Town Planning Review

Green-city models as an urban strategy: Hanoi between international practices and local assemblage

Town Planning Review (2020), 91, (4), 437–456.

Abstract

This paper examines the diffusion and implementation of the green-city model as a tool for town and regional planning in a middle-income country. The increasing number of publications that deal with models mainly investigate the way urban forms are generated and the role of international networks. These processes, however, have received less attention in the context of the global South, where the sustainable challenges are vast. The South East Asian city of Hanoi provides a unique opportunity to analyse how the green-city model emerges and takes root locally as a planning strategy in a large metropolis.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

References

ADB (ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK) (2012a) Going Green: Why Asia Is Moving toward a Green Model of Economic Growth (Asia Development Series), https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/29633/devasia12.pdf. Google Scholar

ADB (ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK) (2012b) Green Cities (Urban Development Series), https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/30059/green-cities.pdf. Google Scholar

AHERN, J. (2013), ‘Urban landscape sustainability and resilience: the promise and challenges of integrating ecology with urban planning and design’, Landscape Ecology, C, 1203-12. Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L. (2004), ‘Strategic (spatial) planning re-examined’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 31, 743-58. Google Scholar

ALLEN, J. and COCHRANE, A. (2007), ‘Beyond the territorial fix: regional assemblages, politics and power’, Regional studies, 41, 1161-75. Google Scholar

AMBASSADE DE FRANCE AU VIETNAM, SERVICE ECONOMIQUE (2018), Économie de Hanoi, https://www.tresor.economie.gouv.fr/Pays/VN. Google Scholar

AMIN, A. and GRAHAM, S. (1997), ‘The ordinary city’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 4, 411-29. Google Scholar

ANDERSSON, I. (2016), ‘Green cities going greener? Local environmental policymaking and place branding in the “Greenest City in Europe”’, European Planning Studies, 24, 1197-215. Google Scholar

ANGELIDOU, M. (2014), ‘Smart city policies: a spatial approach’, Cities, 41, 3-11. Google Scholar

BAI, X. and HIDEFUMI, I. (2000), ‘A comparative study of urban environment in East Asia: stage model of urban environmental evolution’, International Review for Environmental Strategies, 1, 135-58. Google Scholar

BAYE, E. and CUSSET, J.-M. (2004), Les consultants internationaux et leurs rapports à l’ingénierie locale dans les infrastructures urbaines au Vietnam, rapport de recherche PRUD, January. Google Scholar

BEATLEY, T. (2000), Green Urbanism: Learning from European Cities, Washington, DC, Island Press. Google Scholar

BOURDIN, A. and IDT, J. (2016), L’urbanisme des modèles: Références, benchmarking et bonnes pratiques, La Tour d’Aigues, L’Aube. Google Scholar

BUI, T. U. (2012), ‘L’intégration du développement durable dans les projets de quartier: le cas de la ville de Hanoi’ (PhD thesis in architecture), Toulouse, University of Toulouse. Google Scholar

BULKELEY, H. (2005), ‘Reconfiguring environmental governance: towards a politics of scales and networks’, Political Geography, 24, 875-902. Google Scholar

CAPROTTI, F. (2014), ‘Critical research on eco-cities? A walk through the Sino-Singapore Tianjin eco-city, China’, Cities, 36, 10-17. Google Scholar

CERISE, E. (2009), ‘Fabrication de la ville de Hanoi: entre planification et pratiques habitantes: Conception, production et réception des formes bâties’ (PhD thesis in architecture), Paris, ENSA de Paris-Belleville. Google Scholar

CROT, L. (2013), ‘Planning for sustainability in non-democratic polities: the case of Masdar City’, Urban Studies, 50, 2809-25. Google Scholar

CUSSET, J. M. (2005), ‘Expertise étrangère et expertise locale: le cas des villes au Vietnam’, Géocarrefour, 80, 227-35. Google Scholar

DAVIES, A. R. and MULLIN, S. J. (2010), ‘Greening the economy: interrogating sustainability innovations beyond the mainstream’, Journal of Economic Geography, 11, 793-816. Google Scholar

DECOSTER, F. and KLOUCHE, D. (1995), Hanoi, fragments de mutation: Rapport de mission 14 juillet-14 octobre 1994, Dynamiques urbaines, Hanoi Urban Planning Institute. Google Scholar

DE JONG, M., JOSS, S., SCHRAVEN, D., ZHAN, C. and WEIJNEN, M. (2015), ‘Sustainable-smart- resilient-low carbon-eco-knowledge cities: making sense of a multitude of concepts promoting sustainable urbanization’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 109, 25-38. Google Scholar

DOUAY, N. (2015), ‘Vancouverism: hybridisation and spread of an urban model’, Metropolitics.eu/Vancouverism-hybridisation-and.html (accessed 28 March 2020). Google Scholar

DOUSSART, C. (2017), ‘Évaluer les écoquartiers: analyses comparatives internationales’ (PhD thesis in geography and planning), Paris, University Paris Panthéon-Sorbonne. Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (2010), ‘Do planning ideas travel?’, in P. Healey and R. Upton (eds), Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices, New York, Routledge, 313-27. Google Scholar

GOETZ, E. and CLARKE, S. (1993), The New Localism, London, Sage. Google Scholar

GOVINDARAJULU, D. (2014), ‘Urban green space planning for climate adaptation in Indian cities’, Urban Climate, 10, 35-41. Google Scholar

GUET, J.-F. (2011), Ville désirable ou ville durable: quelle place pour les espaces verts?, https://www.metropolitiques.eu/Ville-desirable-ou-ville-durable.html (accessed 28 March 2020). Google Scholar

HAMMAN, P. (2017). ‘Definitions and redefinitions of urban sustainability: a bibliometric approach’, Environnement urbain/Urban Environment, 11, http://journals.openedition.org/eue/1540 (accessed 27 March 2020). Google Scholar

HOGAN, T., BUNNELL, T., POW, C-P., PERMANASARI, E. and MORSHIDI, S. (2012), ‘Asian urbanisms and the privatization of cities’, Cities, 29, 59-63. Google Scholar

HU, M., WADIN, J., LO, H. and HUANG, J. (2016), ‘Transformation toward an eco-city: lessons from three Asian cities’, Journal of Cleaner Production (Advancing Sustainable Solutions: An Interdisciplinary and Collaborative Research Agenda), 123, 77-87. Google Scholar

HUPI (HANOI URBAN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (2011a), ‘Chapter VI: spatial development orientation’, in Hanoi Capital Construction Master Plan to 2030 and Vision to 2050, 239-98. Google Scholar

HUPI (HANOI URBAN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (2011b), ‘Chapter XIV: Urban design’, in Hanoi Capital Construction Master Plan to 2030 and Vision to 2050, 558-72. Google Scholar

HUPI (HANOI URBAN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (2013), Plans locaux de l’aménagement de la ceinture verte et du corridor bleus de la rivière Nhue. Google Scholar

HUPI (HANOI URBAN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (2014), Thuyết minh tổng hợp: Quy hoạch hệ thống cây xanh, công viên, vườn hoa và hồ thành phố Hà Nội đến năm 2030, tầm nhìn đến năm 2050 / Green plan Hanoi 2030-2050, Hanoi Government Planning Department, http://hanoi.org.vn.planning/archives/36/. Google Scholar

INRS (2015), Youth-Friendly Public Spaces in Hanoi, Vietnam-Canada, HealthBridge, https://healthbridge.ca/images/uploads/library/Sach_co_bia_EN_final.pdf. Google Scholar

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (2016), Reducing Emissions from Fossil-Fired Generation: Indonesia, Malaysia and Viet Nam, Paris, International Energy Agency, https://www.iea.org/reports/reducing-emissions-in-fossil-fired-generation-indonesia-malaysia-and-viet-nam. Google Scholar

JACOBS, A. J. (2016), ‘The city as the nexus model: bridging the state, market, societal, and geospatial contexts’, Cities, 51, 84-95. Google Scholar

JICA (JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY), HANOI PEOPLE’S COMMITTEE (2007), The Comprehensive Urban Development Programme in Hanoi Capital City of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (HAIDEP Study Team), 1-77. Google Scholar

JOSS, S. (2011), ‘Eco-cities: the mainstreaming of urban sustainability. Key characteristics and driving factors’, International Journal of Sustainable development and Planning, 6, 268-85. Google Scholar

JOSS, S. and MOLELLA, A. (2013), ‘The eco-city as urban technology: perspectives on Caofedian International Eco-city (China)’, Journal of Urban Technology, 20, 115-37. Google Scholar

KENWORTHY, J. R. (2006), ‘The eco-city: ten key transport and planning dimensions for sustainable city development’, Environment & Urbanization, 18, 67-85. Google Scholar

LABBÉ, D. (2015), ‘Media dissent and peri-urban land struggles in Vietnam: the case of the Van Giang incident’, Critical Asian Studies, 47, 495-513. Google Scholar

LEDUCQ, D. (2019), ‘Référencement international et production urbaine standardisée: Hanoi, des modèles à la déclinaison’, Annales de la recherche urbaine, 113, 36-53. Google Scholar

LEDUCQ, D. and SCARWELL, H.-J. (2018a), ‘The new Hanoi: opportunities and challenges for future urban development’, Cities, 72, 70-81. Google Scholar

LEDUCQ, D. and SCARWELL, H.-J. (2018b), ‘Les villes intelligentes au Vietnam: Entre déploiement national et renforcement métropolitain de Hanoi’, L’espace géographique, 47, 305-22. Google Scholar

LEDUCQ, D., SCARWELL H.-J. and INGALLINA, P. (eds) (2017), Modèles de la ville durable en Asie: Utopies, circulation des pratiques et gouvernance, Brussels, Peter Lang Editions. Google Scholar

LIDSKOG, R. and ELANDER, I. (2012), ‘Ecological modernization in practice? The case of sustainable development in Sweden’, Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, 14, 411-27. Google Scholar

McCANN, E. and WARD, K. (eds) (2011), Mobile Urbanism: Cities and Policymaking in the Global Age, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. Google Scholar

McCANN, E. and WARD, K. (2012), ‘Assembling urbanism: following policies and “studying through” the sites and situations of policy making’, Environment and Planning A, 44, 42-51. Google Scholar

McFARLANE, C. (2011), Learning the City: Knowledge and Translocal Assemblage, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell. Google Scholar

MERSAL, A. (2017), ‘Eco city challenge and opportunities in transferring a city into green city’, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 37, 22-33. Google Scholar

NAM, T. H. H., KUBOTA, T. and TRIHAMDANI, A. R. (2015), ‘Effect of green strategy proposed in the Hanoi Master Plan on its urban climate’, International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 2, 48-61. Google Scholar

NGUYEN, H. L., DUAN, J. and HUA, J. (2018), ‘State control versus hybrid land markets: planning and urban development in transitional Hanoi, Vietnam’, Sustainability, 10, doi: 10.3390/su10092993. Google Scholar

NGUYEN, L. (1998), ‘Esquisse de la politique de modernisation et de développement urbain à Hanoi et Ho Chi Minh Ville (1986-1996)’ (doctoral thesis in urbanism and accommodation), Paris, University Paris 8, Institut Français d’Urbanisme. Google Scholar

NGUYEN, T. H. T., TRAN, V. T., BUI, Q. T., MAN, Q. H. and DE VRIES WALTER, T. (2016), ‘Socioeconomic effects of agricultural land conversion for urban development: case study of Hanoi, Vietnam’, Land Use Policy, 54, 583-92. Google Scholar

PANDOLFI, L. (2001), ‘Une terre sans prix: Réformes foncières et urbanisation au Vietnam’ (PhD thesis on urbanism), Paris, University Paris 8. Google Scholar

PECK, J. and THEODORE, N. (2010), ‘Mobilizing policy: models, methods and mutations,’ Geoforum, 41, 169-74. Google Scholar

PEDELAHORE DE LODDIS, C., PHOND, D., SCHUTTE, H. and OTA, S. (2004), ‘Hanoi, entre urbanisme duel et urbanisme dialogique: formes d’opposition et formes de conciliation des acteurs de l’urbain’, in Recherches, Synthèse des résultats PRUD 2002-2003, Synthèse des résultats, document de travail provisoire, 43-50. Google Scholar

RAPOPORT, E. (2014a), ‘Mobilising sustainable urbanism: international consultants and the assembling of a planning model’ (PhD thesis), London, University College London, Department of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Public Policy. Google Scholar

RAPOPORT, E. (2014b), ‘Utopian visions and real estate dreams: the eco-city past, present and future’, Geography Compass, 8, 137-49. Google Scholar

ROY, A. and ONG, A. (2011), Worlding Cities: Asian Experiments and the Art of Being Global, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell. Google Scholar

RUDOLF, F. (2008), ‘Les glissements de sens de l’écologie dans ses associations avec la ville: écologie urbaine, ville écologique et ville durable’, in P. Hamman, Penser le développement durable urbain: Regards croisés, Paris, L’Harmattan, 47-68. Google Scholar

SASSEN, S. (2006), Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages, Princeton, Princeton University Press. Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D. (2010), The Role of Cities in Sustainable Development, Boston, Boston University Press. Google Scholar

SCARWELL, H-J. and LEDUCQ, D. (2018), ‘Ville verte et nouvelles tendances de la production urbaine au Vietnam’, Revue international d’urbanisme, in D. Leducq, A. Bourdin, C. Demazière and C. Orillard (eds), “Circulation des modèles, méthodes et références en urbanisme: processus d’apprentissage et acteurs”, n°6, http://www.riurba.review/Revue/ville-verte-et-nouvelles-tendances-de-la-production-urbaine-au-vietnam/. Google Scholar

SCARWELL, H. LEDUCQ, D. and TRAN DINH, D. (2015), ‘Hanoi, une ville vietnamienne en transition urbaine vers le développement durable’, in I. Hajek, P. Hamman and J.-P. Lévy (eds), Villes du nord, villes du sud: La durabilité, entre prêt à penser et opérationnalité, Lille, Presses universitaires du Septentrion, 33-58. Google Scholar

SCOTT, A. J. and STORPER, M. (2003), ‘Regions, globalization, development’, Regional Studies, 37, 579-93. Google Scholar

SHARIFI, A. (2016), ‘From garden city to eco-urbanism: the quest for sustainable neighborhood development’, Sustainable Cities and Society, 20, 1-16. Google Scholar

SIEMENS ECONOMIST INTELLIGENCE UNIT (2011), Asian Green City Index: Assessing the Environmental Performance of Asia’s Major Cities, http://sg.siemens.com/city_of_the_future/_docs/Asian-Green-City-Index.pdf. Google Scholar

SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM (2012), Vietnam Green Growth Strategy for the Period 2011-2020. Decision No. 1393/QDTTg dated 25 September 2012 on the approval of the National Green Growth Strategy of Vietnam. Google Scholar

SÖDERSTRÖM, O. (2013), ‘What traveling urban types do: postcolonial modernization in two globalizing cities’, in O. Söderström, D. Ruedin, S. Randeria, G. D’Amato and F. Panese (eds), Critical Mobilities, London, Routledge, 29-57. Google Scholar

SÖDERSTRÖM, O. and GEERTMAN, S. (2013), ‘Loose threads: the making of public space policy in Hanoi’, Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 34, 244-60. Google Scholar

SUSTAINIA, C40 (2015), 100 Cities: 100 Solutions for Climate Action in Cities, https://issuu.com/sustainia/docs/sustainia100_2015. Google Scholar

SWYNGEDOUW, E. (2010), ‘Apocalypse forever? Post-political populism and the spectre of climate change’, Theory, Culture & Society, 27, 213-32. Google Scholar

SZE, J. and GREENBERG, M. (2015), Critical Sustainabilities: Competing Discourses of Urban Development in California, https://critical-sustainabilities.ucsc.edu/ (accessed 27 March 2020). Google Scholar

TAN PENG, T. (2012), ‘Urban green spaces and liveability in Southeast Asia’, in Y. K. Sheng and M. Thuzar, Urbanization in Southeast Asia, Singapore, ISEAS Publishing, 262-76. Google Scholar

THEYS, J. (1993), L’environnement à la recherche d’une définition: Derrière une définition introuvable, trois conceptions irréductibles de l’environnement, Note de Méthode n°1, Institut français de l’environnement. Google Scholar

TRAN DINH, D. (2015), ‘La planification urbaine à l’épreuve du développement durable: appropriation du modèle ou génération de formes singulières ? Cas de Hanoi (Vietnam)’ (PhD thesis in urbanism and planning), Lille, University of Lille 1 Sciences and Technologies. Google Scholar

UNEP (UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME) (2015), Multiple Pathways to Sustainable Development: Initial Findings from the Global South, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/1986MultiplePathwaysSustainableDevelopment.pdf. Google Scholar

UY, P. D. and NAKAGOSHI, N. (2008), ‘Application of land suitability analysis and landscape ecology to urban greenspace planning in Hanoi, Vietnam’, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 7, 25-40. Google Scholar

VIAP (VIETNAM INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE, URBAN AND RURAL PLANNING) - MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION (2009), The Hanoi Construction Master Plan 2030 Vision 2050. Google Scholar

WARD, K. (2010), ‘Transnational planners in a postcolonial world’, in P. Healey and R. Upton (eds), Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices, New York, Routledge, 47-72. Google Scholar

ZHUANG, Y. (2015), ‘Confucian ecological vision and the Chinese eco-city’, Cities, 45, 142-47. Google Scholar

ZUKIN, S., KASINITZ, P. H. and CHEN, X. (2015), Global Cities, Local Streets: Everyday Diversity from New York to Shanghai, New York, Routledge. Google Scholar

ADB (ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK) (2012a) Going Green: Why Asia Is Moving toward a Green Model of Economic Growth (Asia Development Series), https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/29633/devasia12.pdf. Google Scholar

ADB (ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK) (2012b) Green Cities (Urban Development Series), https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/30059/green-cities.pdf. Google Scholar

AHERN, J. (2013), ‘Urban landscape sustainability and resilience: the promise and challenges of integrating ecology with urban planning and design’, Landscape Ecology, C, 1203–12. Google Scholar

ALBRECHTS, L. (2004), ‘Strategic (spatial) planning re-examined’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 31, 743–58. Google Scholar

ALLEN, J. and COCHRANE, A. (2007), ‘Beyond the territorial fix: regional assemblages, politics and power’, Regional studies, 41, 1161–75. Google Scholar

AMBASSADE DE FRANCE AU VIETNAM, SERVICE ECONOMIQUE (2018), Économie de Hanoi, https://www.tresor.economie.gouv.fr/Pays/VN. Google Scholar

AMIN, A. and GRAHAM, S. (1997), ‘The ordinary city’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 4, 411–29. Google Scholar

ANDERSSON, I. (2016), ‘Green cities going greener? Local environmental policymaking and place branding in the “Greenest City in Europe”’, European Planning Studies, 24, 1197–215. Google Scholar

ANGELIDOU, M. (2014), ‘Smart city policies: a spatial approach’, Cities, 41, 3–11. Google Scholar

BAI, X. and HIDEFUMI, I. (2000), ‘A comparative study of urban environment in East Asia: stage model of urban environmental evolution’, International Review for Environmental Strategies, 1, 135–58. Google Scholar

BAYE, E. and CUSSET, J.-M. (2004), Les consultants internationaux et leurs rapports à l’ingénierie locale dans les infrastructures urbaines au Vietnam, rapport de recherche PRUD, January. Google Scholar

BEATLEY, T. (2000), Green Urbanism: Learning from European Cities, Washington, DC, Island Press. Google Scholar

BOURDIN, A. and IDT, J. (2016), L’urbanisme des modèles: Références, benchmarking et bonnes pratiques, La Tour d’Aigues, L’Aube. Google Scholar

BUI, T. U. (2012), ‘L’intégration du développement durable dans les projets de quartier: le cas de la ville de Hanoi’ (PhD thesis in architecture), Toulouse, University of Toulouse. Google Scholar

BULKELEY, H. (2005), ‘Reconfiguring environmental governance: towards a politics of scales and networks’, Political Geography, 24, 875–902. Google Scholar

CAPROTTI, F. (2014), ‘Critical research on eco-cities? A walk through the Sino-Singapore Tianjin eco-city, China’, Cities, 36, 10–17. Google Scholar

CERISE, E. (2009), ‘Fabrication de la ville de Hanoi: entre planification et pratiques habitantes: Conception, production et réception des formes bâties’ (PhD thesis in architecture), Paris, ENSA de Paris-Belleville. Google Scholar

CROT, L. (2013), ‘Planning for sustainability in non-democratic polities: the case of Masdar City’, Urban Studies, 50, 2809–25. Google Scholar

CUSSET, J. M. (2005), ‘Expertise étrangère et expertise locale: le cas des villes au Vietnam’, Géocarrefour, 80, 227–35. Google Scholar

DAVIES, A. R. and MULLIN, S. J. (2010), ‘Greening the economy: interrogating sustainability innovations beyond the mainstream’, Journal of Economic Geography, 11, 793–816. Google Scholar

DECOSTER, F. and KLOUCHE, D. (1995), Hanoi, fragments de mutation: Rapport de mission 14 juillet–14 octobre 1994, Dynamiques urbaines, Hanoi Urban Planning Institute. Google Scholar

DE JONG, M., JOSS, S., SCHRAVEN, D., ZHAN, C. and WEIJNEN, M. (2015), ‘Sustainable–smart– resilient–low carbon–eco–knowledge cities: making sense of a multitude of concepts promoting sustainable urbanization’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 109, 25–38. Google Scholar

DOUAY, N. (2015), ‘Vancouverism: hybridisation and spread of an urban model’, Metropolitics.eu/Vancouverism-hybridisation-and.html (accessed 28 March 2020). Google Scholar

DOUSSART, C. (2017), ‘Évaluer les écoquartiers: analyses comparatives internationales’ (PhD thesis in geography and planning), Paris, University Paris Panthéon-Sorbonne. Google Scholar

FRIEDMANN, J. (2010), ‘Do planning ideas travel?’, in P. Healey and R. Upton (eds), Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices, New York, Routledge, 313–27. Google Scholar

GOETZ, E. and CLARKE, S. (1993), The New Localism, London, Sage. Google Scholar

GOVINDARAJULU, D. (2014), ‘Urban green space planning for climate adaptation in Indian cities’, Urban Climate, 10, 35–41. Google Scholar

GUET, J.-F. (2011), Ville désirable ou ville durable: quelle place pour les espaces verts?, https://www.metropolitiques.eu/Ville-desirable-ou-ville-durable.html (accessed 28 March 2020). Google Scholar

HAMMAN, P. (2017). ‘Definitions and redefinitions of urban sustainability: a bibliometric approach’, Environnement urbain/Urban Environment, 11, http://journals.openedition.org/eue/1540 (accessed 27 March 2020). Google Scholar

HOGAN, T., BUNNELL, T., POW, C-P., PERMANASARI, E. and MORSHIDI, S. (2012), ‘Asian urbanisms and the privatization of cities’, Cities, 29, 59–63. Google Scholar

HU, M., WADIN, J., LO, H. and HUANG, J. (2016), ‘Transformation toward an eco-city: lessons from three Asian cities’, Journal of Cleaner Production (Advancing Sustainable Solutions: An Interdisciplinary and Collaborative Research Agenda), 123, 77–87. Google Scholar

HUPI (HANOI URBAN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (2011a), ‘Chapter VI: spatial development orientation’, in Hanoi Capital Construction Master Plan to 2030 and Vision to 2050, 239–98. Google Scholar

HUPI (HANOI URBAN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (2011b), ‘Chapter XIV: Urban design’, in Hanoi Capital Construction Master Plan to 2030 and Vision to 2050, 558–72. Google Scholar

HUPI (HANOI URBAN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (2013), Plans locaux de l’aménagement de la ceinture verte et du corridor bleus de la rivière Nhue. Google Scholar

HUPI (HANOI URBAN PLANNING INSTITUTE) (2014), Thuyết minh tổng hợp: Quy hoạch hệ thống cây xanh, công viên, vườn hoa và hồ thành phố Hà Nội đến năm 2030, tầm nhìn đến năm 2050 / Green plan Hanoi 2030–2050, Hanoi Government Planning Department, http://hanoi.org.vn.planning/archives/36/. Google Scholar

INRS (2015), Youth-Friendly Public Spaces in Hanoi, Vietnam–Canada, HealthBridge, https://healthbridge.ca/images/uploads/library/Sach_co_bia_EN_final.pdf. Google Scholar

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (2016), Reducing Emissions from Fossil-Fired Generation: Indonesia, Malaysia and Viet Nam, Paris, International Energy Agency, https://www.iea.org/reports/reducing-emissions-in-fossil-fired-generation-indonesia-malaysia-and-viet-nam. Google Scholar

JACOBS, A. J. (2016), ‘The city as the nexus model: bridging the state, market, societal, and geospatial contexts’, Cities, 51, 84–95. Google Scholar

JICA (JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY), HANOI PEOPLE’S COMMITTEE (2007), The Comprehensive Urban Development Programme in Hanoi Capital City of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (HAIDEP Study Team), 1–77. Google Scholar

JOSS, S. (2011), ‘Eco-cities: the mainstreaming of urban sustainability. Key characteristics and driving factors’, International Journal of Sustainable development and Planning, 6, 268–85. Google Scholar

JOSS, S. and MOLELLA, A. (2013), ‘The eco-city as urban technology: perspectives on Caofedian International Eco-city (China)’, Journal of Urban Technology, 20, 115–37. Google Scholar

KENWORTHY, J. R. (2006), ‘The eco-city: ten key transport and planning dimensions for sustainable city development’, Environment & Urbanization, 18, 67–85. Google Scholar

LABBÉ, D. (2015), ‘Media dissent and peri-urban land struggles in Vietnam: the case of the Van Giang incident’, Critical Asian Studies, 47, 495–513. Google Scholar

LEDUCQ, D. (2019), ‘Référencement international et production urbaine standardisée: Hanoi, des modèles à la déclinaison’, Annales de la recherche urbaine, 113, 36–53. Google Scholar

LEDUCQ, D. and SCARWELL, H.-J. (2018a), ‘The new Hanoi: opportunities and challenges for future urban development’, Cities, 72, 70–81. Google Scholar

LEDUCQ, D. and SCARWELL, H.-J. (2018b), ‘Les villes intelligentes au Vietnam: Entre déploiement national et renforcement métropolitain de Hanoi’, L’espace géographique, 47, 305–22. Google Scholar

LEDUCQ, D., SCARWELL H.-J. and INGALLINA, P. (eds) (2017), Modèles de la ville durable en Asie: Utopies, circulation des pratiques et gouvernance, Brussels, Peter Lang Editions. Google Scholar

LIDSKOG, R. and ELANDER, I. (2012), ‘Ecological modernization in practice? The case of sustainable development in Sweden’, Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, 14, 411–27. Google Scholar

McCANN, E. and WARD, K. (eds) (2011), Mobile Urbanism: Cities and Policymaking in the Global Age, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. Google Scholar

McCANN, E. and WARD, K. (2012), ‘Assembling urbanism: following policies and “studying through” the sites and situations of policy making’, Environment and Planning A, 44, 42–51. Google Scholar

McFARLANE, C. (2011), Learning the City: Knowledge and Translocal Assemblage, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell. Google Scholar

MERSAL, A. (2017), ‘Eco city challenge and opportunities in transferring a city into green city’, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 37, 22–33. Google Scholar

NAM, T. H. H., KUBOTA, T. and TRIHAMDANI, A. R. (2015), ‘Effect of green strategy proposed in the Hanoi Master Plan on its urban climate’, International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability, 2, 48–61. Google Scholar

NGUYEN, H. L., DUAN, J. and HUA, J. (2018), ‘State control versus hybrid land markets: planning and urban development in transitional Hanoi, Vietnam’, Sustainability, 10, doi: 10.3390/su10092993. Google Scholar

NGUYEN, L. (1998), ‘Esquisse de la politique de modernisation et de développement urbain à Hanoi et Ho Chi Minh Ville (1986–1996)’ (doctoral thesis in urbanism and accommodation), Paris, University Paris 8, Institut Français d’Urbanisme. Google Scholar

NGUYEN, T. H. T., TRAN, V. T., BUI, Q. T., MAN, Q. H. and DE VRIES WALTER, T. (2016), ‘Socioeconomic effects of agricultural land conversion for urban development: case study of Hanoi, Vietnam’, Land Use Policy, 54, 583–92. Google Scholar

PANDOLFI, L. (2001), ‘Une terre sans prix: Réformes foncières et urbanisation au Vietnam’ (PhD thesis on urbanism), Paris, University Paris 8. Google Scholar

PECK, J. and THEODORE, N. (2010), ‘Mobilizing policy: models, methods and mutations,’ Geoforum, 41, 169–74. Google Scholar

PEDELAHORE DE LODDIS, C., PHOND, D., SCHUTTE, H. and OTA, S. (2004), ‘Hanoi, entre urbanisme duel et urbanisme dialogique: formes d’opposition et formes de conciliation des acteurs de l’urbain’, in Recherches, Synthèse des résultats PRUD 2002–2003, Synthèse des résultats, document de travail provisoire, 43–50. Google Scholar

RAPOPORT, E. (2014a), ‘Mobilising sustainable urbanism: international consultants and the assembling of a planning model’ (PhD thesis), London, University College London, Department of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Public Policy. Google Scholar

RAPOPORT, E. (2014b), ‘Utopian visions and real estate dreams: the eco-city past, present and future’, Geography Compass, 8, 137–49. Google Scholar

ROY, A. and ONG, A. (2011), Worlding Cities: Asian Experiments and the Art of Being Global, Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell. Google Scholar

RUDOLF, F. (2008), ‘Les glissements de sens de l’écologie dans ses associations avec la ville: écologie urbaine, ville écologique et ville durable’, in P. Hamman, Penser le développement durable urbain: Regards croisés, Paris, L’Harmattan, 47–68. Google Scholar

SASSEN, S. (2006), Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages, Princeton, Princeton University Press. Google Scholar

SATTERTHWAITE, D. (2010), The Role of Cities in Sustainable Development, Boston, Boston University Press. Google Scholar

SCARWELL, H-J. and LEDUCQ, D. (2018), ‘Ville verte et nouvelles tendances de la production urbaine au Vietnam’, Revue international d’urbanisme, in D. Leducq, A. Bourdin, C. Demazière and C. Orillard (eds), “Circulation des modèles, méthodes et références en urbanisme: processus d’apprentissage et acteurs”, n°6, http://www.riurba.review/Revue/ville-verte-et-nouvelles-tendances-de-la-production-urbaine-au-vietnam/. Google Scholar

SCARWELL, H. LEDUCQ, D. and TRAN DINH, D. (2015), ‘Hanoi, une ville vietnamienne en transition urbaine vers le développement durable’, in I. Hajek, P. Hamman and J.-P. Lévy (eds), Villes du nord, villes du sud: La durabilité, entre prêt à penser et opérationnalité, Lille, Presses universitaires du Septentrion, 33–58. Google Scholar

SCOTT, A. J. and STORPER, M. (2003), ‘Regions, globalization, development’, Regional Studies, 37, 579–93. Google Scholar

SHARIFI, A. (2016), ‘From garden city to eco-urbanism: the quest for sustainable neighborhood development’, Sustainable Cities and Society, 20, 1–16. Google Scholar

SIEMENS ECONOMIST INTELLIGENCE UNIT (2011), Asian Green City Index: Assessing the Environmental Performance of Asia’s Major Cities, http://sg.siemens.com/city_of_the_future/_docs/Asian-Green-City-Index.pdf. Google Scholar

SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM (2012), Vietnam Green Growth Strategy for the Period 2011–2020. Decision No. 1393/QDTTg dated 25 September 2012 on the approval of the National Green Growth Strategy of Vietnam. Google Scholar

SÖDERSTRÖM, O. (2013), ‘What traveling urban types do: postcolonial modernization in two globalizing cities’, in O. Söderström, D. Ruedin, S. Randeria, G. D’Amato and F. Panese (eds), Critical Mobilities, London, Routledge, 29–57. Google Scholar

SÖDERSTRÖM, O. and GEERTMAN, S. (2013), ‘Loose threads: the making of public space policy in Hanoi’, Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 34, 244–60. Google Scholar

SUSTAINIA, C40 (2015), 100 Cities: 100 Solutions for Climate Action in Cities, https://issuu.com/sustainia/docs/sustainia100_2015. Google Scholar

SWYNGEDOUW, E. (2010), ‘Apocalypse forever? Post-political populism and the spectre of climate change’, Theory, Culture & Society, 27, 213–32. Google Scholar

SZE, J. and GREENBERG, M. (2015), Critical Sustainabilities: Competing Discourses of Urban Development in California, https://critical-sustainabilities.ucsc.edu/ (accessed 27 March 2020). Google Scholar

TAN PENG, T. (2012), ‘Urban green spaces and liveability in Southeast Asia’, in Y. K. Sheng and M. Thuzar, Urbanization in Southeast Asia, Singapore, ISEAS Publishing, 262–76. Google Scholar

THEYS, J. (1993), L’environnement à la recherche d’une définition: Derrière une définition introuvable, trois conceptions irréductibles de l’environnement, Note de Méthode n°1, Institut français de l’environnement. Google Scholar

TRAN DINH, D. (2015), ‘La planification urbaine à l’épreuve du développement durable: appropriation du modèle ou génération de formes singulières ? Cas de Hanoi (Vietnam)’ (PhD thesis in urbanism and planning), Lille, University of Lille 1 Sciences and Technologies. Google Scholar

UNEP (UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME) (2015), Multiple Pathways to Sustainable Development: Initial Findings from the Global South, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/1986MultiplePathwaysSustainableDevelopment.pdf. Google Scholar

UY, P. D. and NAKAGOSHI, N. (2008), ‘Application of land suitability analysis and landscape ecology to urban greenspace planning in Hanoi, Vietnam’, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 7, 25–40. Google Scholar

VIAP (VIETNAM INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE, URBAN AND RURAL PLANNING) – MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION (2009), The Hanoi Construction Master Plan 2030 Vision 2050. Google Scholar

WARD, K. (2010), ‘Transnational planners in a postcolonial world’, in P. Healey and R. Upton (eds), Crossing Borders: International Exchange and Planning Practices, New York, Routledge, 47–72. Google Scholar

ZHUANG, Y. (2015), ‘Confucian ecological vision and the Chinese eco-city’, Cities, 45, 142–47. Google Scholar

ZUKIN, S., KASINITZ, P. H. and CHEN, X. (2015), Global Cities, Local Streets: Everyday Diversity from New York to Shanghai, New York, Routledge. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Leducq, Divya

Scarwell, Helga-Jane

Leducq, Divya

Scarwell, Helga-Jane