The Indexer: The International Journal of Indexing

Faceted classification in support of diversity: the role of concepts and terms in representing religion

The Indexer: The International Journal of Indexing (2020), 38, (3), 247–270.

Abstract

The paper examines the development of facet analysis as a methodology and the role it plays in building classifications and other knowledge-organization tools. The use of categorical analysis in areas other than library and information science is also considered. The suitability of the faceted approach for humanities documentation is explored through a critical description of the FATKS (Facet Analytical Theory in Managing Knowledge Structure for Humanities) project carried out at University College London. This research focused on building a conceptual model for the subject of religion together with a relational database and search-and-browse interfaces that would support some degree of automatic classification. The paper concludes with a discussion of the differences between the conceptual model and the vocabulary used to populate it, and how, in the case of religion, the choice of terminology can create an apparent bias in the system.

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References

Adkisson, H. P. (2005) Web design practices: use of faceted classification. Available at www.webdesign-practices.com/navigation/facets.html. Google Scholar

Aitchison, J. (1970) ‘The Thesaurofacet: a multipurpose retrieval language tool’, Journal of Documentation 26(3), 187-203. Google Scholar

Aitchison, J. (1986) ‘A classification as a source for a thesaurus: the Bibliographic Classification of H. E. Bliss as a source of thesaurus terms and structure’, Journal of Documentation 42(3), 160-81. Google Scholar

Aitchison, J. (2004) ‘Thesauri from BC2: problems and possibilities revealed in an experimental thesaurus derived from the Bliss Music schedule’, Bliss Classification Bulletin 46, 20-6. Google Scholar

Allen, R. B. (1995a) ‘Retrieval from facet spaces’, Electronic Publishing 8(2-3), 247-58. Google Scholar

Allen, R. B. (1995b) ‘Two digital library interfaces that exploit hierarchical structure’, in Proceedings of DAGS95, Electronic Publishing in the Information Superhighway, Boston, Massachusetts, May 30-June 2, pp. 134-41. Google Scholar

Art and architecture thesaurus (1994) New York: Oxford University Press. Available at http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/aat/. Google Scholar

Austin, D. (1984) PRECIS: a manual of concept analysis and subject indexing, 2nd edn. London: The British Library Bibliographic Services Division. Google Scholar

Beghtol, C. (1995) ‘Facets as interdisciplinary undiscovered public knowledge: S. R. Ranganathan in India and L. Guttman in Israel’, Journal of Documentation 51(3), 194-224. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (1998) ‘The development of a common auxiliary schedule of property: a preliminary survey and proposal for its development’, Extensions and Corrections to the UDC 20, 37-42. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2000) ‘A new classification for the literature of religion’, International Cataloguing and Bibliographic Control 29(4), 59-61. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2001) ‘Faceted classification as a basis for knowledge organization in a digital environment: the Bliss Bibliographic Classification and the creation of multi-dimensional knowledge structures’, New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia 7, 67-102. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2002a) ‘Facet analytical theory as a basis for a knowledge organization tool in a subject portal’, in M. J. Lopez-Huertas and F. J. Munoz-Fernandez (eds), Challenges in knowledge representation and organization for the 21st century: integration of knowledge across boundaries. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization, Granada, Spain, 10-13 July 2002 (Advances in Knowledge Organization 8). Würzburg: Ergon, pp. 135-41. Available at http://www.ucl.ac.uk/fatks/paper2.htm. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2002b) ‘A new common auxiliary for relations, processes and operations’, Extensions and Corrections to the UDC 24, 29-35. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2002c) ‘Organizing a national humanities portal: a model for the classification and subject management of digital resources’, Information Research Watch International June, 2-4. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2006) ‘The need for faceted classification as the basis of all information retrieval’, Aslib Proceedings 58(2), 49-72. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2008) ‘A faceted classification as the basis of a faceted terminology: conversion of a classified structure to thesaurus format in the Bliss Bibliographic Classification, 2nd edition’, Axiomathes 18(2), 193-210. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2010) ‘Concepts and terms in the faceted classification: the case of UDC’, Knowledge Organization 37, 270-9. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2019) ‘The respective roles of intellectual creativity and automation in representing diversity: human and machine generated bias’, Knowledge Organization 46(8), 596-606. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. and Lane, H. (2000) ‘Classification schemes revisited: applications to web indexing and searching’, Journal of Internet Cataloging 2(3-4), 143-55. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. and Lane, H. (2004) ‘The Bliss Bibliographic Classification in action: moving from a special to a universal faceted classification via a digital platform’, in I. C. McIlwaine (ed.), Knowledge organization and the global information society. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization, University College London, 13-16 July 2004 (Advances in Knowledge Organization 9). Würzburg: Ergon, pp. 73-8. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. and Lomas, E. (2020) ‘Philosophical foundations for the organization of religious knowledge: irreconcilable diversity or a unity of purpose?’, Knowledge Organization 47(3), in press. Google Scholar

Broughton V. and Slavic, A. (2007) ‘Building a faceted classification for the humanities: principles and procedure’, Journal of Documentation 35(5), 727-54. Google Scholar

Checkland, P. B. (1989) ‘Soft systems methodology’, Human Systems Management 8(4), 273-89. Google Scholar

Classification Research Group (1955) ‘The need for a faceted classification as the basis for all methods of information retrieval’, Library Association Record 57(7), 262-8. Google Scholar

Classification Research Group (1969) Classification and information control: papers representing the work of the Classification Research Group during 1960-1968. London: Library Association. Google Scholar

Coates, E. J. (1960a) British catalogue of music classification. London: British National Bibliography. Google Scholar

Coates, E. J. (1960b) Subject catalogues: headings and structure. London: Library Association. Google Scholar

Coates, E. J. (1973) ‘Some properties of relationships in the structure of indexing languages’, Journal of Documentation 29(4), 390-404. Google Scholar

Coates, E., Lloyd, G. and Simandl, S. (eds) (1978) Broad system of ordering: schedule and index. The Hague: International Federation for Documentation (FID). Available at www.ucl.ac.uk/fatks/bso. Google Scholar

de Grolier, E. (1962) A study of general categories applicable to classification and coding in documentation. Paris: Unesco. Google Scholar

Dousa, T. M. (2013) ‘Julius Otto Kaiser and his method of systematic indexing: an early indexing system in its historical context’. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Illinois. Available at http://hdl.handle.net/2142/46755. Google Scholar

Duncan, E. (1989) ‘A faceted approach to hypertext’, in R. McAleese (ed.), Hypertext: theory into practice. London: Intellect, pp. 157-63. Google Scholar

Ellis, D. and Vasconcelos, A. (1999) ‘Ranganathan and the Net: using facet analysis to search and organize the World Wide Web’, Aslib Proceedings 51(1), 3-10. Google Scholar

Ellis, D. and Vasconcelos, A. (2000) ‘The relevance of facet analysis for world wide web subject organization and searching’, in A. R. Thomas and J. R. Shearer (eds), Internet searching and indexing: the subject approach. Binghamton, NY: Haworth, pp. 97-114. Also published as Journal of Internet Cataloging 2(3-4). Google Scholar

FATKS (Facet analytical theory in knowledge structures) Project details and documentation available at www.ucl.ac.uk/fatks/. Google Scholar

Gardin, J. C. (1965) SYNTOL. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers State University. Google Scholar

Gödert, W. (1987) ‘Klassificationssysteme und Online-Katalog. Classification systems and the on-line catalogue’, Zeitschrift for Bibliothekswesen un Bibliographie 34(3), 185-95. Google Scholar

Gödert, W. (1991) ‘Facet classification in online retrieval’, International Classification 2, 98-109. Google Scholar

Guttman, L. (1959) ‘A structural theory for intergroup beliefs and action’, American Sociological Review 24(3), 318-28. Google Scholar

Hjørland, B. (2013) ‘Facet analysis: the logical approach to knowledge organization’, Information Processing and Management 49(2), 545-57. Google Scholar

Ingwersen, P. and Wormell, I. (1992) ‘Ranganathan in the perspective of advanced information retrieval’, Libri 42, 184-201. Google Scholar

ISO 25964 International Standard for Thesauri and Interoperability with Other Vocabularies (2011) NISO website. Available at www.niso.org. Google Scholar

Kaiser, J. (1911) Systematic indexing. London: Pitman. Google Scholar

La Barre, K. (2006) ‘The use of faceted analytico-synthetic theory in the practice of website construction and design’. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Indiana University. Available at https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/klabarre/www/LaBarre_FAST.pdf. Google Scholar

McIlwaine, I. C. and Williamson, N. J. (1994) ‘A feasibility study on the restructuring of the Universal Decimal Classification into a full-faceted classification system’, in H. Albrechtsen and S. Oernager (eds), Proceedings of the Third International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO) conference: knowledge organization and quality management, Copenhagen, Denmark, 20-24 Jun 94. Frankfurt am Main: INDEKS Verlag, pp. 406-13. Google Scholar

Miles, A. and Bechhofer, S. (eds) (2009) SKOS Simple knowledge organization system: reference. W3C recommendation 18 August 2009. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-skos-reference-20090818/. Google Scholar

Mills, J. and Broughton, V. (1977a) Bliss bibliographic classification, 2nd edn. London: Butterworth. Google Scholar

Mills, J. and Broughton, V. (1977b) Bliss bibliographic classification, 2nd edn. Class P Religion, occult, morals and ethics. London: Butterworth. Google Scholar

Mills, J. and Broughton, V. (1980) Bliss bibliographic classification, 2nd edn. Class H Anthropology, human biology, health sciences. London: Butterworth. Google Scholar

Otlet, P. and LaFontaine, H. (1905-7) Manuel du repertoire bibliographique universel. Brussels: International Institute of Bibliography. Google Scholar

Perry, J. W., Kent, A. and Berry, M. M. (1956) Machine literature searching. New York: Interscience. Google Scholar

Pollitt, A. S., Smith, M. P. and Braekevelt, P. (1996) ‘View-based searching systems: a new paradigm for information retrieval based on faceted classification and indexing using mutually constraining knowledge-based rules’, in C. Johnson and M. Dunlop (eds), Information retrieval and human computer interaction. Proceedings of the joint workshop of the information retrieval and human computer interaction specialist groups of the British Computer Society. GIST Technical Report G96-2, Glasgow University. Glasgow: Glasgow University, pp. 73-7. Google Scholar

Prasad, A. R. D. and Guha, N. (2008) ‘Concept naming vs. concept categorisation: a faceted approach to semantic annotation’, Online Information Review 32(4), 500-10. Google Scholar

Ranganathan, S. R. (1945) Dictionary catalogue code. Madras: Thompson and London: Grafton. Google Scholar

Ranganathan, S. R. (1951) Classified catalogue code. Madras: Madras Library Association and London: Blunt & Sons, 1951. Google Scholar

Ranganathan, S. R. (1967) Prolegomena to library classification, 3rd edn. New York: Asia Publishing House. Google Scholar

Slavic, A. and Cordeiro, I. (2002) ‘Data models for knowledge organization tools: evolution and perspectives’, in M. J. Lopez-Huertas and F. J. Munoz-Fernandez (eds), Challenges in knowledge representation and organization for the 21st century. Integration of knowledge across boundaries. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization, Granada, Spain, 10-13 July 2002 (Advances in Knowledge Organization 8). Würzburg: Ergon, pp. 127-34. Google Scholar

Slavic, A. and Cordeiro, I. (2004) ‘Core requirements for automation of analytico-synthetic classifications’, in I. C. McIlwaine (ed.), Knowledge organization and the global information society. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization, University College London, 13-16 July 2004 (Advances in Knowledge Organization 9). Würzburg: Ergon, pp. 187-92. Google Scholar

Zins, C. and Santos, P. L. V. A. C. (2011) ‘Mapping the knowledge covered by library classification systems’, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 62, 877-901. Google Scholar

Adkisson, H. P. (2005) Web design practices: use of faceted classification. Available at www.webdesign-practices.com/navigation/facets.html. Google Scholar

Aitchison, J. (1970) ‘The Thesaurofacet: a multipurpose retrieval language tool’, Journal of Documentation 26(3), 187-203. Google Scholar

Aitchison, J. (1986) ‘A classification as a source for a thesaurus: the Bibliographic Classification of H. E. Bliss as a source of thesaurus terms and structure’, Journal of Documentation 42(3), 160-81. Google Scholar

Aitchison, J. (2004) ‘Thesauri from BC2: problems and possibilities revealed in an experimental thesaurus derived from the Bliss Music schedule’, Bliss Classification Bulletin 46, 20-6. Google Scholar

Allen, R. B. (1995a) ‘Retrieval from facet spaces’, Electronic Publishing 8(2-3), 247-58. Google Scholar

Allen, R. B. (1995b) ‘Two digital library interfaces that exploit hierarchical structure’, in Proceedings of DAGS95, Electronic Publishing in the Information Superhighway, Boston, Massachusetts, May 30-June 2, pp. 134-41. Google Scholar

Art and architecture thesaurus (1994) New York: Oxford University Press. Available at http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/aat/. Google Scholar

Austin, D. (1984) PRECIS: a manual of concept analysis and subject indexing, 2nd edn. London: The British Library Bibliographic Services Division. Google Scholar

Beghtol, C. (1995) ‘Facets as interdisciplinary undiscovered public knowledge: S. R. Ranganathan in India and L. Guttman in Israel’, Journal of Documentation 51(3), 194-224. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (1998) ‘The development of a common auxiliary schedule of property: a preliminary survey and proposal for its development’, Extensions and Corrections to the UDC 20, 37-42. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2000) ‘A new classification for the literature of religion’, International Cataloguing and Bibliographic Control 29(4), 59-61. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2001) ‘Faceted classification as a basis for knowledge organization in a digital environment: the Bliss Bibliographic Classification and the creation of multi-dimensional knowledge structures’, New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia 7, 67-102. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2002a) ‘Facet analytical theory as a basis for a knowledge organization tool in a subject portal’, in M. J. Lopez-Huertas and F. J. Munoz-Fernandez (eds), Challenges in knowledge representation and organization for the 21st century: integration of knowledge across boundaries. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization, Granada, Spain, 10-13 July 2002 (Advances in Knowledge Organization 8). Würzburg: Ergon, pp. 135-41. Available at http://www.ucl.ac.uk/fatks/paper2.htm. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2002b) ‘A new common auxiliary for relations, processes and operations’, Extensions and Corrections to the UDC 24, 29-35. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2002c) ‘Organizing a national humanities portal: a model for the classification and subject management of digital resources’, Information Research Watch International June, 2-4. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2006) ‘The need for faceted classification as the basis of all information retrieval’, Aslib Proceedings 58(2), 49-72. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2008) ‘A faceted classification as the basis of a faceted terminology: conversion of a classified structure to thesaurus format in the Bliss Bibliographic Classification, 2nd edition’, Axiomathes 18(2), 193-210. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2010) ‘Concepts and terms in the faceted classification: the case of UDC’, Knowledge Organization 37, 270-9. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2019) ‘The respective roles of intellectual creativity and automation in representing diversity: human and machine generated bias’, Knowledge Organization 46(8), 596-606. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. and Lane, H. (2000) ‘Classification schemes revisited: applications to web indexing and searching’, Journal of Internet Cataloging 2(3-4), 143-55. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. and Lane, H. (2004) ‘The Bliss Bibliographic Classification in action: moving from a special to a universal faceted classification via a digital platform’, in I. C. McIlwaine (ed.), Knowledge organization and the global information society. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization, University College London, 13-16 July 2004 (Advances in Knowledge Organization 9). Würzburg: Ergon, pp. 73-8. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. and Lomas, E. (2020) ‘Philosophical foundations for the organization of religious knowledge: irreconcilable diversity or a unity of purpose?’, Knowledge Organization 47(3), in press. Google Scholar

Broughton V. and Slavic, A. (2007) ‘Building a faceted classification for the humanities: principles and procedure’, Journal of Documentation 35(5), 727-54. Google Scholar

Checkland, P. B. (1989) ‘Soft systems methodology’, Human Systems Management 8(4), 273-89. Google Scholar

Classification Research Group (1955) ‘The need for a faceted classification as the basis for all methods of information retrieval’, Library Association Record 57(7), 262-8. Google Scholar

Classification Research Group (1969) Classification and information control: papers representing the work of the Classification Research Group during 1960-1968. London: Library Association. Google Scholar

Coates, E. J. (1960a) British catalogue of music classification. London: British National Bibliography. Google Scholar

Coates, E. J. (1960b) Subject catalogues: headings and structure. London: Library Association. Google Scholar

Coates, E. J. (1973) ‘Some properties of relationships in the structure of indexing languages’, Journal of Documentation 29(4), 390-404. Google Scholar

Coates, E., Lloyd, G. and Simandl, S. (eds) (1978) Broad system of ordering: schedule and index. The Hague: International Federation for Documentation (FID). Available at www.ucl.ac.uk/fatks/bso. Google Scholar

de Grolier, E. (1962) A study of general categories applicable to classification and coding in documentation. Paris: Unesco. Google Scholar

Dousa, T. M. (2013) ‘Julius Otto Kaiser and his method of systematic indexing: an early indexing system in its historical context’. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Illinois. Available at http://hdl.handle.net/2142/46755. Google Scholar

Duncan, E. (1989) ‘A faceted approach to hypertext’, in R. McAleese (ed.), Hypertext: theory into practice. London: Intellect, pp. 157-63. Google Scholar

Ellis, D. and Vasconcelos, A. (1999) ‘Ranganathan and the Net: using facet analysis to search and organize the World Wide Web’, Aslib Proceedings 51(1), 3-10. Google Scholar

Ellis, D. and Vasconcelos, A. (2000) ‘The relevance of facet analysis for world wide web subject organization and searching’, in A. R. Thomas and J. R. Shearer (eds), Internet searching and indexing: the subject approach. Binghamton, NY: Haworth, pp. 97-114. Also published as Journal of Internet Cataloging 2(3-4). Google Scholar

FATKS (Facet analytical theory in knowledge structures) Project details and documentation available at www.ucl.ac.uk/fatks/. Google Scholar

Gardin, J. C. (1965) SYNTOL. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers State University. Google Scholar

Gödert, W. (1987) ‘Klassificationssysteme und Online-Katalog. Classification systems and the on-line catalogue’, Zeitschrift for Bibliothekswesen un Bibliographie 34(3), 185-95. Google Scholar

Gödert, W. (1991) ‘Facet classification in online retrieval’, International Classification 2, 98-109. Google Scholar

Guttman, L. (1959) ‘A structural theory for intergroup beliefs and action’, American Sociological Review 24(3), 318-28. Google Scholar

Hjørland, B. (2013) ‘Facet analysis: the logical approach to knowledge organization’, Information Processing and Management 49(2), 545-57. Google Scholar

Ingwersen, P. and Wormell, I. (1992) ‘Ranganathan in the perspective of advanced information retrieval’, Libri 42, 184-201. Google Scholar

ISO 25964 International Standard for Thesauri and Interoperability with Other Vocabularies (2011) NISO website. Available at www.niso.org. Google Scholar

Kaiser, J. (1911) Systematic indexing. London: Pitman. Google Scholar

La Barre, K. (2006) ‘The use of faceted analytico-synthetic theory in the practice of website construction and design’. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Indiana University. Available at https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/klabarre/www/LaBarre_FAST.pdf. Google Scholar

McIlwaine, I. C. and Williamson, N. J. (1994) ‘A feasibility study on the restructuring of the Universal Decimal Classification into a full-faceted classification system’, in H. Albrechtsen and S. Oernager (eds), Proceedings of the Third International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO) conference: knowledge organization and quality management, Copenhagen, Denmark, 20-24 Jun 94. Frankfurt am Main: INDEKS Verlag, pp. 406-13. Google Scholar

Miles, A. and Bechhofer, S. (eds) (2009) SKOS Simple knowledge organization system: reference. W3C recommendation 18 August 2009. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-skos-reference-20090818/. Google Scholar

Mills, J. and Broughton, V. (1977a) Bliss bibliographic classification, 2nd edn. London: Butterworth. Google Scholar

Mills, J. and Broughton, V. (1977b) Bliss bibliographic classification, 2nd edn. Class P Religion, occult, morals and ethics. London: Butterworth. Google Scholar

Mills, J. and Broughton, V. (1980) Bliss bibliographic classification, 2nd edn. Class H Anthropology, human biology, health sciences. London: Butterworth. Google Scholar

Otlet, P. and LaFontaine, H. (1905-7) Manuel du repertoire bibliographique universel. Brussels: International Institute of Bibliography. Google Scholar

Perry, J. W., Kent, A. and Berry, M. M. (1956) Machine literature searching. New York: Interscience. Google Scholar

Pollitt, A. S., Smith, M. P. and Braekevelt, P. (1996) ‘View-based searching systems: a new paradigm for information retrieval based on faceted classification and indexing using mutually constraining knowledge-based rules’, in C. Johnson and M. Dunlop (eds), Information retrieval and human computer interaction. Proceedings of the joint workshop of the information retrieval and human computer interaction specialist groups of the British Computer Society. GIST Technical Report G96-2, Glasgow University. Glasgow: Glasgow University, pp. 73-7. Google Scholar

Prasad, A. R. D. and Guha, N. (2008) ‘Concept naming vs. concept categorisation: a faceted approach to semantic annotation’, Online Information Review 32(4), 500-10. Google Scholar

Ranganathan, S. R. (1945) Dictionary catalogue code. Madras: Thompson and London: Grafton. Google Scholar

Ranganathan, S. R. (1951) Classified catalogue code. Madras: Madras Library Association and London: Blunt & Sons, 1951. Google Scholar

Ranganathan, S. R. (1967) Prolegomena to library classification, 3rd edn. New York: Asia Publishing House. Google Scholar

Slavic, A. and Cordeiro, I. (2002) ‘Data models for knowledge organization tools: evolution and perspectives’, in M. J. Lopez-Huertas and F. J. Munoz-Fernandez (eds), Challenges in knowledge representation and organization for the 21st century. Integration of knowledge across boundaries. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization, Granada, Spain, 10-13 July 2002 (Advances in Knowledge Organization 8). Würzburg: Ergon, pp. 127-34. Google Scholar

Slavic, A. and Cordeiro, I. (2004) ‘Core requirements for automation of analytico-synthetic classifications’, in I. C. McIlwaine (ed.), Knowledge organization and the global information society. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization, University College London, 13-16 July 2004 (Advances in Knowledge Organization 9). Würzburg: Ergon, pp. 187-92. Google Scholar

Zins, C. and Santos, P. L. V. A. C. (2011) ‘Mapping the knowledge covered by library classification systems’, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 62, 877-901. Google Scholar

Adkisson, H. P. (2005) Web design practices: use of faceted classification. Available at www.webdesign-practices.com/navigation/facets.html. Google Scholar

Aitchison, J. (1970) ‘The Thesaurofacet: a multipurpose retrieval language tool’, Journal of Documentation 26(3), 187-203. Google Scholar

Aitchison, J. (1986) ‘A classification as a source for a thesaurus: the Bibliographic Classification of H. E. Bliss as a source of thesaurus terms and structure’, Journal of Documentation 42(3), 160-81. Google Scholar

Aitchison, J. (2004) ‘Thesauri from BC2: problems and possibilities revealed in an experimental thesaurus derived from the Bliss Music schedule’, Bliss Classification Bulletin 46, 20-6. Google Scholar

Allen, R. B. (1995a) ‘Retrieval from facet spaces’, Electronic Publishing 8(2-3), 247-58. Google Scholar

Allen, R. B. (1995b) ‘Two digital library interfaces that exploit hierarchical structure’, in Proceedings of DAGS95, Electronic Publishing in the Information Superhighway, Boston, Massachusetts, May 30-June 2, pp. 134-41. Google Scholar

Art and architecture thesaurus (1994) New York: Oxford University Press. Available at http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/aat/. Google Scholar

Austin, D. (1984) PRECIS: a manual of concept analysis and subject indexing, 2nd edn. London: The British Library Bibliographic Services Division. Google Scholar

Beghtol, C. (1995) ‘Facets as interdisciplinary undiscovered public knowledge: S. R. Ranganathan in India and L. Guttman in Israel’, Journal of Documentation 51(3), 194-224. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (1998) ‘The development of a common auxiliary schedule of property: a preliminary survey and proposal for its development’, Extensions and Corrections to the UDC 20, 37-42. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2000) ‘A new classification for the literature of religion’, International Cataloguing and Bibliographic Control 29(4), 59-61. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2001) ‘Faceted classification as a basis for knowledge organization in a digital environment: the Bliss Bibliographic Classification and the creation of multi-dimensional knowledge structures’, New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia 7, 67-102. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2002a) ‘Facet analytical theory as a basis for a knowledge organization tool in a subject portal’, in M. J. Lopez-Huertas and F. J. Munoz-Fernandez (eds), Challenges in knowledge representation and organization for the 21st century: integration of knowledge across boundaries. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization, Granada, Spain, 10-13 July 2002 (Advances in Knowledge Organization 8). Würzburg: Ergon, pp. 135-41. Available at http://www.ucl.ac.uk/fatks/paper2.htm. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2002b) ‘A new common auxiliary for relations, processes and operations’, Extensions and Corrections to the UDC 24, 29-35. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2002c) ‘Organizing a national humanities portal: a model for the classification and subject management of digital resources’, Information Research Watch International June, 2-4. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2006) ‘The need for faceted classification as the basis of all information retrieval’, Aslib Proceedings 58(2), 49-72. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2008) ‘A faceted classification as the basis of a faceted terminology: conversion of a classified structure to thesaurus format in the Bliss Bibliographic Classification, 2nd edition’, Axiomathes 18(2), 193-210. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2010) ‘Concepts and terms in the faceted classification: the case of UDC’, Knowledge Organization 37, 270-9. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. (2019) ‘The respective roles of intellectual creativity and automation in representing diversity: human and machine generated bias’, Knowledge Organization 46(8), 596-606. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. and Lane, H. (2000) ‘Classification schemes revisited: applications to web indexing and searching’, Journal of Internet Cataloging 2(3-4), 143-55. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. and Lane, H. (2004) ‘The Bliss Bibliographic Classification in action: moving from a special to a universal faceted classification via a digital platform’, in I. C. McIlwaine (ed.), Knowledge organization and the global information society. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization, University College London, 13-16 July 2004 (Advances in Knowledge Organization 9). Würzburg: Ergon, pp. 73-8. Google Scholar

Broughton, V. and Lomas, E. (2020) ‘Philosophical foundations for the organization of religious knowledge: irreconcilable diversity or a unity of purpose?’, Knowledge Organization 47(3), in press. Google Scholar

Broughton V. and Slavic, A. (2007) ‘Building a faceted classification for the humanities: principles and procedure’, Journal of Documentation 35(5), 727-54. Google Scholar

Checkland, P. B. (1989) ‘Soft systems methodology’, Human Systems Management 8(4), 273-89. Google Scholar

Classification Research Group (1955) ‘The need for a faceted classification as the basis for all methods of information retrieval’, Library Association Record 57(7), 262-8. Google Scholar

Classification Research Group (1969) Classification and information control: papers representing the work of the Classification Research Group during 1960-1968. London: Library Association. Google Scholar

Coates, E. J. (1960a) British catalogue of music classification. London: British National Bibliography. Google Scholar

Coates, E. J. (1960b) Subject catalogues: headings and structure. London: Library Association. Google Scholar

Coates, E. J. (1973) ‘Some properties of relationships in the structure of indexing languages’, Journal of Documentation 29(4), 390-404. Google Scholar

Coates, E., Lloyd, G. and Simandl, S. (eds) (1978) Broad system of ordering: schedule and index. The Hague: International Federation for Documentation (FID). Available at www.ucl.ac.uk/fatks/bso. Google Scholar

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Broughton, Vanda