International Development Planning Review

Factors contributing to the development performance of slum relocation projects in Bangkok, Thailand

International Development Planning Review (2004), 26, (3), 231–260.

Abstract

Slum relocation has become a study issue of increasing importance in Thailand, and especially in Bangkok, in light of the many slum and squatter settlement evictions during the past three decades. In response, two major approaches have been applied to help resolve the issue of displacement of people, namely, 'land-sharing' and 'slum relocation'. In the majority of relocation schemes, the landowners (both private and government) have negotiated with the residents and paid them compensation to relocate, thereby reacquiring their land for redevelopment purposes while allowing those being relocated sufficient resources to minimise negative impacts of the resettlement. These projects have proven the viability of the relocation approach in low-income housing development. This article seeks to investigate factors contributing to the development performance of such relocation projects. The conclusions indicate that there are a number of prerequisites for achieving success, including factors both external and internal to the community. Examples of external factors can be the location of the new settlement and the awarding of compensation, while strength of leadership, unity of community, participation of members and positive attitudes of community members are examples of internal factors. Additionally, the study found that relocation of settlements requires strong leadership in the transition stage and specialised activities at the consolidation stage in order to sustain the momentum generated at the eviction and transition stage of the projects.

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Details

Author details

Viratkapan, Vichai

Perera, Ranjith

Watanabe, Seisuke