International Development Planning Review

The evolution of community concern about landfills in Vietnam

International Development Planning Review (2007), 29, (4), 413–432.

Abstract

Since the mid-1990s, local community concern about the environmental impacts of landfills in Vietnam has been growing and has escalated to civil disobedience in a number of cases. This paper examines some of the root causes for the rise in concern and compares them to those which are found in industrialised countries. These causes include the negative impacts of the landfill and failure to enforce environmental regulations, increases in the value of land use rights, increases in environmental awareness, and political liberalisation. The paper concludes by suggesting several ways to alleviate community concern, including measures that have recently helped to reduce concern somewhat at a few landfills in Vietnam, such as the introduction of improved compensation packages, improved landfill design and management, and compost factories as beneficial on-site ancillary facilities. The use of public participation in both siting and management is also recommended.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

BAXTER, J. and LEE, D. (2004), 'Understanding expressed low concern and latent concern near a hazardous waste treatment facility', Journal of Risk Research, 7, 705–29. Understanding expressed low concern and latent concern near a hazardous waste treatment facility Journal of Risk Research 7 705 29 Google Scholar

CLAPP, J. (2002), 'The distancing of waste: overconsumption in a global economy' in T. Princen, M. Maniates and K. Conca (eds), Confronting Consumption, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 155–76. The distancing of waste: overconsumption in a global economy Confronting Consumption 155 76 Google Scholar

COMMUNIST PARTY OF VIETNAM (DANG CONG SAN VIET NAM) (2001), Van kien Dai hoi Dai bieu Toan Quoc lan thu, IX (Proceedings Party Congress IX), Ha Noi, Nha Xuat ban Chinh tri Quoc gia. Google Scholar

DOBERSTEIN, B. (2003), 'Environmental capacity-building in a transitional economy: the emergence of EIA capacity in Viet Nam', Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 21, 25–42. Environmental capacity-building in a transitional economy: the emergence of EIA capacity in Viet Nam Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 21 25 42 Google Scholar

DOUGLASS, M., DIGREGORIO, M., PICHAYA, V., BOONCHUEN, P., BRUNNER, M., BUNJAMIN, W., FOSTER, D., HANDLER, S., KOMALASARI, R. and TANIGUCHI, K. (2002), The Urban Transition in Vietnam, Honolulu, University of Hawaii at Manoa. The Urban Transition in Vietnam Google Scholar

GSO (GENERAL STATISTICS OFFICE) (Tong Cuc Thong Ke) (2005), 'Dan So Va Lao Dong' ('Population and employment'), retrieved from http://www.gso.gov.vn Google Scholar

HSAIO, H.M. (1988), An Analysis of the Structure and the Process of the Anti-Pollution Self-Help Activities in the 1980s, Taipei, Environmental Protection Administration (in Chinese). Google Scholar

JORGENSEN, C. H. and JAKOBSEN, J. B. (1994), 'Municipal solid waste management: institutional and socio-economic constraints – experience from the Mediterranean region', Waste Management and Research, 12, 233–42. Municipal solid waste management: institutional and socio-economic constraints – experience from the Mediterranean region Waste Management and Research 12 233 42 Google Scholar

KALLAND, A. and PERSOON, G. (1998), 'An anthropological perspective on environmental movements' in A. Kalland and G. Persoon (eds), Environmental Movements in Asia, Richmond, Curzon Press, 1–43. An anthropological perspective on environmental movements Environmental Movements in Asia 1 43 Google Scholar

KUHN, R. G. and BALLARD, K. R. (1998), 'Canadian innovation in siting hazardous waste management facilities', Environmental Management, 22, 533–45. Canadian innovation in siting hazardous waste management facilities Environmental Management 22 533 45 Google Scholar

MATTNER, M. (2004), 'Power to the people? Local governance and politics in Vietnam', Environment and Urbanization, 16, 121– 27. Power to the people? Local governance and politics in Vietnam Environment and Urbanization 16 121 27 Google Scholar

MELOSI, M. V. (2000), The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press. The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present Google Scholar

MOSTE and MOC (MINISTRY OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT AND MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION) (2001), Joint Circular No. 01/2001/TTLT-BKHCNMT-BXD of 18 January 2001 Guiding the Regulations on Environmental Protection for the Selection of Location for, the Construction and Operation of, Solid Waste Burial Sites, Official Gazette, 18 (15 May). Google Scholar

NGUYEN, Q. T. and MACLAREN, V. W. (2005), 'Community concerns about landfills: a case study of Ha Noi, Vietnam', Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 48, 809–31. Community concerns about landfills: a case study of Ha Noi, Vietnam Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 48 809 31 Google Scholar

NGUYEN QUANG and KAMMEIER, H. D. (2002), 'Changes in the political economy of Vietnam and their impacts on the built environment of Hanoi', Cities, 19, 373–88. Changes in the political economy of Vietnam and their impacts on the built environment of Hanoi Cities 19 373 88 Google Scholar

O'ROURKE, D. (2004), Community-Driven Regulation: Balancing Development and the Environment in Vietnam, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Community-Driven Regulation: Balancing Development and the Environment in Vietnam Google Scholar

PAINTER, M. (2005), 'The politics of state sector reforms in Vietnam: contested agendas and uncertain trajectories', Journal of Development Studies, 41, 261–83. The politics of state sector reforms in Vietnam: contested agendas and uncertain trajectories Journal of Development Studies 41 261 83 Google Scholar

PELLOW, D. N., SCHNAIBERG, S. and WEINBERG, A. S. (2000), 'Putting the ecological modernization thesis to the test: the promises and performances of urban recycling', Environmental Politics, 9, 109–37. Google Scholar

PHONG LAN (2005), 'Se thao go kho khan ve gia dat' ('Solving difficulties of land values'), retrieved from http://www.vnexpress.net/Vietnam/Kinh-doanh/2005/09 Google Scholar

PILLER, C. (1991), The Fail-Safe Society: Community Defiance and the End of American Technological Optimism, New York, Basic Books. The Fail-Safe Society: Community Defiance and the End of American Technological Optimism Google Scholar

POPPER, F. J. (1987), 'The environmentalist and the LULU', in R. L. Lake (ed.), Resolving Locational Conflict, New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press. The environmentalist and the LULU Resolving Locational Conflict Google Scholar

ROODMAN, D. M. (1999), Fighting Pollution in Vietnam, Washington, DC, Worldwatch Institute. Fighting Pollution in Vietnam Google Scholar

SHEN, HUNG-WEN and YU, YUE-HWA (1997), 'Social and economic factors in the spread of NIMBY syndrome against waste disposal sites in Taiwan', Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 40, 273–82. Social and economic factors in the spread of NIMBY syndrome against waste disposal sites in Taiwan Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 40 273 82 Google Scholar

SINKULE, B. J. and ORTOLANO, L. (1995), Implementing Environmental Policy in China, Westport, CT, Praeger. Implementing Environmental Policy in China Google Scholar

SMITH, W. D. and SCARPACI, J. L. (2000), 'Urbanization in transitional societies: an overview of Vietnam and Hanoi', Urban Geography, 21, 745–57. Urbanization in transitional societies: an overview of Vietnam and Hanoi Urban Geography 21 745 57 Google Scholar

SRV (SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM) (1993), Land Law, Ha Noi, Political Publishing House. Google Scholar

SRV (SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM) (1998), Decree 29/ND-CP on The Promulgation of Regulations on the Exercise of Democracy in Communes, Official Gazette, 18 (30 June). Google Scholar

TANG SHUI-YAN, CHINH-PING TANG and WING-HUNG LO, C. (2005), 'Public participation and environmental impact assessment in mainland China and Taiwan: political foundations of environmental management', Journal of Development Studies, 41, 1–32. Public participation and environmental impact assessment in mainland China and Taiwan: political foundations of environmental management Journal of Development Studies 41 1 32 Google Scholar

TARR, A. J. (1996), The Search for the Ultimate Sink: Urban Pollution in Historical Perspective, Akron, University of Akron Press. The Search for the Ultimate Sink: Urban Pollution in Historical Perspective Google Scholar

WORLD BANK, VIETNAM MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT, AND CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (2004), Vietnam Environment Monitor 2004: Solid Waste, Ha Noi, World Bank. http://www.worldbank.org.vn Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Tuan, Nguyen Quang

Maclaren, Virginia