Journal of Romance Studies

Not knowing and the problematics of naming eating disorders

OSFED/EDNOS/TCA-NS and Annie Ernaux’s Mémoire de fille [A Girl’s Story]

Journal of Romance Studies (2020), 20, (2), 273–298.

Abstract

Mémoire de fille (2016) [A Girl’s Story (2020)] describes acting on a fifty-years-repressed imperative to write about Annie Ernaux’s first traumatic sexual encounters and their ramifications, including disordered eating, initially misnamed pica, then, later, bulimia. Instead, the behaviours described correspond to problematic medical categorizations for ‘a-typical’ heterogeneous eating disorders, which albeit little known, account for up to 50 per cent of diagnoses and are the most prevalent (including ‘other specified feeding and eating disorder’ (OSFED); ‘eating disorder not otherwise specified’ (EDNOS); and ‘troubles des comportements/conduites alimentaires, non spécifiés/non spécifiques’ (TCA-NS)). The examination of Ernaux’s exploration of not knowing; her bringing into question of the possibilities of (self-)knowledge and of articulating traumatic experiences; and her emphasis on disordered eating and its naming elucidates how discourses of knowledge (patriarchal, medical, religious, philosophical, and consumerist) control knowledge about, and may contribute to, disordered eating. The potential is raised of the contribution of the literary to interdisciplinary debates challenging the not knowing of eating disorders (particularly OSFED/EDNOS/TCA-NS).

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Works cited

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American Psychiatric Association (APA) (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing). Google Scholar

American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2013) ‘Feeding and Eating Disorders’, in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), https://dsm.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm10 (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

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Anderson, Leslie K., and Stuart B. Murray (2015) ‘Deconstructing “atypical” eating disorders: An overview of emerging eating disorder phenotypes’, Current Psychiatry Reports 17.86, doi: 10.1007/s11920-015-0624-7. Google Scholar

Bagley, Petra M., Francesca Calamita, and Kathryn Robson (eds) (2017) Starvation, Food Obsession and Identity: Eating Disorders in Contemporary Women’s Writing (London: Peter Lang). Google Scholar

Barhill, John W. (ed.) (2014) DSM-5 Clinical Cases (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing). Google Scholar

Barthes, Roland (1957) Mythologies (Paris: Seuil). Google Scholar

Baudry, Marie (2017) ‘Corps et mémoire 1’, L’Homme et la société 203–204: 233–247. Google Scholar

Beat (2017) ‘Statistics for journalists’, https://www.beateatingdisorders.org.uk/media-centre/eating-disorder-statistics (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Beauvoir, Simone de (1949) Le Deuxième Sexe Tome I: Les faits et les mythes; Tome II: L’expérience vécue (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Beauvoir, Simone de (1958) Mémoires d’une jeune fille rangée (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Blanchard, Sandrine (2016) ‘Annie Ernaux: “Je ne pensais qu’à désobéir”’, Le Monde, https://www.lemonde.fr/culture/article/2016/04/03/annie-ernaux-je-ne-pensais-qu-a-desobeir_4894664_3246.html (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

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Bourdieu, Pierre (1970) La Reproduction: Éléments pour une théorie du système d’enseignement (Paris: Minuit). Google Scholar

Bourdieu, Pierre (1979) La Distinction: Une Critique sociale du jugement (Paris: Minuit). Google Scholar

Bourdieu, Pierre, and Jean-Claude Passeron (1964) Les Héritiers: Les Etudiants et la culture (Paris: Minuit). Google Scholar

Brewerton, Timothy (2008) ‘The links between PTSD and eating disorders’, Psychiatric Times 25.6: 1–7. Google Scholar

Cruickshank, Ruth (2019) Leftovers: Eating, Drinking and Re-thinking with Case Studies from Post-war French Fiction (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press). Google Scholar

Dahlgren Lindvall, Camilla, Line Wisting, and Øyvind Rø (2017) ‘Feeding and eating disorders in the DSM-5 Era: A systematic review of prevalence rates in non-clinical male and female samples’, Journal of Eating Disorders 5.56, doi: 10.1186/s40337-017-0186-7. Google Scholar

Devarrieux, Claire (2016) ‘Annie Ernaux: “L’écriture, une aventure de l’être”’, Libération, http://next.liberation.fr/livres/2016/04/01/l-ecriture-une-aventure-de-l-etre-rencontre-avec-annie-ernaux_1443408 (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1974) Les Armoires vides (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1977) Ce qu’ils disent ou rien (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1983) La Place (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1990) Cleaned Out, trans. Carol Sanders (Normal IL: Dalkey Archive Press). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1994) ‘Vers un je transpersonnel’, in Autofictions & Cie, Cahiers RITM 6 (Paris: Université Paris X), 218–221. Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1997a) La Honte (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1997b) Je ne suis pas sortie de ma nuit (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1998) Shame, trans. Tanya Leslie (New York: Seven Stories Press). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1999) I Remain in Darkness, trans. Tanya Leslie (New York: Seven Stories Press). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (2001) Se perdre (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (2008) Les Années (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (2010) ‘La Preuve par corps’, in Bourdieu et la littérature, ed. Jean-Pierre Martin (Nantes: Cécile Defaut), 25–26. Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (2011) L’Atelier noir (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (2016) Mémoire de fille (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (2017) The Years, trans. Alison L. Strayer (New York: Seven Stories Press). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (2020) A Girl’s Story, trans. Alison L. Strayer (London: Fitzcarraldo). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie, and Michelle Porte (2014) Le Vrai Lieu: Entretiens avec Michelle Porte (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie, and Karin Schwerdtner (2017) ‘Autour des lettres: Entretien avec Annie Ernaux’, Épistolaire 43: 137–149. Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie, and Pierre Bras (2017) ‘“La littérature, c’est la mise en forme d’un désir”: Entretien avec Annie Ernaux’, Journal des anthropologues 148–149, https://www.cairn.info/revue-journal-des-anthropologues-2017-1-page-93.htm (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie, and Dominique Viart (2019) ‘Repas de famille. Entretien avec Annie Ernaux’, Elfe 20–21, http://journals.openedition.org/elfe/481 (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

La Fédération Française Anorexie Boulimie (FFAB) (2012) ‘Qu’est-ce qu’un TCA? FAQ’, www.anorexieboulimie-afdas.fr/accueil/qu-est-ce-qu-un-tca (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel (1963) Naissance de la Clinique: Une archéologie du regard médical (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France). Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel (1969) L’Archéologie du savoir (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel (1971) L’Ordre du discours (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel (1976) Histoire de la sexualité 1: La volonté de savoir (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) (2015) ‘Boulimie et hyperphagie boulimique: Repérage et éléments généraux de prise en charge’, https://www.has-sante.fr/upload/docs/application/pdf/2015-12/rbp—cadrage—boulimie—mel.pdf (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Hugueny-Léger, Elise (2018) ‘État présent: Annie Ernaux’, French Studies 72.2: 256–269, doi:10.1093/fs/kny014. Google Scholar

Jordan, Shirley (2019) ‘Overstepping the boundaries: Sexual awakening, trauma and writing in Annie Ernaux’s Mémoire de fille and Christine Angot’s Une semaine de vacances’, in Sexual Textual Boundaries: Women Writing Sexual Encounters in French, L’Esprit Créateur 59.2: 5–18. Google Scholar

Kawakami, Akane (2019) ‘Time travelling in Ernaux’s Mémoire de fille’, French Studies 73.2: 253–265, doi: 10.1093/fs/knz012. Google Scholar

Keel, Pamela, Tiffany Brown, Jill Holm-Denoma, and Lindsay Bodell (2011) ‘Comparison of DSM-IV versus proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for eating disorders: Reduction of eating disorder not otherwise specified and validity’, International Journal of Eating Disorders 44.6: 553–560, doi:10.1002/eat.20892. Google Scholar

Lacan, Jacques (1973) Séminaire: Les quatre concepts fondamentaux de la psychanalyse (Pairs: Seuil). Google Scholar

Lacan, Jacques (1996) Écrits (Paris: Seuil). Google Scholar

Leyris, Raphaëlle (2016) ‘Annie Ernaux, “fille de rien”, grand écrivain’, https://www.lemonde.fr/livres/article/2016/03/30/fille-de-rien-grand-ecrivain_4892076_3260.html (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Machado, Paulo, Sonia Gonçalves, and Hans Hoek (2013) ‘DSM-5 reduces the proportion of EDNOS cases: Evidence from community samples’, International Journal of Eating Disorders 46.1: 60–65, doi:10.1002/eat.22040. Google Scholar

McIlvanney, Siobhan (2001) Annie Ernaux: The Return to Origins (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press). Google Scholar

NICE (2017) ‘Eating disorders: Recognition and treatment [NG69]’, https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng69/chapter/Recommendations#identification-and-assessment (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) (2008) ‘Classification statistique internationale des maladies et des problèmes de santé connexes (CMI-10)’, http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/Content/statichtml/ICD10Volume2_fr_2008.pdf (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Russell, Gerald (1979) ‘Bulimia nervosa: An ominous variant of anorexia nervosa’, Psychological Medicine 9.3: 429–448, doi: 10.1017/S0033291700031974. Google Scholar

Schwerdtner, Karin (2018) ‘Mémoire de fille, ou comment écrire (avec la voix de) “cette fille”’, Contemporary French and Francophone Studies 22.5: 597–604, doi: 10.1080/17409292.2018.1609184. Google Scholar

Thomas, Jennifer, Lenny Vartanian, and Kelly Brownell (2009) ‘The relationship between Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) and officially recognized eating disorders: Meta-analysis and implications for DSM’, Psychological Bulletin 135.3: 407–433, doi:10.1037/a0015326. Google Scholar

Thompson, Hannah (2017) ‘Etat présent: French and Francophone Disability Studies’, French Studies 71.2: 243–245, doi: 10.1093/fs/knx019. Google Scholar

Thumerel, Fabrice (ed.) (2004) Annie Ernaux: une œuvre de l’entre-deux (Arras: Artois Presses Université). Google Scholar

World Health Organisation (WHO) (2016) ‘International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10)’, http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2016/en (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

AESP, CNUP, CUNEA (2016) Référentiel de Psychiatrie et Addictologie (Tours: Presses universitaires François Rabelais), https://www.univ-tours.fr/recherche/publication-et-diffusion/actualites-des-publications/referentiel-de-psychiatrie-et-d-addictologie-540132.kjsp (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

American Psychiatric Association (APA) (1980) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing). Google Scholar

American Psychiatric Association (APA) (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing). Google Scholar

American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2013) ‘Feeding and Eating Disorders’, in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), https://dsm.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm10 (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2015) DSM-5 – Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, trans. Marc-Antoine Crocq, Julien-Daniel Guelfi, Patrice Boyer, Charles-Bernard Pull, and Marie-Claire Pull (Paris: Elsevier Masson). Google Scholar

Anderson, Leslie K., and Stuart B. Murray (2015) ‘Deconstructing “atypical” eating disorders: An overview of emerging eating disorder phenotypes’, Current Psychiatry Reports 17.86, doi: 10.1007/s11920-015-0624-7. Google Scholar

Bagley, Petra M., Francesca Calamita, and Kathryn Robson (eds) (2017) Starvation, Food Obsession and Identity: Eating Disorders in Contemporary Women’s Writing (London: Peter Lang). Google Scholar

Barhill, John W. (ed.) (2014) DSM-5 Clinical Cases (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing). Google Scholar

Barthes, Roland (1957) Mythologies (Paris: Seuil). Google Scholar

Baudry, Marie (2017) ‘Corps et mémoire 1’, L’Homme et la société 203–204: 233–247. Google Scholar

Beat (2017) ‘Statistics for journalists’, https://www.beateatingdisorders.org.uk/media-centre/eating-disorder-statistics (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Beauvoir, Simone de (1949) Le Deuxième Sexe Tome I: Les faits et les mythes; Tome II: L’expérience vécue (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Beauvoir, Simone de (1958) Mémoires d’une jeune fille rangée (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Blanchard, Sandrine (2016) ‘Annie Ernaux: “Je ne pensais qu’à désobéir”’, Le Monde, https://www.lemonde.fr/culture/article/2016/04/03/annie-ernaux-je-ne-pensais-qu-a-desobeir_4894664_3246.html (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Bordo, Susan (2003 [1993]) Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture and the Body (Berkeley and London: University of California Press). Google Scholar

Bourdieu, Pierre (1970) La Reproduction: Éléments pour une théorie du système d’enseignement (Paris: Minuit). Google Scholar

Bourdieu, Pierre (1979) La Distinction: Une Critique sociale du jugement (Paris: Minuit). Google Scholar

Bourdieu, Pierre, and Jean-Claude Passeron (1964) Les Héritiers: Les Etudiants et la culture (Paris: Minuit). Google Scholar

Brewerton, Timothy (2008) ‘The links between PTSD and eating disorders’, Psychiatric Times 25.6: 1–7. Google Scholar

Cruickshank, Ruth (2019) Leftovers: Eating, Drinking and Re-thinking with Case Studies from Post-war French Fiction (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press). Google Scholar

Dahlgren Lindvall, Camilla, Line Wisting, and Øyvind Rø (2017) ‘Feeding and eating disorders in the DSM-5 Era: A systematic review of prevalence rates in non-clinical male and female samples’, Journal of Eating Disorders 5.56, doi: 10.1186/s40337-017-0186-7. Google Scholar

Devarrieux, Claire (2016) ‘Annie Ernaux: “L’écriture, une aventure de l’être”’, Libération, http://next.liberation.fr/livres/2016/04/01/l-ecriture-une-aventure-de-l-etre-rencontre-avec-annie-ernaux_1443408 (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1974) Les Armoires vides (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1977) Ce qu’ils disent ou rien (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1983) La Place (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1990) Cleaned Out, trans. Carol Sanders (Normal IL: Dalkey Archive Press). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1994) ‘Vers un je transpersonnel’, in Autofictions & Cie, Cahiers RITM 6 (Paris: Université Paris X), 218–221. Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1997a) La Honte (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1997b) Je ne suis pas sortie de ma nuit (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1998) Shame, trans. Tanya Leslie (New York: Seven Stories Press). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (1999) I Remain in Darkness, trans. Tanya Leslie (New York: Seven Stories Press). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (2001) Se perdre (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (2008) Les Années (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (2010) ‘La Preuve par corps’, in Bourdieu et la littérature, ed. Jean-Pierre Martin (Nantes: Cécile Defaut), 25–26. Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (2011) L’Atelier noir (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (2016) Mémoire de fille (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (2017) The Years, trans. Alison L. Strayer (New York: Seven Stories Press). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie (2020) A Girl’s Story, trans. Alison L. Strayer (London: Fitzcarraldo). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie, and Michelle Porte (2014) Le Vrai Lieu: Entretiens avec Michelle Porte (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie, and Karin Schwerdtner (2017) ‘Autour des lettres: Entretien avec Annie Ernaux’, Épistolaire 43: 137–149. Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie, and Pierre Bras (2017) ‘“La littérature, c’est la mise en forme d’un désir”: Entretien avec Annie Ernaux’, Journal des anthropologues 148–149, https://www.cairn.info/revue-journal-des-anthropologues-2017-1-page-93.htm (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Ernaux, Annie, and Dominique Viart (2019) ‘Repas de famille. Entretien avec Annie Ernaux’, Elfe 20–21, http://journals.openedition.org/elfe/481 (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

La Fédération Française Anorexie Boulimie (FFAB) (2012) ‘Qu’est-ce qu’un TCA? FAQ’, www.anorexieboulimie-afdas.fr/accueil/qu-est-ce-qu-un-tca (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel (1963) Naissance de la Clinique: Une archéologie du regard médical (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France). Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel (1969) L’Archéologie du savoir (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel (1971) L’Ordre du discours (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Foucault, Michel (1976) Histoire de la sexualité 1: La volonté de savoir (Paris: Gallimard). Google Scholar

Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) (2015) ‘Boulimie et hyperphagie boulimique: Repérage et éléments généraux de prise en charge’, https://www.has-sante.fr/upload/docs/application/pdf/2015-12/rbp—cadrage—boulimie—mel.pdf (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Hugueny-Léger, Elise (2018) ‘État présent: Annie Ernaux’, French Studies 72.2: 256–269, doi:10.1093/fs/kny014. Google Scholar

Jordan, Shirley (2019) ‘Overstepping the boundaries: Sexual awakening, trauma and writing in Annie Ernaux’s Mémoire de fille and Christine Angot’s Une semaine de vacances’, in Sexual Textual Boundaries: Women Writing Sexual Encounters in French, L’Esprit Créateur 59.2: 5–18. Google Scholar

Kawakami, Akane (2019) ‘Time travelling in Ernaux’s Mémoire de fille’, French Studies 73.2: 253–265, doi: 10.1093/fs/knz012. Google Scholar

Keel, Pamela, Tiffany Brown, Jill Holm-Denoma, and Lindsay Bodell (2011) ‘Comparison of DSM-IV versus proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for eating disorders: Reduction of eating disorder not otherwise specified and validity’, International Journal of Eating Disorders 44.6: 553–560, doi:10.1002/eat.20892. Google Scholar

Lacan, Jacques (1973) Séminaire: Les quatre concepts fondamentaux de la psychanalyse (Pairs: Seuil). Google Scholar

Lacan, Jacques (1996) Écrits (Paris: Seuil). Google Scholar

Leyris, Raphaëlle (2016) ‘Annie Ernaux, “fille de rien”, grand écrivain’, https://www.lemonde.fr/livres/article/2016/03/30/fille-de-rien-grand-ecrivain_4892076_3260.html (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Machado, Paulo, Sonia Gonçalves, and Hans Hoek (2013) ‘DSM-5 reduces the proportion of EDNOS cases: Evidence from community samples’, International Journal of Eating Disorders 46.1: 60–65, doi:10.1002/eat.22040. Google Scholar

McIlvanney, Siobhan (2001) Annie Ernaux: The Return to Origins (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press). Google Scholar

NICE (2017) ‘Eating disorders: Recognition and treatment [NG69]’, https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng69/chapter/Recommendations#identification-and-assessment (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) (2008) ‘Classification statistique internationale des maladies et des problèmes de santé connexes (CMI-10)’, http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/Content/statichtml/ICD10Volume2_fr_2008.pdf (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

Russell, Gerald (1979) ‘Bulimia nervosa: An ominous variant of anorexia nervosa’, Psychological Medicine 9.3: 429–448, doi: 10.1017/S0033291700031974. Google Scholar

Schwerdtner, Karin (2018) ‘Mémoire de fille, ou comment écrire (avec la voix de) “cette fille”’, Contemporary French and Francophone Studies 22.5: 597–604, doi: 10.1080/17409292.2018.1609184. Google Scholar

Thomas, Jennifer, Lenny Vartanian, and Kelly Brownell (2009) ‘The relationship between Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) and officially recognized eating disorders: Meta-analysis and implications for DSM’, Psychological Bulletin 135.3: 407–433, doi:10.1037/a0015326. Google Scholar

Thompson, Hannah (2017) ‘Etat présent: French and Francophone Disability Studies’, French Studies 71.2: 243–245, doi: 10.1093/fs/knx019. Google Scholar

Thumerel, Fabrice (ed.) (2004) Annie Ernaux: une œuvre de l’entre-deux (Arras: Artois Presses Université). Google Scholar

World Health Organisation (WHO) (2016) ‘International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10)’, http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2016/en (accessed 22 August 2019). Google Scholar

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Cruickshank, Ruth