International Development Planning Review

Diffusion of GIS technology in Botswana: Process and determinants

International Development Planning Review (2003), 25, (2), 195–219.

Abstract

Computerised technology and geographical information systems (GIS) are increasingly used in developing countries. International aid organisations have been instrumental in providing initial financial and technical support for the introduction of GIS technology. However, the diffusion of this technology is fraught with the same problems as are associated with the transfer of computerised technology in general. In this paper we review the process and determinants of GIS diffusion in developing countries. Botswana is used as a case study to examine the extent and types of GIS applications in the government sector. The discussion is framed around five infrastructural components necessary for GIS diffusion (for example, personnel, data, technology, organisations/institutions, and finance) and has regard to contextual and management factors. We present the evolution of GIS use in Botswana over the past 20 years and identify the factors that affect the use of GIS technology and the efforts to coordinate GIS at the national level. These factors include the shortage of local trained staff, outdated or undeveloped databases and institutional constraints.

Access Token
£25.00
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ALBUQUERQUE DE VASCOCELOS BORGES, K. and SAHAY, S. (2001), 'Learning about GIS implementation from a public sector GIS experience in Brazil' http:// www.gisdevelopment.org Google Scholar

ANDERSON, C. (1996), 'GIS development process: a framework for considering the initiation, acquisition, and incorporation of GIS technology', Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, 8, 10-26. GIS development process: a framework for considering the initiation, acquisition, and incorporation of GIS technology' Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association 8 10 26 Google Scholar

ARD (ASSOCIATES IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT) (1993), Assessment of Country-wide GIS Potential in Botswana (consultancy report to the government of Botswana), Gaborone, Government of Botswana. Google Scholar

AVGEROU, C. and WALSHAM, G. (eds) (2000), Information Technology in Context: Studies from the Perspective of Developing Countries, Aldershot, Ashgate. Information Technology in Context: Studies from the Perspective of Developing Countries Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BISHOP, I. D., MCPHERSON, E., URQUHART, K., BARRY, M., MASCARELLA, J. and ESCOBAR, F. (2002), 'Meeting the need for GIS skills in developing countries: the case of informal settlements', Transactions in GIS, 6, 311-26. Meeting the need for GIS skills in developing countries: the case of informal settlements' Transactions in GIS 6 311 26 Google Scholar

BUDIC, Z. N. and GODSCHALK, D. R. (1994), 'Implementation and management effectiveness in adoption of GIS technology in local governments', Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems, 18, 285-304. Implementation and management effectiveness in adoption of GIS technology in local governments' Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems 18 285 304 Google Scholar

CALHOUN C., DRUMMOND, W. and WHITTINGTON, D. (1987), 'Computerised information management in a system-poor environment', Third World Planning Review, 9, 361-79. Computerised information management in a system-poor environment' Third World Planning Review 9 361 79 Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, H. and MASSER, I. (1995), GIS and Organisations: How E. ective are GIS in Practice?, London, Taylor & Francis. GIS and Organisations: How E. ective are GIS in Practice? Google Scholar

CARTWRIGHT, T. J. (1987), 'Information systems for planning in developing countries', Habitat International, 11, 191-205. Information systems for planning in developing countries' Habitat International 11 191 205 Google Scholar

CARTWRIGHT, T. J. (1989), The Management of Human Settlements in Developing Countries—Case Studies in the Application of Microcomputers, London, Routledge. The Management of Human Settlements in Developing Countries—Case Studies in the Application of Microcomputers Google Scholar

CARTWRIGHT, T. J. (1991), 'Information systems for urban management in developing countries: the concept and the reality', Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems, 15, 7-21. Information systems for urban management in developing countries: the concept and the reality' Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems 15 7 21 Google Scholar

CARTWRIGHT, T. J. (1993), 'Geographic information technology as appropriate technology for development' in I. Masser and H. J. Onsrud (eds), Di. usion and Use of Geographic Information Systems, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 261-74. Geographic information technology as appropriate technology for development Di. usion and Use of Geographic Information Systems 261 74 Google Scholar

CAVRIC, B. and IKGOPOLENG, H. (2000), Survey of GIS Di. usion in Botswana Government Ministries and Departments (unpublished report), Gaborone, University of Botswana. Google Scholar

CHAN, T. O. and WILLIAMSON, I. P. (1999a), 'A model of the decision process for GIS adoption and di. usion in a government environment', Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, 11, 7-16. A model of the decision process for GIS adoption and di. usion in a government environment' Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association 11 7 16 Google Scholar

CHAN, T. O. and WILLIAMSON, I. P. (1999b), 'The di. erent identities of GIS and GIS di. usion', International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 13, 267-81. The di. erent identities of GIS and GIS di. usion' International Journal of Geographical Information Science 13 267 81 Google Scholar

CRAGLIA, M. and SIGNORETTA, P. (2000), 'From global to local: the development of local geographic information strategies in the United Kingdom', Environment and Planning B, 27, 777-88. From global to local: the development of local geographic information strategies in the United Kingdom' Environment and Planning B 27 777 88 Google Scholar

DE MAN, E. W. H. (2000), 'Institutionalization of geographic information technologies: unifying concept', Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 27, 139-51. Institutionalization of geographic information technologies: unifying concept' Cartography and Geographic Information Science 27 139 51 Google Scholar

DRUMMOND, J. and STEFANOVIC, P. (1986), 'Transfer of high technology to developing countries' in M. Blakemore (ed.), Proceedings of Auto Carto Conference (London, 14-19 September), 441-51. Google Scholar

DUNN, C., BLAKEMORE, M., ATKINS, P. and TOWNSEND, J. (1999), 'Teaching geographical information handling skills for lower-income countries', Transactions in GIS, 3, 319-32. Teaching geographical information handling skills for lower-income countries' Transactions in GIS 3 319 32 Google Scholar

EASON, K. (1988), Information Technology and Organisational Change, London, Taylor & Francis. Information Technology and Organisational Change Google Scholar

FFM BOTSWANA (2000), GIS Survey (unpublished report), Gaborone, FFM Botswana. Google Scholar

HALL, G. (1999), 'GIS education and infrastructure challenges and problems in emerging countries', Transactions in GIS, 3, 311-17. GIS education and infrastructure challenges and problems in emerging countries' Transactions in GIS 3 311 17 Google Scholar

HALL, G., MALCOLM, N. and PIWOWAR, J. (2001), 'Integration of remote sensing and GIS to detect pockets of urban poverty: the case of Rosario, Argentina', Transactions in GIS, 5, 235-53. Integration of remote sensing and GIS to detect pockets of urban poverty: the case of Rosario, Argentina' Transactions in GIS 5 235 53 Google Scholar

HARRIS, T. M., WEINER, D., WARNER, T. and LEVIN, R. (1995), 'Pursuing social goals through participatory GIS: redressing South Africa's historical political ecology' in J. Pickles (ed.), Ground Truth, New York, Guilford, 196-222. Pursuing social goals through participatory GIS: redressing South Africa's historical political ecology Ground Truth 196 222 Google Scholar

HENDRIKS, P. H. J. (2000), 'An organizational learning perspective on GIS', International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 14, 373-96. An organizational learning perspective on GIS' International Journal of Geographical Information Science 14 373 96 Google Scholar

HILL, T. and McCONNACHIE, D. (2001), 'The role of geographical information systems in development planning in South Africa', Third World Planning Review, 23, 289-99. The role of geographical information systems in development planning in South Africa' Third World Planning Review 23 289 99 Google Scholar

HUXHOLD, W. and LEVINSOHN, A. (1995), Managing Geographic Information System Projects, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Managing Geographic Information System Projects Google Scholar

IKHUORIA, I. A. (1995), 'A study of the status of academic cartography and GIS in Nigeria', Cartographica, 32, 43-54. A study of the status of academic cartography and GIS in Nigeria' Cartographica 32 43 54 Google Scholar

IKHUORIA, I. A. (1999), 'Professionalism and manpower issues in geographical information systems in West Africa', Transactions in GIS, 3, 343-58. Professionalism and manpower issues in geographical information systems in West Africa' Transactions in GIS 3 343 58 Google Scholar

KALABAMU, F. T. (2000), 'Land tenure and management reforms in East and Southern Africa—the case of Botswana', Land Use Policy, 17, 305-19. Land tenure and management reforms in East and Southern Africa—the case of Botswana' Land Use Policy 17 305 19 Google Scholar

KLOSTERMAN, R. E. (1995), 'The appropriateness of geographic information systems for regional planning in the developing world', Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 19, 1-13. The appropriateness of geographic information systems for regional planning in the developing world' Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 19 1 13 Google Scholar

KYEM, P. A. K. (1999), 'Examining the discourse about the transfer of GIS technology to traditionally non-Western societies', Social Science Computer Review, 17, 69-73. Examining the discourse about the transfer of GIS technology to traditionally non-Western societies' Social Science Computer Review 17 69 73 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

MADU, C. N. (1999), 'A decision support framework for environmental planning in developing countries', Journal of Environmental Planning, 42, 287-313. A decision support framework for environmental planning in developing countries' Journal of Environmental Planning 42 287 313 Google Scholar

MASSER, I. (1991), 'Computers in local government: Malaysia', Habitat International, 15, 51-63. Computers in local government: Malaysia' Habitat International 15 51 63 Google Scholar

MASSER, I. (1997), 'Geographic information goes global', Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems, 21, 303-05. Geographic information goes global' Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems 21 303 05 Google Scholar

MASSER I. and CAMPBELL, H. (1991), 'Conditions for the e. ective utilisation of computers in urban planning in developing countries', Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems, 15, 55-67. Conditions for the e. ective utilisation of computers in urban planning in developing countries' Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems 15 55 67 Google Scholar

MASSER, I. and SLIUZAS, R. (1999), 'The use of geographic information technologies for urban planning and management in developing countries', City Development Strategies Initiative, October. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

MUSISI-NKAMBWE, S. (1991), 'Resource utilisation and regional planning information systems (RURPIS) in Botswana', International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 5, 111-22. Resource utilisation and regional planning information systems (RURPIS) in Botswana' International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 5 111 22 Google Scholar

NATIONAL ACADEMIES (2002), Down to Earth. Geographic Information for Sustainable Development in Africa (report), Washington, DC, National Academy Press. Google Scholar

NEDOVIC-BUDIC, Z. (1998), 'The likelihood of becoming a GIS user', Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, 10, 6-21. The likelihood of becoming a GIS user' Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association 10 6 21 Google Scholar

NEDOVIC-BUDIC, Z. and PINTO, J. K. (2000), 'Information sharing in an interorganizational GIS environment', Environment and Planning B, 27, 455-74. Information sharing in an interorganizational GIS environment' Environment and Planning B 27 455 74 Google Scholar

NIDUMOLU, S., GOODMAN, S., VOGEL, D. and DANOWITZ, A. (1996), 'Information technology for local administration support: the Governorates Project in Egypt', MIS Quarterly, 20, 197-224. Information technology for local administration support: the Governorates Project in Egypt' MIS Quarterly 20 197 224 Google Scholar

NOURIAN, F. (2002), 'The Third World cities' need for information' in D. A. Brebbia, J. F. Martin-Duque and L. C. Wadhwa (eds), The Sustainable City II: Urban Regeneration and Sustainability, Southampton, Boton, WIT Press, 685-91. The Third World cities' need for information The Sustainable City II: Urban Regeneration and Sustainability 685 91 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ONSRUD, H. J. and PINTO, J. K. (1991), 'Di. usion of geographic information innovations', International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 5, 447-67. Di. usion of geographic information innovations' International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 5 447 67 Google Scholar

PAUL, C. K. (1986), 'Support for geographic information systems in developing countries' in B. K. Opitz (ed.), GIS in Governments, Hampton, VA, A. Depak Publishing, 7-15. Support for geographic information systems in developing countries GIS in Governments 7 15 Google Scholar

RAMASUBRAMANIAN, L. (1999), 'GIS implementation in developing countries: learning from organisational theory and reflective practice', Transactions in GIS, 3, 359-80. GIS implementation in developing countries: learning from organisational theory and reflective practice' Transactions in GIS 3 359 80 Google Scholar

REEVE, D. and PETCH, J. (1999), GIS Organisations and People: A Socio-technical Approach, London, Taylor & Francis. GIS Organisations and People: A Socio-technical Approach Google Scholar

ROGERS, E. (1995), Di. usion of Innovations, New York, The Free Press. Di. usion of Innovations Google Scholar

SAHAY, S. and WALSHAM, G. (1996), 'The implementation of GIS in India: organisational issues and implications', International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 10, 385-404. The implementation of GIS in India: organisational issues and implications' International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 10 385 404 Google Scholar

SCHWARE, R. and TREMBOUR, A. (1985), 'Rethinking microcomputer technology transfer to Third World countries', Science and Public Policy, February, 15-20. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

SOMERS, R. (1995), 'Organizing and stafiing a successful GIS: organizational strategies', Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, 7, 49-52. Organizing and stafiing a successful GIS: organizational strategies' Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association 7 49 52 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

SWEDESURVEY (2003), Draft Master Plan for the Establishment of a National GIS (project No. INEC 1999-02304), Gaborone, Botswana. Google Scholar

TAYLOR, D. R. F. (1986), 'Computer assisted cartography in developing countries' in M. Blakemore (ed.), Proceedings of Auto Carto Conference (London, 14-19 September), 462-71. Google Scholar

TAYLOR, D. R. F. (1991), 'GIS and developing nations' in D. J. Maguire, M. F. Goodchild and D. W. Rhind (eds), Geographical Information Systems, London, Longmans, 71-84. GIS and developing nations Geographical Information Systems 71 84 Google Scholar

TULLOCH, D. L. (1999), 'Theoretical model of multipurpose land information systems development', Transactions in GIS, 3, 259-83. Theoretical model of multipurpose land information systems development' Transactions in GIS 3 259 83 Google Scholar

UNAIDS (JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS) (2002), Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic, Geneva, Switzerland, 1-226. Google Scholar

UNDP (UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME) and GOB (GOVERNMENT OF BOTSWANA) (1997), Botswana Human Development Report (report), Gaborone, Botswana. Google Scholar

UNEP (UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME) (1997), Global Resource Information Database—GIS Survey (special projects at http://grid2.cr.usgs.gov/ Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

WILLIAMSON, I. P. (1997), 'The justification of cadastral systems for developing countries', Geomatica, 51, 21-36. The justification of cadastral systems for developing countries' Geomatica 51 21 36 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (1995), Sharing Information, Building Collaboration, and Enabling Innovation (A Consensus Report of the Bankwide GIS Task Force), Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

YAAKUP, A. B. and HEALEY, R. G. (1994), 'A GIS approach to spatial modelling for squatter settlement planning in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia', Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 21, 21-34. A GIS approach to spatial modelling for squatter settlement planning in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia' Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 21 21 34 Google Scholar

YEH, A. G. O. (1991), 'Development and application of GIS in urban and regional planning in the developing countries', International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 5. Development and application of GIS in urban and regional planning in the developing countries International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 5 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Cavric, Branko

Nedovic-Budic, Zorica

Ikgopoleng, Horatio