Town Planning Review

The communication of architectural design analysis in residential design guidance: legibility, commodity and design

Town Planning Review (2020), 91, (5), 489–513.

Abstract

This article will propose new approaches to the representation of architectural design principles, in residential design guidance. The visual appearance of new development is key in its successful integration of new housing in historic environments, providing an important means of analysis for planning departments and client users and establishing key information for developers regarding local-authority expectations and the contextualisation of proposed schemes. An epistemological analysis of content in 98 currently accessible guides identified a need for a more concise and accessible approach to architectural analysis. This figure is representative of a majority of residential design guides in England. A greater understanding of the visual impact of architectural design decisions is key in ensuring the continuity of the built environment. This research is more widely significant in terms of consolidating architectural design approaches in design guidance, as many authorities and bodies have adopted similar approaches globally.

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References

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FORTY, A. (2000), Words and Buildings: A Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, New York, Thames and Hudson. Google Scholar

GELERNTER, M. (1995), Sources of Architectural Form: A Critical History of Western Architectural Theory, Manchester, Manchester University Press. Google Scholar

GIDDINGS, B. and HOLNESS, A. (1996), ‘Quality assessment of architectural design and the use of design award schemes’, Environments by Design, 1, 53-68. Google Scholar

GREEN, A. (2010), ‘The polite threshold in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Britain’, Vernacular Architecture, 41, 1-9. Google Scholar

GREY, E. (1994), The British House: A Concise Architectural History, London, Barrie & Jenkins. Google Scholar

HALL, A. (1996), Design Control, Towards a New Approach, Oxford, Butterworth Heinemann. Google Scholar

HERTZBERGER, H. (1991), Lessons in Architecture, Rotterdam, Uitgeverij 010. Google Scholar

HERTZBERGER, H. (2000), Lessons for Students in Architecture, Rotterdam, 010 Publ. Google Scholar

HOOPER, A. and NICOL, C. (2000), ‘Design practice and volume production in speculative housebuilding’, Construction Management and Economics, 18, 295-310. Google Scholar

HOPKINS, O. (2012), Reading Architecture, London, Laurence King. Google Scholar

KEMSLEY, R. and PLATT, C. (2012), Dwelling with Architecture, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

LE CORBUSIER (2014), Towards a New Architecture, New Haven, Yale University Press. Google Scholar

LEFEBVRE, H. (1991), The Production of Space, Oxford, Blackwell. Google Scholar

LEWIS, P. (2005), Details: A Guide to House Design in Britain, New York, Prestel. Google Scholar

LUCAS, R. (2016), Research Methods for Architecture, London, Lawrence King Publishing. Google Scholar

MAUDLIN, D. (2009), ‘Constructing identity and tradition: Englishness, politics and the neo-traditional house’, Journal of Architectural Education, 63, 51-63. Google Scholar

MOORE, C. and ALLEN, D. (1976), Dimensions: Space, Place and Architecture, New York, Architectural Record. Google Scholar

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OLIVER, P. (2003), Dwellings, New York, Phaidon Press. Google Scholar

OLIVER, P. (2006), Built to Meet Needs: Cultural Issues in Vernacular Architecture, Amsterdam, Elsevier. Google Scholar

OWEN, S. (1998), ‘The role of village design statements in fostering a locally-distinctive approach to village planning and design in the UK’, Journal of Urban Design, 3, 359-80. Google Scholar

PALLASMA, J. (2012), The Thinking Hand, London, John Wiley & Sons. Google Scholar

PALLASMA, J. and McCARTER, R. (2012), Understanding Architecture, New York, Phaidon Press. Google Scholar

PALLIDIO, A. (2000), The Four Books of Architecture, New York, Dover Publications Inc. Google Scholar

PATERSON, E. (2011), ‘Design and access statements: north-east England case study’, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning, 164, 155-61. Google Scholar

PHILLIPS, M. and SWAFFIN-SMITH, C. (2004), ‘Market towns: victims of market forces?’, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 32, 557-68. Google Scholar

PLUMMER, H. (2016), The Experience of Architecture, London, Thames & Hudson. Google Scholar

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PSARRA, S. (2009), Architecture and Narrative: The Formation of Space and Cultural Meaning, Abingdon, Oxon., Routledge. Google Scholar

PUNTER, J. (1999), ‘Design’, in T. Cullingworth (ed.), British Planning, London, Athlone Press, 137-55. Google Scholar

RADFORD, A., MORKOC, S. and SIRVASTAVA, A. (2014), The Elements of Modern Architecture: Understanding Contemporary Buildings, London, Thames & Hudson. Google Scholar

RAPOPORT, A. (1969), House, Form and Culture, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall. Google Scholar

RASMUSSEN, S. E. (1970), Experiencing Architecture, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Google Scholar

RATCLIFFE, J., STUBBS, M. and KEEPING, M. (2009), Urban Planning and Real Estate Development (Natural and Built Environment Series), London, Routledge. Google Scholar

RICE, M. (2018), Rice’s Language of Buildings, London, Bloomsbury Publishing. Google Scholar

ROTH, L. M. (2012), Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning, London, Westview Press. Google Scholar

SENNETT, R. (2009), The Craftsman, London, Penguin. Google Scholar

SHARR, A. (2012), Reading Architecture and Culture: Researching Buildings, Spaces, and Documents, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

SIM, D. (1993), British Housing Design, Harlow, Longman. Google Scholar

SIMICH, A. and WARKE, V. (2014), The Language of Architecture: 26 Principles Every Architect Should Know, Beverly, MA, Rockport Publishers. Google Scholar

SMAILES, L. M. (1991), ‘An appraisal of the history, impact and effectiveness of the Essex Design Guide for Residential Areas’ (PhD thesis), Joint Centre for Urban Design, Oxford Polytechnic. Google Scholar

SUMMERSON, J. (1980), The Classical Language of Architecture (World of Art), London, Thames & Hudson. Google Scholar

TUOMEY, J. (2008), Architecture, Craft and Culture, Kinsale, Co. Cork, Gandon Editions. Google Scholar

UNWIN, S. (2000), An Architecture Notebook, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

UNWIN, S. (2009), Analysing Architecture, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

VENTURI, R. (1977), Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, New York, The Museum of Modern Art. Google Scholar

VITRUVIUS (1998), The Ten Books on Architecture: Books I-X, New York, Dover Publications. Google Scholar

VON MIESS, P. (1990), Elements of Architecture: From Form to Place, London, Taylor Francis. Google Scholar

WAITE, R. and MACKINNON, E. (2015), ‘Which councils employ the most in-house architects?’, Architects’ Journal, 2 November, https://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/home/which-councils-employ-the-most-in-house-architects/8691324.article (accessed 2 October 2018). Google Scholar

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WHATKIN, D. (2011), A History of Western Architecture, London, Laurence King. Google Scholar

ZUMTHOR, P. (2010), Thinking Architecture, Basel, Birkhäuser. Google Scholar

ADORNO, T. (2013), Aesthetic Theory, London, Bloomsbury. Google Scholar

ALEXANDER, C. (1979), The Timeless Way of Building, New York, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

ALEXANDER, C., SILVERSTEIN, M., ANGEL, S., ISHIKAWA, S. and ABRAMS, D. (1977), A Pattern Language, New York, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

ASLET, C. (2008), The English House, London, Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. Google Scholar

BACHELARD, G. (1992), Poetics of Space, Boston, MA, Beacon Press. Google Scholar

BAKER, H. G. (1996), Design Strategies in Architecture: An Approach to the Analysis of Form, London, Taylor & Francis. Google Scholar

BALL, M. (1999), ‘Chasing a snail: innovation and housebuilding firms’ strategies’, Housing Studies, 14, 9-22. Google Scholar

BEN-JOSEPH, E. (2005), The Code of the City: Standards and the Hidden Language of Placemaking, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Google Scholar

BLACK, P. and SONBLI, T. E. (2019), ‘The “veil” of control: The perceptions and attitudes of UK design-control planners’, Town Planning Review, 90, 139-66. Google Scholar

BRUNSKILL, R. W. (1971), Illustrated Handbook of Vernacular Architecture, London, Faber & Faber. Google Scholar

BRUNSKILL, R. W. (1981), Traditional Buildings of Britain: An Introduction to Vernacular Architecture, London, Gollancz in association with P. Crawley. Google Scholar

BRUNSKILL, R. W. (2000), Illustrated Handbook of Vernacular Architecture, London, Faber & Faber. Google Scholar

BUCHLI, V. (2013), An Anthropology of Architecture, London, Bloomsbury. Google Scholar

CABE (2000), Urban Design Compendium, Homes and Communities Agency, https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20170130165337/https://udc.homesandcommunities.co.uk/urban-design-compendium?page_id=&page=1 (accessed 21 January 2019). Google Scholar

CABE (2009), Good Design: The Fundamentals, https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110118100226/http://www.cabe.org.uk/publications/good-design (accessed 18 December 2018). Google Scholar

CABE (2010a), Creating Excellent Buildings, Homes and Communities Agency, https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110118095658/http://www.cabe.org.uk/buildings (accessed 18 December 2018). Google Scholar

CABE (2010b), Design Coding: Testing Its Use in England, Homes and Communities Agency, https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110118150824/http://www.cabe.org.uk/publications/design-coding (accessed 10 November 2018). Google Scholar

CABE (2010c), Simpler and Better Housing Design in Everyone’s Interest, https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110118100207/http://www.cabe.org.uk/publications/simpler-and-better (accessed 18 December 2018). Google Scholar

CALLOWAY, S., CROMLEY, E. C. and POWERS, A. (2005), The Elements of Style: An Encyclopaedia of Domestic Architectural Detail, London, Mitchell Beasley. Google Scholar

CARMONA, M. (2001), Housing Design Quality: Through Policy, Guidance and Review. The Role of the Planning Process, London, Taylor & Francis. Google Scholar

CARMONA, M. (2002), Housing Design Quality: Through Policy, Guidance and Review, London, Spon Press. Google Scholar

CARMONA, M. and GALLENT, N. (2003), Delivering New Homes: Processes, Planning and Providers, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

CHING, F. D. (1979), Architecture, Form, Space & Order, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold. Google Scholar

CHING, F. D. (2014), Architecture, Form, Space & Order, Hoboken, NJ, Wiley & Sons. Google Scholar

CLIFFORD, J. and MARCUS, G. (1992), Writing Culture, Berkeley, University of California Press. Google Scholar

COLQUHOUN, I. (2008), RIBA Book of British Housing: 1900 to the Present Day, 2nd ed., London, Architectural Press. Google Scholar

CURL, J. (2003), Classical Architecture: An Introduction to Its Vocabulary and Essentials, with a Select Glossary of Terms, London, W. W. Norton & Company. Google Scholar

CURTIS, W. J. R. (2011), Modern Architecture Since 1900, New York, Phaidon. Google Scholar

DAVIDSON-CRAGOE, C. (2008), How to Read Buildings: A Crash Course in Architecture, London, Herbert Press Ltd. Google Scholar

DAVIES, C. (2011), Thinking about Architecture: An Introduction to Architectural Theory, London, Laurence King. Google Scholar

DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (2018), House Building: New Build Dwellings, https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/house-building-new-build-dwellings-england-october-to-december-2018 (accessed 12 January 2019). Google Scholar

DONOVAN, J. and LARKHAM, P. J. (1996), ‘Rethinking design guidance’, Planning Practice and Research, 11, 303-18. Google Scholar

DURANT, D. N. (1992), The Handbook of British Architectural Styles, London, Barrie & Jenkins. Google Scholar

FOLTZ, P. W. and LANDAUER, T. K. (2006), ‘Helping people find and learn from documents: exploring synergies between human and computer retrieval with supermanual’, in T. K. Landauer, D. S. Macnamara and S. Dennis (eds), Handbook of Latent Semantic Analysis, Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 323-44. Google Scholar

FORTY, A. (2000), Words and Buildings: A Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, New York, Thames and Hudson. Google Scholar

GELERNTER, M. (1995), Sources of Architectural Form: A Critical History of Western Architectural Theory, Manchester, Manchester University Press. Google Scholar

GIDDINGS, B. and HOLNESS, A. (1996), ‘Quality assessment of architectural design and the use of design award schemes’, Environments by Design, 1, 53-68. Google Scholar

GREEN, A. (2010), ‘The polite threshold in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Britain’, Vernacular Architecture, 41, 1-9. Google Scholar

GREY, E. (1994), The British House: A Concise Architectural History, London, Barrie & Jenkins. Google Scholar

HALL, A. (1996), Design Control, Towards a New Approach, Oxford, Butterworth Heinemann. Google Scholar

HERTZBERGER, H. (1991), Lessons in Architecture, Rotterdam, Uitgeverij 010. Google Scholar

HERTZBERGER, H. (2000), Lessons for Students in Architecture, Rotterdam, 010 Publ. Google Scholar

HOOPER, A. and NICOL, C. (2000), ‘Design practice and volume production in speculative housebuilding’, Construction Management and Economics, 18, 295-310. Google Scholar

HOPKINS, O. (2012), Reading Architecture, London, Laurence King. Google Scholar

KEMSLEY, R. and PLATT, C. (2012), Dwelling with Architecture, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

LE CORBUSIER (2014), Towards a New Architecture, New Haven, Yale University Press. Google Scholar

LEFEBVRE, H. (1991), The Production of Space, Oxford, Blackwell. Google Scholar

LEWIS, P. (2005), Details: A Guide to House Design in Britain, New York, Prestel. Google Scholar

LUCAS, R. (2016), Research Methods for Architecture, London, Lawrence King Publishing. Google Scholar

MAUDLIN, D. (2009), ‘Constructing identity and tradition: Englishness, politics and the neo-traditional house’, Journal of Architectural Education, 63, 51-63. Google Scholar

MOORE, C. and ALLEN, D. (1976), Dimensions: Space, Place and Architecture, New York, Architectural Record. Google Scholar

NATIONAL PLANNING POLICY FRAMEWORK (2019), Department for Communities and Local Government, https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/779764/NPPF_Feb_2019_web.pdf (accessed 14 February 2019). Google Scholar

NEIL, P. A., HART, T. and BEK, D. (2009), ‘Market town centres in England: meeting the challenge of maintaining their contemporary relevance’, Planning Practice & Research, 24, 301-19. Google Scholar

OLIVER, P. (2003), Dwellings, New York, Phaidon Press. Google Scholar

OLIVER, P. (2006), Built to Meet Needs: Cultural Issues in Vernacular Architecture, Amsterdam, Elsevier. Google Scholar

OWEN, S. (1998), ‘The role of village design statements in fostering a locally-distinctive approach to village planning and design in the UK’, Journal of Urban Design, 3, 359-80. Google Scholar

PALLASMA, J. (2012), The Thinking Hand, London, John Wiley & Sons. Google Scholar

PALLASMA, J. and McCARTER, R. (2012), Understanding Architecture, New York, Phaidon Press. Google Scholar

PALLIDIO, A. (2000), The Four Books of Architecture, New York, Dover Publications Inc. Google Scholar

PATERSON, E. (2011), ‘Design and access statements: north-east England case study’, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning, 164, 155-61. Google Scholar

PHILLIPS, M. and SWAFFIN-SMITH, C. (2004), ‘Market towns: victims of market forces?’, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 32, 557-68. Google Scholar

PLUMMER, H. (2016), The Experience of Architecture, London, Thames & Hudson. Google Scholar

POWERS, A. (2007), Britain: Modern Architectures in History, London, Reaktion Books. Google Scholar

PSARRA, S. (2009), Architecture and Narrative: The Formation of Space and Cultural Meaning, Abingdon, Oxon., Routledge. Google Scholar

PUNTER, J. (1999), ‘Design’, in T. Cullingworth (ed.), British Planning, London, Athlone Press, 137-55. Google Scholar

RADFORD, A., MORKOC, S. and SIRVASTAVA, A. (2014), The Elements of Modern Architecture: Understanding Contemporary Buildings, London, Thames & Hudson. Google Scholar

RAPOPORT, A. (1969), House, Form and Culture, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall. Google Scholar

RASMUSSEN, S. E. (1970), Experiencing Architecture, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. Google Scholar

RATCLIFFE, J., STUBBS, M. and KEEPING, M. (2009), Urban Planning and Real Estate Development (Natural and Built Environment Series), London, Routledge. Google Scholar

RICE, M. (2018), Rice’s Language of Buildings, London, Bloomsbury Publishing. Google Scholar

ROTH, L. M. (2012), Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning, London, Westview Press. Google Scholar

SENNETT, R. (2009), The Craftsman, London, Penguin. Google Scholar

SHARR, A. (2012), Reading Architecture and Culture: Researching Buildings, Spaces, and Documents, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

SIM, D. (1993), British Housing Design, Harlow, Longman. Google Scholar

SIMICH, A. and WARKE, V. (2014), The Language of Architecture: 26 Principles Every Architect Should Know, Beverly, MA, Rockport Publishers. Google Scholar

SMAILES, L. M. (1991), ‘An appraisal of the history, impact and effectiveness of the Essex Design Guide for Residential Areas’ (PhD thesis), Joint Centre for Urban Design, Oxford Polytechnic. Google Scholar

SUMMERSON, J. (1980), The Classical Language of Architecture (World of Art), London, Thames & Hudson. Google Scholar

TUOMEY, J. (2008), Architecture, Craft and Culture, Kinsale, Co. Cork, Gandon Editions. Google Scholar

UNWIN, S. (2000), An Architecture Notebook, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

UNWIN, S. (2009), Analysing Architecture, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

VENTURI, R. (1977), Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, New York, The Museum of Modern Art. Google Scholar

VITRUVIUS (1998), The Ten Books on Architecture: Books I-X, New York, Dover Publications. Google Scholar

VON MIESS, P. (1990), Elements of Architecture: From Form to Place, London, Taylor Francis. Google Scholar

WAITE, R. and MACKINNON, E. (2015), ‘Which councils employ the most in-house architects?’, Architects’ Journal, 2 November, https://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/home/which-councils-employ-the-most-in-house-architects/8691324.article (accessed 2 October 2018). Google Scholar

WESTON, R. (2010), Key Buildings of the 20th Century: Plans, Sections and Elevations, New York, W. W. Norton. Google Scholar

WHATKIN, D. (2011), A History of Western Architecture, London, Laurence King. Google Scholar

ZUMTHOR, P. (2010), Thinking Architecture, Basel, Birkhäuser. Google Scholar

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Moreton, Leo