Labour’s election defeat of 2019 highlights underlying issues of class — what is it? How is the working class formed? How can Labour represent that class in the twenty-first century? The article looks at the decline in class consciousness and its electoral impact, alongside the rise of other forms of political identity, crystallised around the referendums on the European Union and Scottish independence, and how ‘Corbynism’ attempted to respond to this. It sets the strengths and weaknesses of the Labour Party post-2015 and the 2019 election result in a broader political context.