International Development Planning Review

Urban environmental transitions and urban transportation systems: A comparison of the North American and Asian experiences

International Development Planning Review (2003), 25, (4), 325–354.

Abstract

This article argues that the urban environmental transition as experienced by rapidly developing Asian cities is significantly different from that experienced by the West. Urban environmental transition theory suggests that cities undergo a series of environmental challenges as they develop. At first, the priority environmental challenges are those relating to the 'brown' agenda, including water supply, sewage and sanitation issues. As cities industrialise they are confronted by 'grey' agenda challenges or those associated with industrial and auto-related pollution. Cities in post-industrial societies are battling 'green' agenda challenges such as greenhouse gas emissions, ozone-depleting substances, non-point-source pollution and increasing volumes of municipal waste. This shift in type of impact is accompanied by a shift in scale (from local to global), timing (from immediate impacts to those that are delayed), and character (from health-threatening to ecosystem-threatening). While cities of the West have experienced these impacts in a sequential order, with one set sometimes emerging from the 'solutions' to the previous set, cities in rapidly developing Asia are experiencing a different, compressed form of the transition. The authors compare the development of urban transportation systems with other challenges to demonstrate this difference. This compressed urban environmental transition, in which challenges must be met within shorter timescales, also presents the problem of overlapping or telescoped sets of transition challenges.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

AMERICAN LUNG ASSOCIATION (2001), Trends in Air Quality: Best Practices and Program Services, New York, American Lung Association. Google Scholar

BAI, X. and IMURA, H. (2000), 'A comparative study of urban environment in East Asia: stage model of urban environmental evolution', International Review for Environmental Strategies, 1, 135–58. A comparative study of urban environment in East Asia: stage model of urban environmental evolution International Review for Environmental Strategies 1 135 58 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

BARTONE, C., BERNSTEIN, J., LEITMANN, J. and EIGEN, J. (1994), Toward Environmental Strategies for Cities: Policy Consideration for Urban Environmental Management in Developing Countries, Washington DC, World Bank. Toward Environmental Strategies for Cities: Policy Consideration for Urban Environmental Management in Developing Countries Google Scholar

BERRY, B. J. L. (1990), 'Urbanization' in B. L. Turner II, W. C. Clark, R. W. Kates, J. F. Richards, J. T. Mathews and W. B. Meyer (eds), The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 103–19. Urbanization The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years 103 19 Google Scholar

BERRY, B. J. L. (1997), 'Long waves and geography in the 21st century', Futures, 29, 301–10. Long waves and geography in the 21st century Futures 29 301 10 Google Scholar

BOTTLES, S. L. (1987), Los Angeles and the Automobile, The Making of the Modern City, Berkeley, University of California Press. Los Angeles and the Automobile, The Making of the Modern City Google Scholar

CHUA, B.-H. (ed.) (2000), Consumption in Asia, Lifestyles and Identities, London, Routledge. Consumption in Asia, Lifestyles and Identities Google Scholar

CLARK, C. (1999), 'Transport: maker and breaker of cities' in G. K. Roberts (ed.), The American Cities and Technology Reader, Wilderness to Wired City, London, Routledge and the Open University, 196–200. Transport: maker and breaker of cities The American Cities and Technology Reader, Wilderness to Wired City 196 200 Google Scholar

CRAFTS, N. (2000), 'Globalization and growth in the twentieth century' in IMF (ed.), World Economic Outlook, Supporting Studies, Washington DC, International Monetary Fund. Globalization and growth in the twentieth century World Economic Outlook, Supporting Studies Google Scholar

DONER, R. F. (1991), Driving a Bargain: Automobile Industrialization and Japanese Firms in Southeast Asia, Berkeley, University of California Press. Driving a Bargain: Automobile Industrialization and Japanese Firms in Southeast Asia Google Scholar

EAST-WEST CENTER (2002), The Future of Population in Asia, Honolulu, The East-West Center. Google Scholar

FAN, C. S. (2000), 'Economic development and the changing patterns of consumption in urban China' in B.-H. Chua (ed.), Consumption in Asia, Lifestyles and Identities, London, Routledge, 82–97. Economic development and the changing patterns of consumption in urban China Consumption in Asia, Lifestyles and Identities 82 97 Google Scholar

GAKENHEIMER, R. (1999), 'Urban mobility in the developing world', Transportation Research Part A, 33, 671–89. Google Scholar

GOLDSTEIN, E. A., and IZEMAN, M. A. (1995), 'Pollution' in K. T. Jackson (ed.), The Encyclopedia of New York City, New Haven, Yale University Press, 914–16. Pollution The Encyclopedia of New York City 914 16 Google Scholar

HABITAT (UNITED NATIONS CENTRE FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENTS) (1996), An Urbanizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements, 1996, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

HABITAT (UNITED NATIONS CENTRE FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENTS) (2001), Cities in a Globalizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements, 2001, London, Earthscan. Google Scholar

HAINES, M. R. (2001), The Urban Mortality Transition in the United States, 1800–1940 (NBER Working Paper Series on Historical Factors in Long Run Growth), Cambridge, National Bureau of Economic Research, 20. Google Scholar

HALL, P. (1992), 'Transport: maker and breaker of cities' in A. M. Mannion and S. R. Bowlby (eds), Environmental Issues in the 1990s, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 265–76. Transport: maker and breaker of cities Environmental Issues in the 1990s 265 76 Google Scholar

HARWIT, E. (1995), 'China's automotive history and policy development, 1949–1993' in E. Harwit and M. E. Sharpe (eds), China's Automobile Industry: Policies, Problems, and Prospects, New York, M. E. Sharpe, 15–42. China's automotive history and policy development, 1949–1993 China's Automobile Industry: Policies, Problems, and Prospects 15 42 Google Scholar

HAYAMI, Y. (2000), 'From confrontation to cooperation on the conservation of global environment', Asian Economic Journal, 14, 109–21. From confrontation to cooperation on the conservation of global environment Asian Economic Journal 14 109 21 Google Scholar

HOBSBAWM, E. (1996), The Age of Extremes: A History of the World, 1914–1991, New York, Vintage Books. The Age of Extremes: A History of the World, 1914–1991 Google Scholar

HOOD, C. (1993), 722 Miles: The Building of the Subways and How They Transformed New York, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press. 722 Miles: The Building of the Subways and How They Transformed New York Google Scholar

HOOK, W. and REPLOGLE, M. (1996), 'Motorization and non-motorized transport in Asia: transport system evolution in China, Japan and Indonesia', Land Use Policy, 13, 69–84. Motorization and non-motorized transport in Asia: transport system evolution in China, Japan and Indonesia Land Use Policy 13 69 84 Google Scholar

JACKSON, K. R. (1985), Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States Google Scholar

JENKINS, R. (1995), 'The political economy of industrial policy: automobile manufacture in the newly industrializing countries', Cambridge Journal of Economics, 19, 625–45. The political economy of industrial policy: automobile manufacture in the newly industrializing countries Cambridge Journal of Economics 19 625 45 Google Scholar

KATES, R. W. (2000), 'Has the environment improved?', Environment, 42, editorial. Google Scholar

KATES, R. W. and WILBANKS, T. J. (2003), 'Making the global local', Environment, 4, 13–23. Making the global local Environment 4 13 23 Google Scholar

KENWORTHY, J. R., LAUBE, F. B., with NEWMAN, P. W. G., BARTER, P. A., RAAD, T., POBOON, C. and GUIA, B. (1999), An International Sourcebook of Automobile Dependence in Cities 1960–1990, Boulder, University Press of Colorado. An International Sourcebook of Automobile Dependence in Cities 1960–1990 Google Scholar

LECLER, Y. (2002), 'The cluster role in the development of the Thai car industry', International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 26, 799–814. The cluster role in the development of the Thai car industry International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 26 799 814 Google Scholar

LEE, Y.-S. F. (1994), 'Myths of environmental management and the urban poor' in E. B. Roland, J. Fuchs, J. Chamie, F. Lo and J. I. Uitto (eds), Mega-City Growth and the Future, Tokyo, UNU Press, 390–411. Myths of environmental management and the urban poor Mega-City Growth and the Future 390 411 Google Scholar

LOMBORG, B. (2001), 'The truth about the environment', The Economist, 360, 63–65. The truth about the environment The Economist 360 63 65 Google Scholar

McGEE, T. G. (1991), 'The emergence of desakota regions in Asia: expanding a hypothesis' in N. Ginsburg, B. Koppel and T. G. McGee (eds), The Extended Metropolis: Settlement Transition in Asia, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 3–26. The emergence of desakota regions in Asia: expanding a hypothesis The Extended Metropolis: Settlement Transition in Asia 3 26 Google Scholar

McGEE, T. G. and ROBINSON, I. M. (eds) (1995), The Mega-Urban Regions of Southeast Asia, Vancouver, University of British Columbia Press. The Mega-Urban Regions of Southeast Asia Google Scholar

McGRANAHAN, G. and SONGSORE, J. (1994), 'Wealth, health and the urban household: weighing environmental burden in Jakarta, Accra, São Paulo', Environment, 36, 4– 11, 40–45. Wealth, health and the urban household: weighing environmental burden in Jakarta, Accra, São Paulo' Environment 36 40 45 Google Scholar

McGRANAHAN, G., SONGSORE, J. and KJELLEN, M. (1996), 'Sustainability, poverty and urban environmental transitions' in C. Pugh (ed.), Sustainability, the Environment and Urbanization, London, Earthscan, 103–34. Sustainability, poverty and urban environmental transitions Sustainability, the Environment and Urbanization 103 34 Google Scholar

McGRANAHAN, G., JACOBI, P., SONGSORE, J., SURJADI, C. and KJELLEN, M. (2001), The Citizens at Risk, from Urban Sanitation to Sustainable Cities, London, Earthscan. The Citizens at Risk, from Urban Sanitation to Sustainable Cities Google Scholar

McKAY, J. P. (1988), 'Comparative perspectives on transit in Europe and the United States, 1850–1914' in J. A. Tarr and G. Dupuy (eds), Technology and the Rise of the Networked City in Europe and America, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 3–21. Comparative perspectives on transit in Europe and the United States, 1850–1914 Technology and the Rise of the Networked City in Europe and America 3 21 Google Scholar

McSHANE, C. (1979), 'Transforming the use of urban space: a look at the revolution in street pavements, 1880–1924', Journal of Urban History, 5, 279–307. Transforming the use of urban space: a look at the revolution in street pavements, 1880–1924 Journal of Urban History 5 279 307 Google Scholar

McSHANE, C. (1994), Down the Asphalt Path: The Automobile and the American City, New York, Columbia University Press. Down the Asphalt Path: The Automobile and the American City Google Scholar

McSHANE, C. (1997), The Automobile: A Chronology of Its Antecedents, Development, and Impact, Westport, CT, Greenwood Press. The Automobile: A Chronology of Its Antecedents, Development, and Impact Google Scholar

MARCOTULLIO, P. J. (2003), 'Globalization, urban form and environmental conditions in Asia-Pacific cities', Urban Studies, 40, 219– 48. Globalization, urban form and environmental conditions in Asia-Pacific cities Urban Studies 40 219 48 Google Scholar

MARCOTULLIO, P. J., ROTHENBERG, S. and NAKAHARA, M. (2003), 'Globalization and urban environmental transitions: comparison of New York's and Tokyo's experiences', Annals of Regional Science, 37, 369–90 Globalization and urban environmental transitions: comparison of New York's and Tokyo's experiences Annals of Regional Science 37 369 90 Google Scholar

MARLAND, G., BODEN, T. and ANDRES, R. J. (2003), National CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Manufacture, and Gas Flaring, 1751–2000, CDIAC, Oak Ridge, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. National CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Manufacture, and Gas Flaring, 1751–2000 Google Scholar

MELOSI, M. V. (2000), The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press. The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present Google Scholar

MIDGLEY, P. (1994), Urban Transport in Asia: An Operational Agenda for the 1990s, World Bank, Washington, DC. Urban Transport in Asia: An Operational Agenda for the 1990s Google Scholar

PATTISON, T. (ed.) (2000), Jane's Urban Transport Systems (19th edition), Jane's Information Group, Surrey, UK. Google Scholar

PUGH, C. (1996), 'Sustainability and sustainable cities' in C. Pugh (ed.), Sustainability, the Environment and Urbanization, London, Earthscan, 135–78. Sustainability and sustainable cities Sustainability, the Environment and Urbanization 135 78 Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D. (1997), 'Sustainable cities or cities that contribute to sustainable development', Urban Studies, 34, 1667–691. Sustainable cities or cities that contribute to sustainable development Urban Studies 34 1667 691 Google Scholar

SAWA, T. (1997), Japan's Experience in the Battle against Air Pollution, Tokyo, Committee on Japan's Experience in the Battle against Air Pollution. Japan's Experience in the Battle against Air Pollution Google Scholar

SCHNEIDER, K. R. (1972), Autokind vs Mankind, New York, Schocken Books. Autokind vs Mankind Google Scholar

SCHWELA, D. and ZALI, O. (eds) (1999), Urban Traffic Pollution, London and New York, E & F N Spon, 130. Urban Traffic Pollution 130 Google Scholar

TAYLOR, G. R. (1966), 'The beginnings of mass transportation in urban America, part II', Smithsonian Journal of History, 1, 31–54. The beginnings of mass transportation in urban America, part II Smithsonian Journal of History 1 31 54 Google Scholar

UNITED NATIONS (2001), World Urbanization Prospects: The 1999 Revision, New York, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations. Google Scholar

VASISHTH, A. and SLOANE, D. C. (2002), 'Returning to ecology: an ecosystem approach to understanding the city' in M. J. Dear (ed.), From Chicago to L.A.: Making Sense of Urban Theory, Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications, 347–66. Returning to ecology: an ecosystem approach to understanding the city From Chicago to L.A.: Making Sense of Urban Theory 347 66 Google Scholar

VELOSO, F. and KUMAR, R. (2002), The Automotive Supply Chain: Global Trends and Asian Perspectives (ERD Working Paper No. 3), Manila, Asian Development Bank. Google Scholar

WARNER, S. B. (1955), 'Public health reform and the depression of 1873–78', Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 29, 503–16. Public health reform and the depression of 1873–78 Bulletin of the History of Medicine 29 503 16 Google Scholar

WBCSD (WORLD BUSINESS COUNCIL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT) (2001), Mobility 2001: World Mobility at the End of the Twentieth Century and Its Sustainability, Geneva, WBCSD. Google Scholar

WEBSTER, D. (1995), 'The urban environment in Southeast Asia: challenges and opportunities' in Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ed.), Southeast Asian Affairs, Singapore, ISAS, 89–107. The urban environment in Southeast Asia: challenges and opportunities Southeast Asian Affairs 89 107 Google Scholar

WORLD BANK (1992), World Development Report, New York, World Bank and Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

YAGO, G. (1983), 'Urban transportation in the eighties', Democracy, 3, 43–55. Urban transportation in the eighties Democracy 3 43 55 Google Scholar

YOSHIMATSU, H. (1999), 'The state, MNCs, and the car industry in ASEAN', Journal of Contemporary Asia, 29, 495–515. The state, MNCs, and the car industry in ASEAN Journal of Contemporary Asia 29 495 515 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Marcotullio, Peter

Lee, Yok-Shiu