Town Planning Review

A pioneer 'global intelligence corps'?: The internationalisation of planning practice, 1890–1939

Town Planning Review (2005), 76, (2), 119–141.

Abstract

The development of modern planning practice from the late nineteenth century was, from the outset, an international activity. A high proportion of early planners practised in countries other than their own. The paper considers whether their activities can be seen as a pioneer 'global intelligence corps' of the type which some researchers have identified in the contemporary world. It explores the early history of international planning practice from 1890–1939, drawing on the careers of individual practitioners from several countries. It also examines the roots of this practice. These include broader contextual factors such as international communications, linguistic considerations, border formalities and the importance of imperialism. Also important were the more specific quantitative international imbalances in planning expertise and the common tendencies to see specific cities as models which, in being emulated, often required planners from the appropriate country to be commissioned. Other more specific aspects of the milieux, within which planning developed were also conducive to international practice, such as the popularity of international exhibitions, conferences and competitions. The paper also considers the wider (and varied) significance of these global planners on the international spread of planning knowledge and the extent to which they themselves were changed by their encounters with other countries. It concludes that, while certain features were similar to the work of today's major global consultancies, there were also important differences.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

ALMANDOZ, A. (1999), 'Longing for Paris: the Europeanised dream of Caracas urbanism, 1870– 1940', Planning Perspectives, 14, 225–48. Longing for Paris: the Europeanised dream of Caracas urbanism, 1870– 1940 Planning Perspectives 14 225 48 Google Scholar

ALMANDOZ, A. (ed.) (2002), Planning Latin America's Capital Cities 1850–1950, London, Spon. Planning Latin America's Capital Cities 1850–1950 Google Scholar

ÅMAN, A. (1992), Architecture and Ideology in Eastern Europe During the Stalin Era: An Aspect of Cold War History, New York/Cambridge, MA, The Architectural Foundation/MIT Press. Architecture and Ideology in Eastern Europe During the Stalin Era: An Aspect of Cold War History Google Scholar

BAUDOUÏ, R. (1990), 'L'Histoire dans la Culture du Projet à L'Institut d'Urbanisme de Université de Paris, 1919–43' in Gaudin (ed.), 43–57. L'Histoire dans la Culture du Projet à L'Institut d'Urbanisme de Université de Paris, 1919–43 43 57 Google Scholar

BÉDARIDA, M. (1990), 'La "Renaissance des Cités" et la Mission de Geo B. Ford' in Gaudin (ed.), 33–42. La "Renaissance des Cités" et la Mission de Geo B. Ford 33 42 Google Scholar

BLUM, J. M. (1956), Woodrow Wilson and the Politics of Morality, Boston, Little, Brown. Woodrow Wilson and the Politics of Morality Google Scholar

BLUMENFELD, H. (1987), Life Begins at 65: The Not Entirely Candid Autobiography of a Drifter, Montreal, Harvest House. Life Begins at 65: The Not Entirely Candid Autobiography of a Drifter Google Scholar

BREITLING, P. (1980), 'The role of the competition in the genesis of urban planning: Germany and Austria in the nineteenth century' in A. Sutcliffe (ed.), The Rise of Modern Urban Planning, 1800–1914, London, Mansell, 31–54. 'The role of the competition in the genesis of urban planning: Germany and Austria in the nineteenth century' The Rise of Modern Urban Planning, 1800–1914 31 54 Google Scholar

CELIK, Z. (1997), Urban Forms and Colonial Confrontations: Algiers Under French Rule, Berkeley University of California Press. Urban Forms and Colonial Confrontations: Algiers Under French Rule Google Scholar

CHERRY, G. E. (1974), The Evolution of British Town Planning, Leighton Buzzard, Leonard Hill. The Evolution of British Town Planning Google Scholar

CODY, J. W. (2003), Exporting American Architecture 1870–2000, London, Routledge. Exporting American Architecture 1870–2000 Google Scholar

COHEN, J.-L. (1995), Scenes of the World to Come: European Architecture and the American Challenge 1893– 1960, Paris, Flammarion/Canadian Centre for Architecture. Scenes of the World to Come: European Architecture and the American Challenge 1893– 1960 Google Scholar

COLLINS, C. C. (1996), 'Werner Hegemann (1881–1936): formative years in America', Planning Perspectives, 11, 1–22. Werner Hegemann (1881–1936): formative years in America Planning Perspectives 11 1 22 Google Scholar

COLLINS, G. R. and COLLINS, C. C. (1965), Camillo Sitte and the Birth of Modern City Planning (Columbia University Studies in Art History and Archaeology No. 3), London, Phaidon. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

DIEFENDORF, J. M. (1993), In the Wake of War: The Reconstruction of German Cities After World War II, New York, Oxford University Press. In the Wake of War: The Reconstruction of German Cities After World War II Google Scholar

EVENSON, N. (1989), The Indian Metropolis: A View Toward the West, New Haven, Yale University Press. The Indian Metropolis: A View Toward the West Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

GARNAUT, C. (1999), Colonel Light Gardens: Model Garden Suburb, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Crossing Press. Colonel Light Gardens: Model Garden Suburb Google Scholar

GAUDIN, J-P (ed.) (1990), Villes Réfléchies: Histoire et Actualité des Cultures Professionelles dans l'Urbanisme1 (Dossiers des Seminaires, Techniques, Territoires et Sociétés No. 11/12), Paris, Délégation à la Recherche et à l'Innovation, Ministère de l'Equipement, du Logement, des Transports et de la Mer. Google Scholar

GOURNAY, I. (1999), 'Le concours desarchitectes Américains' in F. Cochet, M-C. Genet-Delacroix and H. Trocmé (eds), Les Américains et la France 1917–47, Paris, Maisonneuve et Larose, 124–41. 'Le concours desarchitectes Américains' Les Américains et la France 1917–47 124 41 Google Scholar

GUTIÉRREZ, R. (2002), 'Buenos Aires, a great European city', in Almandoz (ed.), 45–74. Buenos Aires, a great European city 45 74 Google Scholar

HAAS, P. (1992), 'Introduction: epistemic communities and international policy coordination', International Organization, 46, 1–36. Introduction: epistemic communities and international policy coordination International Organization 46 1 36 Google Scholar

HALL, P. (2002), Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of City Planning in the Twentieth Century (3rd edition), Oxford, Blackwell. Google Scholar

HARDY, D. (1991), From Garden Cities to New Towns: Campaigning for Town and Country Planning, 1899-1946, London, Spon. From Garden Cities to New Towns: Campaigning for Town and Country Planning, 1899-1946 Google Scholar

HASS-KLAU, C. (1990), The Pedestrian and City Traffic, London, Belhaven. The Pedestrian and City Traffic Google Scholar

HEGEMANN, W. and PEETS, E. (1Q22), American Vitruvius: An Architect's Handbook of Civic Art, New York, Architectural Book Publishers (reprinted by Princeton Architectural Press, New York, 1988). Google Scholar

HEIN, C. (1998), Japan and the transformation of planning ideas: some examples of colonial plans' in R. Freestone (ed.), The Twentieth Century Urban Planning Experience (Proceedings of the Eighth International Planning History Society Conference and Fourth Australian Planning/Urban History Conference), Sydney Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales, 352–57. Google Scholar

HEIN, C. (2002), 'Maurice Rotival: French planning on a world scale', Planning Perspectives (in two parts), 17, 247–65 and 17, 325–44. Google Scholar

HOME, R. (1997), Of Planting and Planning: The Making of British Colonial Cities, London, Spon. Of Planting and Planning: The Making of British Colonial Cities Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

IRVING, R. G. (1981), Indian Summer: Lutyens, Baker and Imperial Delhi, New Haven, Yale University Press. Indian Summer: Lutyens, Baker and Imperial Delhi Google Scholar

JOHNSON, D. A. (1996), Planning the Great Metropolis: The 1929 Regional Plan of New York and Its Environs, London, Spon. Planning the Great Metropolis: The 1929 Regional Plan of New York and Its Environs Google Scholar

KING, A. D. (1990), Urbanism, Colonialism and the World Economy: Cultural and Spatial Foundations of the World Economic System, London, Routledge. Urbanism, Colonialism and the World Economy: Cultural and Spatial Foundations of the World Economic System Google Scholar

KOPP, A. (1970), Town and Revolution: Soviet Architecture and City Planning 1917–35, London, Thames & Hudson. Town and Revolution: Soviet Architecture and City Planning 1917–35 Google Scholar

KOTKIN, S. (1997), Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilisation, Berkeley, University of California Press. Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilisation Google Scholar

LANDAU, B. (1995), 'Techniciens Parisiens et échanges internationaux' in A. Lortie (ed.), Paris S'Exporte: Architecture Modèle ou Modèles dArchitecture, Paris, Picard/Pavillion de l'Arsenal, 205–15. 'Techniciens Parisiens et échanges internationaux' Paris S'Exporte: Architecture Modèle ou Modèles dArchitecture 205 15 Google Scholar

LARSON, M. S. (1994), Architectural competitions as discursive events', Theory and Society, 23, 469–504. Architectural competitions as discursive events' Theory and Society 23 469 504 Google Scholar

LASLO, A. (1999), 'Zagreb, 1923–37: Architecture of inter-war Zagreb' in E. Blau and M. Platzer (eds), Shaping the Great City: Modern Architecture in Central Europe 1890–1937, Munich, Prestel, 186–95. 'Zagreb, 1923–37: Architecture of inter-war Zagreb' Shaping the Great City: Modern Architecture in Central Europe 1890–1937 186 95 Google Scholar

MELLER, H. (1990), Patrick Geddes: Social Evolutionist and City Planner, London, Routledge. Patrick Geddes: Social Evolutionist and City Planner Google Scholar

MELLER, H. (1995), 'Philanthropy and public enterprise: international exhibitions and the modern town planning movement, 1889–1913', Planning Perspectives, 10, 295–310. Philanthropy and public enterprise: international exhibitions and the modern town planning movement, 1889–1913 Planning Perspectives 10 295 310 Google Scholar

MONCLÚS, F. J. (1996), 'Barcelona: urban discourse and planning strategies 1897–1923' in Hellenic Urban and Planning History Society (eds), The Planning of Capital Cities: Conference Proceedings, Thessaloniki, School of Architecture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Vol. 1, 295–310. 'Barcelona: urban discourse and planning strategies 1897–1923' The Planning of Capital Cities: Conference Proceedings 295 310 Google Scholar

MUMFORD, E. (2000), The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism, ig28–6o, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism, ig28–6o Google Scholar

NASR, J. and VOLAIT, M. (eds) (2003), Urbanism: Imported or Exported?: Native Aspirations and Foreign Plans, Chichester, Wiley. Urbanism: Imported or Exported?: Native Aspirations and Foreign Plans Google Scholar

NORTHEDGE, F. S. (1986), The League of Nations: Its Life and Times 1920–46, Leicester, Leicester University Press. The League of Nations: Its Life and Times 1920–46 Google Scholar

NOVICK, A. (2003), 'Foreign hires: French experts and the urbanism of Buenos Aires, 1907–32' in Nasr and Volait (eds), 265–89. Foreign hires: French experts and the urbanism of Buenos Aires, 1907–32 265 89 Google Scholar

OLDS, K. (2001), Globalization and Urban Change: Capital, Culture and Pacific Rim Mega-Projects, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Globalization and Urban Change: Capital, Culture and Pacific Rim Mega-Projects Google Scholar

PAYNE, G. and KELES, R. (1984), 'Turkey' in M. Wynn (ed.), Planning and Urban Growth in Southern Europe, London, Mansell, 165–97. 'Turkey' Planning and Urban Growth in Southern Europe 165 97 Google Scholar

PERERA, N. (1998), Society and Space: Colonialism, Nationalism and Post-Colonial Identity in Sri Lanka, Boulder, Westview Press. Society and Space: Colonialism, Nationalism and Post-Colonial Identity in Sri Lanka Google Scholar

PÉREZ OYARZUN, F. and ROSAS VERA, J. (2002), 'Cities within the city: urban and architectural transfers in Santiago de Chile, 1840–1940' in Almandoz (ed.), 109–38. Cities within the city: urban and architectural transfers in Santiago de Chile, 1840–1940 109 38 Google Scholar

PEYCERÉ, D. and VOLAIT, M. (eds) (2003), 'Architectes Français au sud et à l'est de la Méditerranée: guide de recherche dans les archives déposées à l'Institut Français d'Architecture', Colonnes: Archives d'Architecture du XXe Siècle, No. 21, 1–106. Google Scholar

PICCINATO, G. (1974), La Costruzione dell'urbanistica: Germania 1871–1914, Rome, Officina Edizione. La Costruzione dell'urbanistica: Germania 1871–1914 Google Scholar

RABINOW, P. (1995), French Modern: Norms and Forms of the Built Environment, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. French Modern: Norms and Forms of the Built Environment Google Scholar

RAVETLLAT, P. J. (1996), 'Future Barcelona' in M. Palà and O. Subirós (eds), 1856–1999 Contemporary Barcelona Contemporanea, Barcelona, Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona, 86–97. 'Future Barcelona' 1856–1999 Contemporary Barcelona Contemporanea 86 97 Google Scholar

REPS, J. W. (1991), Washington on View: The Nation's Capital since 1790, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press. Washington on View: The Nation's Capital since 1790 Google Scholar

REPS, J. W. (1997), Canberra 1912: Plans and Planners of the Australian Capital Competition, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press. Canberra 1912: Plans and Planners of the Australian Capital Competition Google Scholar

RIBA (ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS) (1911), Town Planning Conference, London, 10–13 October 1910: Transactions, London, RIBA. Google Scholar

RICHARDSON, W. (1991), 'Hannes Meyer and the general plan for the reconstruction of Moscow, 1931–35, Planning Perspectives, 6, 109–24. 'Hannes Meyer and the general plan for the reconstruction of Moscow, 1931–35 Planning Perspectives 6 109 24 Google Scholar

RIMMER, P. (1980), 'The British expert cometh: the imprint of the individual on Australia's economic landscape' in J. N. Jennings and G. J. R. Linge (eds), Of Time and Place, Canberra, Australian National University Press, 48–71. Google Scholar

RIMMER, P. (1988), 'The internationalisation of engineering consultancies: problems of breaking into the club', Environment and Planning A, 20, 761–88. The internationalisation of engineering consultancies: problems of breaking into the club Environment and Planning A 20 761 88 Google Scholar

RIMMER, P. (1991), 'The global intelligence corps and world cities: engineering consultancies on the move' in P. Daniels (ed.), Services and Metropolitan Development: International Perspectives, London, Routledge, 66–106. 'The global intelligence corps and world cities: engineering consultancies on the move' Services and Metropolitan Development: International Perspectives 66 106 Google Scholar

SAUNIER, P.-Y. (1999), 'Changing the city: urban international information and the Lyon municipality', Planning Perspectives, 14, 19–48. Changing the city: urban international information and the Lyon municipality Planning Perspectives 14 19 48 Google Scholar

SAUNIER, P.-Y. (2001), 'Sketches from the Urban Internationale 1910–50: voluntary associations, international institutions and US philanthropic foundations', International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 25, 380–403. Sketches from the Urban Internationale 1910–50: voluntary associations, international institutions and US philanthropic foundations International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 25 380 403 Google Scholar

SCHNAIDT, C. (1965), Hannes Meyer: Bauten, Projekte und Schriften, London, Tiranti. Hannes Meyer: Bauten, Projekte und Schriften Google Scholar

SEGRE, R. (2002), 'Havana, from Tacón to Forestier' in Almandoz (ed.), 193–213. Havana, from Tacón to Forestier 193 213 Google Scholar

SEWELL, J. (1993), The Shape of the City: Toronto Struggles With Modern Town Planning, Toronto, University Press. The Shape of the City: Toronto Struggles With Modern Town Planning Google Scholar

SFU (SOCIÉTÉ FRANÇAISE DES URBANISTES) (2002) www.urbanistes.com Google Scholar

SIMPSON, M. (1985), Thomas Adams and the Modern Planning Movement: Britain, Canada and the United States, London, Mansell. Thomas Adams and the Modern Planning Movement: Britain, Canada and the United States Google Scholar

SMETS, M. (1977), LAvènement de la Cité-Jardin en Belgique: Histoire de l'Habitat Social en Belgique de 1830 à 1930, Bruxelles, Pierre Mardaga. LAvènement de la Cité-Jardin en Belgique: Histoire de l'Habitat Social en Belgique de 1830 à 1930 Google Scholar

SONNE, W. (2003), Representing the State: Capital City Planning in the Early Twentieth Century, Munich, Prestel. Representing the State: Capital City Planning in the Early Twentieth Century Google Scholar

SUTCLIFFE, A. (1981), Towards the Planned City: Germany, Britain, the United States and France 1780– 1914, Oxford, Basil Blackwell. Towards the Planned City: Germany, Britain, the United States and France 1780– 1914 Google Scholar

TEKELI, I. (1994), The Development of the Istanbul Metropolitan Area: Urban Administration and Planning, Istanbul, International Union of Local Authorities. The Development of the Istanbul Metropolitan Area: Urban Administration and Planning Google Scholar

TORPEY, J. (2000), The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State Google Scholar

TPI (TOWN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (1937), Yearbook of the Town Planning Institute 1937–38, London, TPI. Google Scholar

TREGENZA, J. (1986), 'Charles Reade: town planning missionary' in A. Hutchings and R. Bunker (eds), With Conscious Purpose: A History of Town Planning in South Australia, Netley SA, Wakefield/Royal Australian Planning Institute, 45–59. 'Charles Reade: town planning missionary' With Conscious Purpose: A History of Town Planning in South Australia 45 59 Google Scholar

TROEN, S. I. (2003), Imagining Zion: Dreams, Designs and Realities in a Century of Jewish Settlement, New Haven, Yale University Press. Imagining Zion: Dreams, Designs and Realities in a Century of Jewish Settlement Google Scholar

TUCKER, D. (2003), 'Learning from Dairen, learning from Shinkyo: colonial city planning and post-war reconstruction' in C. Hein, J. M. Diefendorf and Y. Ishida (eds), Rebuilding Urban Japan after 1945, Basingstoke, Palgrave, 156–87. 'Learning from Dairen, learning from Shinkyo: colonial city planning and post-war reconstruction' Rebuilding Urban Japan after 1945 156 87 Google Scholar

UHR (URBAN HISTORY REVIEW) (2001), Special Issue: Jacques Gréber (1882–1962), XXIX. Google Scholar

VAN DER HEIDEN, C. N. (1990), 'Town planning in the Dutch Indies', Planning Perspectives, 5, 63– 84. Town planning in the Dutch Indies Planning Perspectives 5 63 84 Google Scholar

WARD, S. V. (1999), 'The international diffusion of planning: a review and a Canadian case study', International Planning Studies, 4, 53–77. The international diffusion of planning: a review and a Canadian case study International Planning Studies 4 53 77 Google Scholar

WARD, S. V. (2002), Planning the Twentieth-Century City: The Advanced Capitalist World, Chichester, Wiley. Planning the Twentieth-Century City: The Advanced Capitalist World Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

WRIGHT, G. (1991), The Politics of Design in French Colonial Urbanism, Chicago, Chicago University Press. The Politics of Design in French Colonial Urbanism Google Scholar

WRIGHT, M. (1982), Lord Leverhulme's Unknown Venture, London, Hutchinson. Lord Leverhulme's Unknown Venture Google Scholar

WYNN, M. (1984), 'Spain' in M. Wynn (ed.), Planning and Urban Growth in Southern Europe, London, Mansell, 111–63. 'Spain' Planning and Urban Growth in Southern Europe 111 63 Google Scholar

YEOH, B. S. A. (1996), Contesting Space: Power Relations and the Urban Built Environment in Colonial Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press. Contesting Space: Power Relations and the Urban Built Environment in Colonial Singapore Google Scholar

YEROLYMPOS, A. (1996), Urban Transformations in the Balkans (1820–1920): Aspects of Balkan Town Planning and the Making of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, University Studio Press. Urban Transformations in the Balkans (1820–1920): Aspects of Balkan Town Planning and the Making of Thessaloniki Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Ward, Stephen