International Development Planning Review

The impact of livestock assets among indigenous communities on the Bolivian Altiplano: findings from a comparative model

International Development Planning Review (2012), 34, (1), 65–81.

Abstract

Measuring poverty has occupied a lot of space in the development discourse. Over the years a number of approaches have been offered to capture the experience of what it means to be poor. However, latterly such approaches often ignore core assets. Indeed, the comparative impact of livestock vs. other core assets such as land and education on poverty has not been well explored. Therefore, the authors created an 'asset impact model' to examine changes to both tangible and intangible assets at the household level, with a particular focus on gender and ethnicity among communities residing in the Bolivian Altiplano. The simple model illustrates that for indigenous women, a 20 per cent increase in the livestock herd has the same impact on household income as increasing the education levels by 20 per cent and household land ownership by 5 per cent. The study illustrates the potential role of a productive, tangible asset, i.e. livestock, on poverty reduction in the short term. The policy implications of supporting asset-focused measures of poverty are discussed.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ALKIRE, S. and SANTOS, M. (2010), Acute Multidimensional Poverty: A new index for developing countries (OPHI Working Paper No. 38), Oxford Poverty and Human Development Index, Oxford, University of Oxford. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

ATTANASIO, O. and SZEKELY, M. (eds) (1999), Portrait of the Poor: An Asset-based Approach, Washington, DC, Inter-American Development Bank. Portrait of the Poor: An Asset-based Approach Google Scholar

BANDA, F. and CHINKIN, C. (2004), Gender, Minorities and Indigenous Peoples, London, Minority Rights Group International. Gender, Minorities and Indigenous Peoples Google Scholar

BLENCH, R., CHAPMAN, R. and SLAYMAKER, T. (2003), A Study of the Role of Livestock in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (Working Paper No. 1, Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative), Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Google Scholar

BRAVO-BAUMANN, H. (2000), Gender and Livestock: Capitalisation of Experiences on Livestock Projects and Gender (working document), Bern, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation. Google Scholar

CARTER, M. and BARRETT, C. (2006), 'The economics of poverty traps and persistent poverty: an asset-based approach', Journal of Development Studies, 42, 178–99. The economics of poverty traps and persistent poverty: an asset-based approach Journal of Development Studies 42 178 99 Google Scholar

CURRY, J. (1996), 'Gender and livestock in African production systems: an introduction', Human Ecology, 24, 149–60. Gender and livestock in African production systems: an introduction Human Ecology 24 149 60 Google Scholar

DE MEER, K., KUSNER, J. and VOORHOEVE, H. (1993), 'Differences in physical growth of Aymara and Quechua children living at high altitude in Peru', American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 90, 59–75. Differences in physical growth of Aymara and Quechua children living at high altitude in Peru American Journal of Physical Anthropology 90 59 75 Google Scholar

DE SOTO, H. (2000), The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else, New York, Basic Books. The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else Google Scholar

DIJKMAN, J. and SIMS, B. (1997), From Beast of Burden to Multi-Purpose Power Source: Changes in, and challenges for the utilization of equines in Bolivia, London, Livestock Production Programme, Department for International Development. From Beast of Burden to Multi-Purpose Power Source: Changes in, and challenges for the utilization of equines in Bolivia Google Scholar

FAIRFIELD, T. (2004), The Politics of Livestock Sector Policy and the Rural Poor in Bolivia (Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative Working Paper No. 15), Rome, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Google Scholar

FOEKEN, D. and MWANGI, A. (2000), 'Increasing food security through urban farming in Nairobi', in N. Bakker, M. Dubbeling, S. Gündel, U. Sabel-Koschella and H. de Zeeuw H. (eds), Growing Cities, Growing Food: Urban Agriculture on the Policy Agenda, Feldafing, Germany, Food and Agriculture Development Centre. Growing Cities, Growing Food: Urban Agriculture on the Policy Agenda Google Scholar

GOB (GOVERNMENT OF BOLIVIA) (2001), Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper – PRSP, La Paz, Government of Bolivia. Google Scholar

HEFFERNAN, C. (2010), 'Panzootics and the poor: devising a global livestock disease prioritisation framework' (OIE Scientific and Technical Review 28(3), February 2010). Panzootics and the poor: devising a global livestock disease prioritisation framework OIE Scientific and Technical Review 28 Google Scholar

HEFFERNAN, C. and MISTURELLI, F. (2000), The Delivery of Veterinary Services to the Poor: Preliminary Findings from Kenya (report for DFID's Animal Health Programme), London, DFID. The Delivery of Veterinary Services to the Poor: Preliminary Findings from Kenya (report for DFID's Animal Health Programme) Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

HEFFERNAN, C., NIELSEN, L. and MISTURELLI, F. (2004), Restocking Pastoralists: A Manual of Best Practice, Rugby, Practical Action Publishing, Rugby. Restocking Pastoralists: A Manual of Best Practice Google Scholar

HEFFERNAN, C. and YU, J. (2007). 'Devising neutral tools for development decision-making: the poverty assessor', ICTD 2007, available at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4937411&isnumber=4937385 Google Scholar

HEFFERNAN, C. AND YU, J. (2010), 'ICTs and decision-making: findings from the poverty assessor', Development in Practice, 20, 287–97. ICTs and decision-making: findings from the poverty assessor Development in Practice 20 287 97 Google Scholar

HUSS-ASHMORE, R. (1996), 'Livestock, nutrition, and intra-household resource control in Uasin Gishu District, Kenya', Human Ecology, 24, 191–210. Livestock, nutrition, and intra-household resource control in Uasin Gishu District, Kenya Human Ecology 24 191 210 Google Scholar

INE (INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADÍSTICA) (2001), Censo de Población y Vivienda, La Paz, Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Google Scholar

KRISTJANSON, P., KRISHNA, A., RADENY, M., KUAN, J., QUILCA, G., SANCHEZ-URRELO, A. and LEONVELARDE, C. (2007), 'Poverty dynamics and the role of livestock in the Peruvian Andes', Agricultural Systems, 94, 294–308. Poverty dynamics and the role of livestock in the Peruvian Andes Agricultural Systems 94 294 308 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

MCAUSLAN, P. (1998), 'Urbanization, law and development: a record of research', in E. Fernandez and A. Varley (eds), Illegal Cities: Law and Urban Change in Developing Countries, London, Zed Books. Urbanization, law and development: a record of research Illegal Cities: Law and Urban Change in Developing Countries Google Scholar

MCPEAK, J. (2006), 'Confronting the risk of asset loss: what role do livestock transfers in northern Kenya play?', Journal of Development Economics, 81, 415–37. Confronting the risk of asset loss: what role do livestock transfers in northern Kenya play? Journal of Development Economics 81 415 37 Google Scholar

MERRYMAN, J. and PEREZ-PERDOMO, R. (2007), The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Europe and Latin America, 3rd edition, Palo Alto, CA, Stanford University Press. The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Europe and Latin America Google Scholar

MISTURELLI, F. and HEFFERNAN, C. (2008), 'What is poverty? A diachronic exploration of concepts of poverty from the 1970 to 2000', European Journal of Development Research, 20, 666–84. What is poverty? A diachronic exploration of concepts of poverty from the 1970 to 2000 European Journal of Development Research 20 666 84 Google Scholar

MISTURELLI, F. and HEFFERNAN, C. (2009), 'Never the twain shall meet: a memetic analysis of poverty perceptions', Development Policy Review, 27, 167–83. Never the twain shall meet: a memetic analysis of poverty perceptions Development Policy Review 27 167 83 Google Scholar

MORALES, R., AGUILAR, A. and CALZADILLA, A. (2005), Under-nutrition in Bolivia: Geography and Culture Matter (working paper No. 492), Washington, DC, Inter-American Development Bank. Google Scholar

MOSER, C. (1998), 'The asset vulnerability framework: reassessing urban poverty reduction strategies', World Development, 26, 1–19. The asset vulnerability framework: reassessing urban poverty reduction strategies World Development 26 1 19 Google Scholar

NARAYAN, D., PATEL, R., SCHAFFT, K., RADEMACHER, A. and KOCH-SCHULTE, S. (2000), Voices of the Poor: Can Anyone Hear Us?, Oxford, The World Bank and Oxford University Press. Voices of the Poor: Can Anyone Hear Us? Google Scholar

NIAMIR-FULLER, M. (1994), Women Livestock Managers in the Third World: Focus on Technical Issues Related Gender Roles in Livestock Production (Staff Working Paper 18), Rome, International Fund for Agricultural Development. Google Scholar

NOGALES, E. (1998), Apuntes de Derecho Romano, La Paz, Corcel. Apuntes de Derecho Romano Google Scholar

OWEN, E., KITALYI, A., JAYASUIRIYA, N. AND SMITH, T. (2005), Livestock and Wealth Creation, Nottingham, Nottingham University Press. Livestock and Wealth Creation Google Scholar

PATRICK, H. (1966), 'Financial development and economic growth in underdeveloped countries', Economic Development and Cultural Change, 14, 174–79. Financial development and economic growth in underdeveloped countries Economic Development and Cultural Change 14 174 79 Google Scholar

PERRY, B. and SONES, K. (2007), 'Poverty reduction through animal health', Science, 315, 333–34. Poverty reduction through animal health Science 315 333 34 Google Scholar

ROY, R. (2005), Traditional Customary Laws and Indigenous Peoples in Asia, London, Minority Rights Group International. Traditional Customary Laws and Indigenous Peoples in Asia Google Scholar

RUSHTON, J. and VISCARRA, R. (2006), Concerted Action on Livestock and Livelihoods (CALL), La Paz, Consultores Epidemiologos Veterinarios y Economistas Pecurios. Concerted Action on Livestock and Livelihoods (CALL) Google Scholar

SIEGEL, P. (2005), Using an Asset-Based Approach to Identify Drivers of Sustainable Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction in Central America: Conceptual Framework (Working Paper No. 3475), Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

SIEGMUND-SCHULTZE, M., RISCHKOWSKY, B., DA VIEGA, J. B. and KING, J. M. (2007), 'Cattle are cash generating assets for mixed smallholder farms in the Eastern Amazon', Agricultural Systems, 94, 738–49. Cattle are cash generating assets for mixed smallholder farms in the Eastern Amazon Agricultural Systems 94 738 49 Google Scholar

TURNER, M. (2009), 'Capital on the move: the changing relation between livestock and labour in Mali, West Africa', Geoforum, 40, 746–55. Capital on the move: the changing relation between livestock and labour in Mali, West Africa Geoforum 40 746 55 Google Scholar

VALDIVIA, C., DUNN, E. and JETTE, C. (1996), 'Diversification as a risk management strategy in an Andean agropastoral community', American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 78, 1329–34. Diversification as a risk management strategy in an Andean agropastoral community American Journal of Agricultural Economics 78 1329 34 Google Scholar

world bank (2008), Agricultural Source Book, Washington, DC, World Bank. Google Scholar

ZILIAK, J. (2003), 'Income transfer and assets to the poor', The Review of Economics and Statistics, 85, 63–76. Income transfer and assets to the poor The Review of Economics and Statistics 85 63 76 Google Scholar

ZIMMERMAN, F. AND CARTER, M. (2003), 'Asset smoothing, consumption smoothing and the reproduction of inequality under risk and subsistence constraints', Journal of Development Economics, 71, 233–60. Asset smoothing, consumption smoothing and the reproduction of inequality under risk and subsistence constraints Journal of Development Economics 71 233 60 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Machicado, Moises

Heffernan, Claire

Thomson, Kim