 Google Scholar

Park, Y. S. (2008) A man who changed the map of Korea, Seoul, Hangook Kyeongje Shinmun (in Korean). A man who changed the map of Korea Google Scholar

POSCO E&C (2014) POSCO Full History, http://history20.poscoenc.com/?p=1381 (accessed 26 February 2017). Google Scholar

Salet, W. (2008) ‘Rethinking urban projects: experiences in Europe’, Urban Studies, 45(11), 2343–63. Rethinking urban projects: experiences in Europe Urban Studies 45 2343 63 Google Scholar

Savitch, H. V. and Kantor, P. (2002) Cities in the international marketplace, Princeton, Princeton University Press. Cities in the international marketplace Google Scholar

Shelton, T., Zook, M. and Wiig, A. (2015) ‘The “actually existing smart city”’, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 8(1), 13–25. The “actually existing smart city” Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 8 13 25 Google Scholar

Shin, H. (2016) ‘Envisioned by the state: entrepreneurial urbanism and the making of Songdo city, South Korea’, in A. Datta and A. Shaban (eds), Mega-urbanization in the global South: fast cities and new urban utopias of the postcolonial state, London, Routledge, 83–100. Envisioned by the state: entrepreneurial urbanism and the making of Songdo city, South Korea Mega-urbanization in the global South: fast cities and new urban utopias of the postcolonial state 83 100 Google Scholar

Shin, H., Sonn, J. and Park, S. (2010) The partnership of new town development in Korea: a multi-scalar growth politics perspective, Anyang, Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements. The partnership of new town development in Korea: a multi-scalar growth politics perspective Google Scholar

Shin, H. R., Park, S. and Sonn, J. W. (2015) ‘The emergence of a multiscalar growth regime and scalar tension: the politics of urban development in Songdo New City, South Korea’, Environment and Planning C, 33(6), 1618–38. The emergence of a multiscalar growth regime and scalar tension: the politics of urban development in Songdo New City, South Korea Environment and Planning C 33 1618 38 Google Scholar

Shwayri, S. (2013) ‘A model Korean ubiquitous eco-city? The politics of making Songdo’, Journal of Urban Technology, 20(1), 39–55. A model Korean ubiquitous eco-city? The politics of making Songdo Journal of Urban Technology 20 39 55 Google Scholar

Sklair, L. (2000) The transnational capitalist class, Oxford, Blackwell. The transnational capitalist class Google Scholar

Smith, N. (1996) The new urban frontier: gentrification and the revanchist city, London, Routledge. The new urban frontier: gentrification and the revanchist city Google Scholar

Smith, N. (2002) ‘New globalism, new urbanism: gentrification as global urban strategy’, Antipode, 34(3), 427–51. New globalism, new urbanism: gentrification as global urban strategy Antipode 34 427 51 Google Scholar

Sonn, J. W. (2010) ‘Contesting state rescaling: an analysis of the South Korean state’s discursive strategy against devolution’, Antipode, 42(5), 1200–24. Contesting state rescaling: an analysis of the South Korean state’s discursive strategy against devolution Antipode 42 1200 24 Google Scholar

Sonn, J. W. and Lee, D. (2012) ‘Revisiting the branch plant syndrome’, International Journal of Urban Sciences, 16(3), 243–59. Revisiting the branch plant syndrome International Journal of Urban Sciences 16 243 59 Google Scholar

Sonn, J. W. and Lee, D. (2015) ‘Heterogeneity as the source of the state’s resilience’, International Journal of Urban Sciences, 19(3), 364–78. Heterogeneity as the source of the state’s resilience International Journal of Urban Sciences 19 364 78 Google Scholar

Sum, N. L. (2005) ‘Towards a cultural political economy: discourses, material power and (counter-)hegemony’ (working paper series), DEMOLOGOS, www.lancaster.ac.uk/cperc/docs/Sum%20CPERC%20Working%20Paper%202012-01.pdf. Google Scholar

Swyngedouw, E., Moulaert, F. and Rodriguez, A. (2002) ‘Neoliberal urbanization in Europe’, Antipode, 34(3), 547–82. Neoliberal urbanization in Europe Antipode 34 547 82 Google Scholar

Tarazona, V. A. (2016) ‘Mega-project meltdown: post-politics, neoliberal urban regeneration and Valencia’s fiscal crisis’, Urban Studies, 54(1), 68–84. Mega-project meltdown: post-politics, neoliberal urban regeneration and Valencia’s fiscal crisis Urban Studies 54 68 84 Google Scholar

Taşan-Kok, T. (2010) ‘Entrepreneurial governance: challenges of large-scale property-led urban regeneration projects’, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 101(2), 126–49. Entrepreneurial governance: challenges of large-scale property-led urban regeneration projects Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 101 126 49 Google Scholar

Tewdwr-Jones, M. and Phelps, N. A. (2000). ‘Leveling the uneven playing field’, Regional Studies, 34, 429–40. Leveling the uneven playing field Regional Studies 34 429 40 Google Scholar

Van Winden, W., de Carvalho, L., van Tuijl, E., van Haaren, J. and van den Berg, L. (2013) Creating knowledge locations in cities: innovation and integration challenges, London, Routledge. Creating knowledge locations in cities: innovation and integration challenges Google Scholar

Yeoh, B. (2005) ‘The global cultural city? Spatial imagineering and politics in the (multi) cultural marketplaces of South-East Asia’, Urban Studies, 42(5–6), 945–58. The global cultural city? Spatial imagineering and politics in the (multi) cultural marketplaces of South-East Asia Urban Studies 42 945 58 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details