International Development Planning Review

Crowding out and clawing back: Local institutions and sustainable livelihoods in North-East Thailand

International Development Planning Review (2005), 27, (2), 143–168.

Abstract

The 'crowding out hypothesis' (e.g., Cox and Jimenez, 1993; Roberts, 1984; Warr, 1983) contends that state-driven efforts to strengthen social safety nets may have the effect of displacing or duplicating established private mechanisms and institutions that operate at the local level to help people cope with periodic shocks, stresses and challenges. In such circumstances state support may be both inefficient, if it replicates systems that are already in place and working effectively, and counterproductive, if it substitutes external dependence for local self-reliance. Alternatively, it may ease the financial burden on the poor where the 'moral economy' involves transfers from the poor or nearly poor to the poor. It is also unclear what happens to local coping mechanisms and social institutions as a result of the process of 'crowding out': do they wither and evaporate in the heat of state social policy, or is there space and scope for informal safety nets to survive and continue to play a role in helping people to cope with stresses and shocks? Once eroded or displaced, is there any scope for local institutions and coping mechanisms to 'claw back' space, control and influence over processes of local development and associated environmental and resource impacts?

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

 Google Scholar

ANDREONI, J. (1990), 'Impure altruism and donations to public goods: a theory of warm glow giving', Economic Journal, 100, 464–77. Impure altruism and donations to public goods: a theory of warm glow giving Economic Journal 100 464 77 Google Scholar

ANDREONI, J. (1993), 'An experimental test of the public goods crowding out hypothesis', American Economic Review, 83, 1317–27. An experimental test of the public goods crowding out hypothesis American Economic Review 83 1317 27 Google Scholar

BAKER, C. (trans.) (2003), An internal history of the Communist Party of Thailand', Journal of Contemporary Asia, 33, 510–41. An internal history of the Communist Party of Thailand' Journal of Contemporary Asia 33 510 41 Google Scholar

BANGKOK POST (2000), 'Law Society stands up for Yasothon credit system', Bangkok Post, 27 April. Google Scholar

BELL, P. (1996), 'Development or maldevelopment? The contradictions of Thailand's economic growth' in M. J. G. Parnwell (ed.), Uneven Development in Thailand, Aldershot, Avebury 49–62. Development or maldevelopment? The contradictions of Thailand's economic growth Uneven Development in Thailand 49 62 Google Scholar

BESLEY, T. (1995), 'Nonmarket institutions for credit and risk sharing in low-income countries', The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9, 115–27. Nonmarket institutions for credit and risk sharing in low-income countries The Journal of Economic Perspectives 9 115 27 Google Scholar

BUGH-HANSEN, M. (2003), 'The territorialisation of rural Thailand: between localism, nationalism and globalism', Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 94, 322–34. The territorialisation of rural Thailand: between localism, nationalism and globalism Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 94 322 34 Google Scholar

CHINVARAKORN, V. (1998), 'Business as usual', Bangkok Post, 19 August. Google Scholar

CHUAKUL, W., SARALAMP, P. and BOONPLENG, A. (2002), 'Medicinal plants used in the Kutchum District, Yasothon Province, Thailand', Thai Journal of Phytopharmacy, 9 http:// www.lib.hcu.ac.the/e-book/pharmacy/journal9_1.pdf Google Scholar

COATE, S. and RAVALLION, M. (1993), 'Reciprocity without commitment: characterization and performance of informal insurance arrangements', Journal of Development Economics, 40, 1– 24. Reciprocity without commitment: characterization and performance of informal insurance arrangements Journal of Development Economics 40 1 24 Google Scholar

COX, D. and JIMENEZ, E. (1998), 'Risk sharing and private transfers: what about urban households?', Economic Development and Cultural Change, 46, 621–37. Risk sharing and private transfers: what about urban households? Economic Development and Cultural Change 46 621 37 Google Scholar

COX, D. and JIMENEZ, E. (1993), Private Transfers and the Effectiveness of Public Income Redistribution in the Philippines, Working Papers in Economics, No. 236, Boston College, Department of Economics. Google Scholar

CURTIS, F. (2003), 'Eco-localism and sustainability', Ecological Economics, 46, 83–102. Eco-localism and sustainability Ecological Economics 46 83 102 Google Scholar

DARLINGTON, S. M. (1998), 'The ordination of a tree: the Buddhist ecology movement in Thailand', Ethnology, 37, 1–15 http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ADM/susan.htm Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

DFID (DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT) (1999), Introduction to the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach, London, Department for International Development http://www.livelihoods. org/info/guidance_sheets_pdfs/section1.pdf Google Scholar

DIXON, C. (1999), The Thai Economy: Uneven Development and Internationalisation, London, Routledge. The Thai Economy: Uneven Development and Internationalisation Google Scholar

EKACHAI, S. (2001), 'Dharma and development' in S. Ekachai (ed.), Keeping the Faith: Thai Buddhism at the Crossroads, Bangkok, Post Books, 136–40 (originally in Bangkok Post, 23 March 1999). Google Scholar

EKACHAI, S. (2002), 'Rewards of organic farming', Bangkok Post, 16 December. Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. and DOUGLASS, M. (1978), 'Agropolitan development: towards a new strategy for regional planning in Asia' in F. C. Lo and K. Salih (eds), Growth Pole Strategy and Regional Development Policy: Asian Experiences and Alternative Approaches, Oxford, Pergamon, 163–92. 'Agropolitan development: towards a new strategy for regional planning in Asia' Growth Pole Strategy and Regional Development Policy: Asian Experiences and Alternative Approaches 163 92 Google Scholar

GAMPELL, J. (2000), Herbal Remedies for Social Wellbeing, Changemakers.net, February http:// www.changemakers.net/journal/oofebruary/gampell/cfm Google Scholar

HEWISON, K. (2000), 'Resisting globalization: a study of localism in Thailand', The Pacific Review, 13, 279–96. Resisting globalization: a study of localism in Thailand The Pacific Review 13 279 96 Google Scholar

ISAGER, L. and IVARSSON, S. (2002), 'Contesting landscapes in Thailand: tree ordination as counter-territorialization', Critical Asian Studies, 34, 395–417. Contesting landscapes in Thailand: tree ordination as counter-territorialization Critical Asian Studies 34 395 417 Google Scholar

JENSEN, R. T. (2003), 'Do private transfers "displace" the benefits of public transfers? Evidence from South Africa', Journal of Public Economics, 88, 89–112. Do private transfers "displace" the benefits of public transfers? Evidence from South Africa Journal of Public Economics 88 89 112 Google Scholar

KEYES, C. F. (1967), Isan: Regionalism in North-East Thailand, Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, Data Paper No. 65, Ithaca, Cornell University. Google Scholar

KLAUSNER, W. J. (1993), Reflections on Thai Culture: Collected Writings, Bangkok, The Siam Society Reflections on Thai Culture: Collected Writings Google Scholar

LEIFER, M. (1995), Dictionary of the Modern Politics of South-East Asia, London, Routledge. Dictionary of the Modern Politics of South-East Asia Google Scholar

LUND, F. (2002), ' "Crowding-in" care, security and micro-enterprise information: revisiting the role of the state in poverty reduction and in development', Journal of International Development, 14, 681–94. "Crowding-in" care, security and micro-enterprise information: revisiting the role of the state in poverty reduction and in development Journal of International Development 14 681 94 Google Scholar

MORDUCH, J. (1999), 'Between the state and the market: can informal insurance patch the safety net?', World Bank Research Observer, 14, 187–207 http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/ wdrpoverty/stiglitz/Morduchi.pdf Google Scholar

MORDUCH, J. and SHARMA, M. (2002), Strengthening Public Safety Nets from the Bottom Up, Social Protection Discussion Paper No. 227, Washington, DC, World Bank http://wbln0018. worldbank.org/HDNet/hddocs.nsf/0/cc82ca31bb0e45d185256c450052e4e5/$FILE/ 0227.pdf Google Scholar

NEDB (NATIONAL ECONOMIG DEVELOPMENT BOARD) (1967), National Social and Economic Development Plan, 1967–1971, Bangkok, NEDB. Google Scholar

PARNWELL, M. and RIGG, J. (1996), 'The people of Isan, Thailand: missing out on the economic boom?' in D. Dwyer and D. Drakakis-Smith (eds), Ethnicity and Development: Geographical Perspectives, Chichester, Wiley, 215–48. 'The people of Isan, Thailand: missing out on the economic boom?' Ethnicity and Development: Geographical Perspectives 215 48 Google Scholar

PAYUTTO, THE VENERABLE P.A. (1994), Buddhist Economics: A Middle Way for the Market Place (trans. Dhammavijaya and Bruce Evans) www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9280/econ.htm Google Scholar

POWELL, J. (2000), 'Printing our own money', New Internationalist, 329, November http:// www.newint.org/issue329/printing.htm Google Scholar

RAVALLION, M. and DEARDEN, L. (1988), 'Social security in a "moral economy": an empirical analysis for Java', The Review of Economics and Statistics, 70, 36–44. Social security in a "moral economy": an empirical analysis for Java The Review of Economics and Statistics 70 36 44 Google Scholar

REYNOLDS, C. J. (2001), 'Globalisers vs communitarians: public intellectuals debate Thailand's future', Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 22, 252–69. Globalisers vs communitarians: public intellectuals debate Thailand's future Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 22 252 69 Google Scholar

RIGG, J. (1986), 'Innovation and intensification in Northeastern Thailand: Brookfield applied', Pacific Viewpoint, 27, 29–45. Innovation and intensification in Northeastern Thailand: Brookfield applied Pacific Viewpoint 27 29 45 Google Scholar

RIGG, J. (2001), More than the Soil: Rural Change in Southeast Asia, Harlow, Pearson Education. More than the Soil: Rural Change in Southeast Asia Google Scholar

ROBERTS, R. D. (1984), A positive model of private charity and public transfers', Journal of Political Economy, 95, 420–37. A positive model of private charity and public transfers' Journal of Political Economy 95 420 37 Google Scholar

SCOTT, J. C. (1976), The Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast Asia, New Haven, Yale University Press. The Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast Asia Google Scholar

SIDA (SWEDISH INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION AGENCY) (1996), Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods: A Report from the Task Force on Poverty Reduction, Stockholm, SIDA. Google Scholar

SUMARTO, S., SURYAHADI, A. and PRITCHETT, L. (2003), 'Safety nets or safety ropes? Dynamic benefit incidence of two crisis programs in Indonesia', World Development, 31, 1257–77. Safety nets or safety ropes? Dynamic benefit incidence of two crisis programs in Indonesia World Development 31 1257 77 Google Scholar

TANNENBAUM, N. (2000), 'Protest, tree ordination, and the changing context of political ritual', Ethnology, 39,109–27. Protest, tree ordination, and the changing context of political ritual Ethnology 39 109 27 Google Scholar

TOWNSEND, R. M. (1995), 'Financial systems in northern Thai villages', The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110, 1011–46. Financial systems in northern Thai villages The Quarterly Journal of Economics 110 1011 46 Google Scholar

UNDP (UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME) (1999), Sustainable Livelihoods, United Nations Development Programme, Sustainable Livelihoods Unit http://www.undp.org/sl Google Scholar

WARR, P. G. (1983), 'The private provision of a public good is dependent on the distribution of income', Economic Letters, 13, 207–11. The private provision of a public good is dependent on the distribution of income Economic Letters 13 207 11 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Parnwell, Michael