Town Planning Review

Who is in charge? Liverpool, European Capital of Culture 2008 and the governance of cultural planning

Town Planning Review (2011), 82, (1), 45–59.

Abstract

Cultural planning has emerged as a key concern for town planners and policy-makers. However, although extensive attention has been given to critical and evaluative approaches of the impact of cultural planning, there is a comparative lack of research using theories of governance. This article contributes to the literature on cultural planning using the case study of Liverpool, European Capital of Culture 2008. The article illustrates how a range of local state organisations, particularly those from the cultural sector, administer cultural planning in Liverpool, showing how cultural planning can be understood as a new form of urban governance.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

AUDIT COMMISSION (2006), Liverpool Cultural Services Inspection Report, London, Audit Commission. Google Scholar

BALL, S. (2008), New philanthropy, new networks and new governance in education, Political Studies, 56, 747–65. New philanthropy, new networks and new governance in education Political Studies 56 747 65 Google Scholar

BELCHEM, J. (2000), Merseypride: Essays in Liverpool Exceptionalism, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press. Merseypride: Essays in Liverpool Exceptionalism Google Scholar

BERRIDGE, V. (1996), AIDS in the UK: The Making of a Policy 1981–1994, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

BEVIR, M. and RHODES, R. (2003), Interpreting British Governance, London, Routledge. Interpreting British Governance Google Scholar

BIANCHINI, F. (1989), 'Cultural policy and urban social movements: the response of the New Left in Rome (1976–85) and London (1981–86)', in P. Bramham, I. Henry, H. Mommaas and H. van der Poel (eds), Leisure and Urban Processes, London, Routledge. Cultural policy and urban social movements: the response of the New Left in Rome (1976–85) and London (1981–86) Leisure and Urban Processes Google Scholar

BIANCHINI, F. and PARKINSON, M. (1993), 'Liverpool city of missed opportunities' in F. Bianchini and M. PARKINSON, M. (eds), Cultural Policy and Urban Regeneration: The West European Experience, Manchester, Manchester University Press. Liverpool city of missed opportunities Cultural Policy and Urban Regeneration: The West European Experience Google Scholar

BOYLE, M. and HUGHES, G. (1994), 'The politics of urban entrepreneurialism in Glasgow', Geoforum, 25, 453–70. The politics of urban entrepreneurialism in Glasgow Geoforum 25 453 70 Google Scholar

COCHRANE, A., PECK, J. and TICKELL, A. (1996), 'Manchester plays games', Urban Studies, 33, 1319–36. Manchester plays games Urban Studies 33 1319 36 Google Scholar

COLLINS, N. (1995), 'Agricultural policy networks of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland', Political Studies, 43, 664–82. Agricultural policy networks of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland Political Studies 43 664 82 Google Scholar

COWELL, R. and MARTIN, S. (2003), 'The joy of joining up: modes of integrating the local government modernisation agenda', Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 21, 159–79. The joy of joining up: modes of integrating the local government modernisation agenda Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 21 159 79 Google Scholar

DAVIES J. (2002), 'The governance of urban regeneration', Public Administration, 80, 301–22. The governance of urban regeneration Public Administration 80 301 22 Google Scholar

DRUMMOND, B. (2007), 'Liverpool will never let you down', in C. Grunenberg and R. Knifton (eds), Liverpool Centre of the Creative Universe: Liverpool and the Avant-garde, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 230–5. Google Scholar

DU NOYER, P. (2002), Liverpool: Wondrous Place – Music from Cavern to Cream, London, Virgin Books. Google Scholar

EVANS, G. (2001), Cultural Planning: An Urban Renaissance? London, Routledge. Cultural Planning: An Urban Renaissance? Google Scholar

GARCÍA, B. (2004), 'Cultural policy and urban regeneration in Western European cities: lessons from experience, prospects for the future', Local Economy, 19, 312–26. Cultural policy and urban regeneration in Western European cities: lessons from experience, prospects for the future Local Economy 19 312 26 Google Scholar

GARCÍA, B., MELVILLE, R. and COX, T. (2010), Creating an Impact: Liverpool's experience as European Capital of Culture. http://www.liv.ac.uk/impacts08/Papers/Creating_an_Impact_-_web.pdf Google Scholar

HASTINGS, A. (1999), 'Discourse and urban change: Introduction to the special issue', Urban Studies, 36, 7–12. Google Scholar

HUNT, T. (2003), 'It's good for cities to be at war', Sunday Times, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/article1059324.ece Google Scholar

JAYNE, M. (2004), 'Culture that works: creative industries development in a working-class city', Capital and Class, 84, 199–210. Culture that works: creative industries development in a working-class city Capital and Class 84 199 210 Google Scholar

JONES, M. and WARD, K. (1998), 'Grabbing grants? The role of coalitions in urban economic development', Local Economy, 13, 28–38. Grabbing grants? The role of coalitions in urban economic development Local Economy 13 28 38 Google Scholar

JONES, P. and WILKS-HEEG S. (2004), 'Capitalizing culture', Local Economy, 19, 341–60. Capitalizing culture Local Economy 19 341 60 Google Scholar

LANDRY, C. and BIANCHINI, F. (1995), The Creative City, London, Demos. The Creative City Google Scholar

LAVENEX, S. (2008), 'A governance perspective on the European neighbourhood policy: integration beyond conditionality?' Journal of European Public Policy, 15, 938–55. A governance perspective on the European neighbourhood policy: integration beyond conditionality? Journal of European Public Policy 15 938 55 Google Scholar

LCC (LIVERPOOL CITY COUNCIL) (2003), Executive Summary of the Bid for European Capital of Culture 2008, Liverpool, Liverpool City Council. Google Scholar

LONGMORE, J. (2006), 'Civic Liverpool: 1680–1800', in J. Belchem (ed.), Liverpool 800 Culture, Character, History, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press. Civic Liverpool: 1680–1800 Liverpool 800 Culture, Character, History Google Scholar

MCGUIGAN, J. (1996), Culture and the Public Sphere, London, Routledge. Culture and the Public Sphere Google Scholar

MCGUIGAN, J. (2004), Rethinking Cultural Policy, Maidenhead, Oxford University Press. Rethinking Cultural Policy Google Scholar

MCGUIGAN, J. (2005), 'Neo-liberalism, culture and policy', International Journal of Cultural Policy, 11, 229–41. Neo-liberalism, culture and policy International Journal of Cultural Policy 11 229 41 Google Scholar

MINTON, A. (2003), Northern Soul: Culture, Creativity and Quality of Place in Newcastle and Gateshead, London, Demos. Northern Soul: Culture, Creativity and Quality of Place in Newcastle and Gateshead Google Scholar

MONTGOMERY, J. (1990), 'Cities and the art of cultural planning', Planning Practice and Research, 5, 17–24. Cities and the art of cultural planning Planning Practice and Research 5 17 24 Google Scholar

NORTH, P. and WILKS-HEEG, S. (2004), 'Cultural policy and urban regeneration: a special edition of Local Economy', Local Economy, 19, 305–11. Cultural policy and urban regeneration: a special edition of Local Economy Local Economy 19 305 11 Google Scholar

NWDA (NORTH WEST DEVELOPMENT AGENCY) (2009), The Impacts of a Year Like no Other – End of Year Review. http://www.liverpool08.com/downloads/ Google Scholar

O'BRIEN, D. (2008) Who Pays the Piper? Liverpool: Impacts08. http://www.liv.ac.uk/impacts08/ Google Scholar

O'BRIEN, D. (2010a), 'No cultural policy to speak of – Liverpool 2008', Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure & Events, 2, 113–28. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

O'BRIEN, D. (2010c), Liverpool on the Map Again – Liverpool Stakeholders' Reflections on Liverpool's Year as European Capital of Culture 2008, Liverpool, UK, Impacts 08. http://www.liv.ac.uk/impacts08/Publications.htm Google Scholar

O'BRIEN, D. and MILES, S. (2010), 'Cultural policy as rhetoric and reality: a comparative analysis of policy making in the peripheral north of England', Cultural Trends, 19, 3–13. Cultural policy as rhetoric and reality: a comparative analysis of policy making in the peripheral north of England Cultural Trends 19 3 13 Google Scholar

QUILLEY, S. (1999), 'Entrepreneurial Manchester', Antipode, 31, 185–211. Entrepreneurial Manchester Antipode 31 185 211 Google Scholar

READE, B. (2009), Forty-four Years with the Same Bird: A Liverpudlian Love Affair, London, Pan. Forty-four Years with the Same Bird: A Liverpudlian Love Affair Google Scholar

RHODES, R. (1994), 'The hollowing out of the state: the changing nature of the public service in Britain', Political Quarterly, 65, 138–51. The hollowing out of the state: the changing nature of the public service in Britain Political Quarterly 65 138 51 Google Scholar

RHODES, R. (1996), 'The new governance: governing without government', Political Studies, 44, 652–67. The new governance: governing without government Political Studies 44 652 67 Google Scholar

RHODES, R. (1997), Understanding Governance, Maidenhead, Oxford University Press. Understanding Governance Google Scholar

RHODES, R. (2007), 'Understanding Governance: ten years on', Organization Studies, 28, 1243–64. Understanding Governance: ten years on Organization Studies 28 1243 64 Google Scholar

RICHARDS, G. (2000), 'The European Cultural Capital event: strategic weapon in the cultural arms race?' Journal of Cultural Policy, 6, 159–81. The European Cultural Capital event: strategic weapon in the cultural arms race? Journal of Cultural Policy 6 159 81 Google Scholar

SHAW, D., SYKES, O. and FISCHER, B. (2009), 'Culture, regeneration and urban renaissance in Liverpool. Reflections of Liverpool's Experiences as "European Capital of Culture" in 2008', Raumplanung, 143, 92–7. Culture, regeneration and urban renaissance in Liverpool. Reflections of Liverpool's Experiences as "European Capital of Culture" in 2008 Raumplanung 143 92 7 Google Scholar

SELWOOD, S. (2009), 'Art city?' in B. Biggs and J. Sheldon (eds), Art in a City Revisited, Liverpool, The Bluecoat & Liverpool University Press, 53–89. Google Scholar

STEVENSON, D. (2003), Cities and Urban Cultures, Maidenhead & Philadelphia: Open University Press. Cities and Urban Cultures Google Scholar

STEVENSON, D. (2004), 'Civic gold rush', International Journal of Cultural Policy, 10, 119–31. Civic gold rush International Journal of Cultural Policy 10 119 31 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

STOKER, G., GAINS, F., GREASLEY, S., JOHN, P. and RAO, N. (2007), New Council Constitutions. The Outcomes and Impacts of the New Council Constitutions, London, CLG. New Council Constitutions. The Outcomes and Impacts of the New Council Constitutions Google Scholar

WARD, K. (2000), 'A critique in search of a corpus: re-visiting governance and re-interpreting urban politics', Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 25, 169–85. A critique in search of a corpus: re-visiting governance and re-interpreting urban politics Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 25 169 85 Google Scholar

WILKS-HEEG, S. (2003). 'From world city to pariah city? Liverpool and the global economy 1850–2000', in R. Munck (ed.), Reinventing the City? Liverpool in Comparative Perspective, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press. From world city to pariah city? Liverpool and the global economy 1850–2000 Reinventing the City? Liverpool in Comparative Perspective Google Scholar

WILKS-HEEG, S. and CLAYTON, S. (2006), Whose Town Is It Anyway? York, Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

O'Brien, Dave