Bulletin of Hispanic Studies

Recomplementation in Old Spanish - que as a Versatile Pragmatic Marker

Bulletin of Hispanic Studies (2020), 97, (10), 1031–1054.

Abstract

This paper is a qualitative study of a limited number of recomplementation structures in Old Spanish, isolating at least three different pragmatic uses connected to speech acts. The study shows that second que was a versatile marker with core functions connected to indirect and direct assertion. It is shown that the sandwiched material in structures with recomplementation belong to the higher fields of the left periphery, but that contrary to a 2007 analysis by Sandra Paoli, they are not always topical in nature, and second que can therefore not merely be a topic marker. It is argued that second que in its most neutral version is the lexicalization of a speech act-operator, generating a speaker deixis-projection such as that suggested in a 2006 paper by Liliane Haegeman, and compatible with the analysis proposed for interrogative clauses in 2013 by Carlos De Cuba and Jonathan E. MacDonald, as well as Francesc González i Planas’ pragmatic analyses for Modern Spanish, shedding light on the development of second que in the history of Spanish.

Este trabajo es un estudio cualitativo de un número limitado de estructuras oracionales que manifiestan el fenómeno conocido como recomplementación en el español antiguo, identificando por lo menos tres diferentes usos pragmáticos vinculados a los actos de habla. El estudio nos permite apreciar que el segundo que en estas estructuras era un marcador versátil cuya función primordial tenía que ver con la aserción directa e indirecta. Se muestra además que el material que aparece entre las dos manifestaciones de que en estructuras con recomplementación pertenece a la parte superior de la periferia izquierda, pero que no necesariamente es de naturaleza puramente tópica, como se ha sostenido en el análisis de 2007 de Sandra Paoli, implicando que este segundo que no puede ser un mero marcador de tópico. Se mantiene que este marcador pragmático en su versión más neutra lexicaliza un operador de acto de habla, que a su turno genera una proyección de deixis de locutor, tal y como sugirió Liliane Haegeman en su análisis de 2006, y compatible tanto con el análisis presentado en 2013 para las subordinadas interrogativas del español moderno por Carlos De Cuba y Jonathan E. MacDonald como los análisis pragmáticos de Francesc González i Planas sobre el español moderno, echando luz al desarrollo diacrónico de este fenómeno.

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Works cited

Benincà, Paola, and Cecilia Poletto, 2004. ‘Topic, Focus, and V2’, in The Structure of CP and IP, 2, ed. Luigi Rizzi (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 52-75. Google Scholar

Dagnac, Anne, 2018. ‘SyMiLa and the Atlas Linguistique de la France: A Tool for the Study of Gallo-Romance Syntax’, Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics 3: 1-23. Google Scholar

De Cuba, Carlos, and Jonathan E. MacDonald, 2013. ‘Referentiality in Spanish CPs’, in Information Structure and Agreement, ed. Victoria Camacho-Taboada, Ángel L. Jiménez-Fernández and Javier Martín-González (Amsterdam: John Benjamins). Google Scholar

De Cuba, Carlos, and Barbara Ürögdi, 2009. ‘Eliminating Factivity from Syntax: Sentential Complements in Hungarian’, in Approaches to Hungarian, ed. Marcel den Dikken and Robert M. Vago (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), pp. 29-64. Google Scholar

De Cuba, Carlos, and Barbara Ürögdi, 2010. ‘Clearing up the “Facts” on Complementation’, UPenn Working Papers in Linguistics 16.1: 40-50. Google Scholar

Demonte, Violeta, and Olga Fernández-Soriano, 2014. ‘Evidentiality and Illocutionary Force: Spanish Matrix que at the Syntax-pragmatics Interface’, in Left Sentence Peripheries in Spanish, ed. Andreas Dufter and Álvaro S. Octavio de Toledo (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), pp. 217-51. Google Scholar

Erteschik-Shir, Nomi, 1997. The Dynamics of Focus Structure (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Google Scholar

Fontana, Josep, 1993. ‘Phrase Structure and the Syntax of Clitics in the History of Spanish’, IRCS Technical Reports Series (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, Institute for Research in Cognitive Science). Google Scholar

Frascarelli, Mara, and Roland Hinterhölzl, 2007. ‘Types of Topics in German and Italian’, in On Information Structure, Meaning and Form, ed. Kerstin Schwabe and Susanne Winkler (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), pp. 87-116. Google Scholar

González i Planas, Francesc, 2010. ‘Cartografia de la recomplementación les llengües romàniques’, Master’s Thesis, Universitat de Girona. Google Scholar

González i Planas, Francesc, 2014. ‘On Quotative Recomplementation: Between Pragmatics and Syntax’, Lingua 146 (July): 39-74. Google Scholar

Gundel, Jeanette K., 1988. The Role of Topic and Comment in Linguistic Theory (New York: Garland Publishing). Google Scholar

Haegeman, Liliane, 2004. ‘The Syntax of Adverbial Clauses and its Consequences for Topicalisation’, Antwerp Paper in Linguistics 107: 61-91. Google Scholar

Haegeman, Liliane, 2006. ‘Conditionals, Factives and the Left Periphery’, Lingua 116: 1651-69. Google Scholar

Hagemann, Kristin, and Signe Laake (in press), ‘Deconstructing Stylistic Fronting in Old Norwegian and Old Spanish’, in Continuity and Variation in Germanic and Romance, ed. Christine Meklenborg and Sam Wolfe (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Google Scholar

Hooper, Joan B., and Sandra A. Thompson, 1973, ‘On the Applicability of Root Transformations’, Linguistic Inquiry 4.4: 465-97. Google Scholar

Jacobs, Joachim, 2001. ‘The Dimensions of Topic-comment’, Linguistics 39.4: 641-81. Google Scholar

Johansen, Janne Bondi, 2008. ‘The Pronominal Psychological Demonstrative in Scandinavian: Its Syntax, Semantics and Pragmatics’, Nordic Journal of Linguistics 31.2: 161-92. Google Scholar

Jøhndal, Marius L., Dag Haug and Anders Nøklestad, 2007-2016. Parallel Corpus from the Project Pragmatic Resources in Old Indo-European Languages (Oslo: University of Oslo). Google Scholar

Ledgeway, Adam, 2005. ‘Moving Through the Left Periphery: The Dual Complementiser System in the Dialects of Southern Italy’, Transactions of the Philological Society 10.3: 339-96. Google Scholar

Magaña, Elsie, 2005. ‘El paso de dice que a dizque, de la referencia a la evidencialidad’, Contribuciones desde Coatepec 8: 59-70. Google Scholar

Nelson, Michael, and Thomas McKay, 2014. ‘Propositional Attitude Reports’, in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta. Spring Edition (Stanford, CA: Stanford University). Google Scholar

Paoli, Sandra, 2003. ‘COMP and the Left-periphery: Comparative Evidence from Romance’, Ph.D Thesis, The University of Manchester. Google Scholar

Paoli, Sandra, 2007. ‘The Fine Structure of the Left Periphery: COMPs and Subjects Evidence from Romance’, Lingua 117: 1057-79. Google Scholar

Pitz, Anneliese, and Solfjeld, Kåre, 2019. ‘Redewiedergabe in Online-Pressetexten - kontrastiv’, Zeitschrift für germanistische Linguistik 47.1: 137-76. Google Scholar

Reinhart, Tanya, 1981. ‘Pragmatics and Linguistics: An Analysis of Sentence Topics’, Philosophica 27.1: 53-94. Google Scholar

Rizzi, Luigi, 1997. ‘The Fine Structure of the Left Periphery’, in Elements of Grammar, ed. Liliane Haegeman. Kluwer International Handbooks of Linguistics (The Netherlands: Springer), pp. 281-337. Google Scholar

Rizzi, Luigi, 2005. ‘On Some Properties of Subjects and Topics’, in Contributions to the Thirtieth Incontro di Grammatica Generativa, Venice, 26-28 February 2004, ed. Laura Brugé, Giuliana Giusti, Nicola Munaro, Walter Schweikert and Giuseppina Turano (Venice: Università Ca’ Foscari). Google Scholar

Roehrs, Dorian, and Marie Labelle, 2003. ‘The Left Periphery in Child French’, in Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2001, ed. Josep Quer, Jan Schroten, Mauro Scorretti, Petra Sleeman and Els Verheugd-Daatzelaar (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), pp. 279-94. Google Scholar

Salvesen, Christine Meklenborg, 2014. ‘Le Complémenteur que et la périphérie gauche: analyse diachronique’, Syntaxe & Sémantique 15: 47-80. Google Scholar

Uriagereka, Juan, 1995, ‘An F position in Western Romance’, in Discourse Configurational Languages, ed. Katalin É. Kiss (Oxford University Press), pp. 153-75. Google Scholar

Villa-García, Julio, 2012a. ‘Recomplementation and Locality of Movement in Spanish’, Probus 24.2: 257-314. Google Scholar

Villa-García, Julio, 2012b. ‘Characterizing Medial and Low Complementizers in Spanish: Recomplementation que and “Jussive/ Optative” que’, in Current Formal Aspects of Spanish Syntax and Semantics, ed. Melvin González-Rivera and Sandro Sessarego (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing), pp. 198-228. Google Scholar

Villa-García, Julio, 2015. The Syntax of Multiple-que Sentences in Spanish (Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins). Google Scholar

Villa-García, Julio, 2019. ‘Recomplementation in English and Spanish: Delineating the CP Space’, Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics 4: 1-44. Google Scholar

Wanner, Dieter, 1998. ‘Les Subordonnées à double complémentateur en roman médiéval’, Atti del XXI Congresso Internazionale di Linguistica e Filologia Romanza (Palermo, 1995) (Tübingen: Niemeyer), I, pp. 421-33. Google Scholar

Benincà, Paola, and Cecilia Poletto, 2004. ‘Topic, Focus, and V2’, in The Structure of CP and IP, 2, ed. Luigi Rizzi (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 52-75. Google Scholar

Dagnac, Anne, 2018. ‘SyMiLa and the Atlas Linguistique de la France: A Tool for the Study of Gallo-Romance Syntax’, Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics 3: 1-23. Google Scholar

De Cuba, Carlos, and Jonathan E. MacDonald, 2013. ‘Referentiality in Spanish CPs’, in Information Structure and Agreement, ed. Victoria Camacho-Taboada, Ángel L. Jiménez-Fernández and Javier Martín-González (Amsterdam: John Benjamins). Google Scholar

De Cuba, Carlos, and Barbara Ürögdi, 2009. ‘Eliminating Factivity from Syntax: Sentential Complements in Hungarian’, in Approaches to Hungarian, ed. Marcel den Dikken and Robert M. Vago (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), pp. 29-64. Google Scholar

De Cuba, Carlos, and Barbara Ürögdi, 2010. ‘Clearing up the “Facts” on Complementation’, UPenn Working Papers in Linguistics 16.1: 40-50. Google Scholar

Demonte, Violeta, and Olga Fernández-Soriano, 2014. ‘Evidentiality and Illocutionary Force: Spanish Matrix que at the Syntax-pragmatics Interface’, in Left Sentence Peripheries in Spanish, ed. Andreas Dufter and Álvaro S. Octavio de Toledo (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), pp. 217-51. Google Scholar

Erteschik-Shir, Nomi, 1997. The Dynamics of Focus Structure (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Google Scholar

Fontana, Josep, 1993. ‘Phrase Structure and the Syntax of Clitics in the History of Spanish’, IRCS Technical Reports Series (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, Institute for Research in Cognitive Science). Google Scholar

Frascarelli, Mara, and Roland Hinterhölzl, 2007. ‘Types of Topics in German and Italian’, in On Information Structure, Meaning and Form, ed. Kerstin Schwabe and Susanne Winkler (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), pp. 87-116. Google Scholar

González i Planas, Francesc, 2010. ‘Cartografia de la recomplementación les llengües romàniques’, Master’s Thesis, Universitat de Girona. Google Scholar

González i Planas, Francesc, 2014. ‘On Quotative Recomplementation: Between Pragmatics and Syntax’, Lingua 146 (July): 39-74. Google Scholar

Gundel, Jeanette K., 1988. The Role of Topic and Comment in Linguistic Theory (New York: Garland Publishing). Google Scholar

Haegeman, Liliane, 2004. ‘The Syntax of Adverbial Clauses and its Consequences for Topicalisation’, Antwerp Paper in Linguistics 107: 61-91. Google Scholar

Haegeman, Liliane, 2006. ‘Conditionals, Factives and the Left Periphery’, Lingua 116: 1651-69. Google Scholar

Hagemann, Kristin, and Signe Laake (in press), ‘Deconstructing Stylistic Fronting in Old Norwegian and Old Spanish’, in Continuity and Variation in Germanic and Romance, ed. Christine Meklenborg and Sam Wolfe (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Google Scholar

Hooper, Joan B., and Sandra A. Thompson, 1973, ‘On the Applicability of Root Transformations’, Linguistic Inquiry 4.4: 465-97. Google Scholar

Jacobs, Joachim, 2001. ‘The Dimensions of Topic-comment’, Linguistics 39.4: 641-81. Google Scholar

Johansen, Janne Bondi, 2008. ‘The Pronominal Psychological Demonstrative in Scandinavian: Its Syntax, Semantics and Pragmatics’, Nordic Journal of Linguistics 31.2: 161-92. Google Scholar

Jøhndal, Marius L., Dag Haug and Anders Nøklestad, 2007-2016. Parallel Corpus from the Project Pragmatic Resources in Old Indo-European Languages (Oslo: University of Oslo). Google Scholar

Ledgeway, Adam, 2005. ‘Moving Through the Left Periphery: The Dual Complementiser System in the Dialects of Southern Italy’, Transactions of the Philological Society 10.3: 339-96. Google Scholar

Magaña, Elsie, 2005. ‘El paso de dice que a dizque, de la referencia a la evidencialidad’, Contribuciones desde Coatepec 8: 59-70. Google Scholar

Nelson, Michael, and Thomas McKay, 2014. ‘Propositional Attitude Reports’, in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta. Spring Edition (Stanford, CA: Stanford University). Google Scholar

Paoli, Sandra, 2003. ‘COMP and the Left-periphery: Comparative Evidence from Romance’, Ph.D Thesis, The University of Manchester. Google Scholar

Paoli, Sandra, 2007. ‘The Fine Structure of the Left Periphery: COMPs and Subjects Evidence from Romance’, Lingua 117: 1057-79. Google Scholar

Pitz, Anneliese, and Solfjeld, Kåre, 2019. ‘Redewiedergabe in Online-Pressetexten - kontrastiv’, Zeitschrift für germanistische Linguistik 47.1: 137-76. Google Scholar

Reinhart, Tanya, 1981. ‘Pragmatics and Linguistics: An Analysis of Sentence Topics’, Philosophica 27.1: 53-94. Google Scholar

Rizzi, Luigi, 1997. ‘The Fine Structure of the Left Periphery’, in Elements of Grammar, ed. Liliane Haegeman. Kluwer International Handbooks of Linguistics (The Netherlands: Springer), pp. 281-337. Google Scholar

Rizzi, Luigi, 2005. ‘On Some Properties of Subjects and Topics’, in Contributions to the Thirtieth Incontro di Grammatica Generativa, Venice, 26-28 February 2004, ed. Laura Brugé, Giuliana Giusti, Nicola Munaro, Walter Schweikert and Giuseppina Turano (Venice: Università Ca’ Foscari). Google Scholar

Roehrs, Dorian, and Marie Labelle, 2003. ‘The Left Periphery in Child French’, in Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2001, ed. Josep Quer, Jan Schroten, Mauro Scorretti, Petra Sleeman and Els Verheugd-Daatzelaar (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), pp. 279-94. Google Scholar

Salvesen, Christine Meklenborg, 2014. ‘Le Complémenteur que et la périphérie gauche: analyse diachronique’, Syntaxe & Sémantique 15: 47-80. Google Scholar

Uriagereka, Juan, 1995, ‘An F position in Western Romance’, in Discourse Configurational Languages, ed. Katalin É. Kiss (Oxford University Press), pp. 153-75. Google Scholar

Villa-García, Julio, 2012a. ‘Recomplementation and Locality of Movement in Spanish’, Probus 24.2: 257-314. Google Scholar

Villa-García, Julio, 2012b. ‘Characterizing Medial and Low Complementizers in Spanish: Recomplementation que and “Jussive/ Optative” que’, in Current Formal Aspects of Spanish Syntax and Semantics, ed. Melvin González-Rivera and Sandro Sessarego (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing), pp. 198-228. Google Scholar

Villa-García, Julio, 2015. The Syntax of Multiple-que Sentences in Spanish (Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins). Google Scholar

Villa-García, Julio, 2019. ‘Recomplementation in English and Spanish: Delineating the CP Space’, Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics 4: 1-44. Google Scholar

Wanner, Dieter, 1998. ‘Les Subordonnées à double complémentateur en roman médiéval’, Atti del XXI Congresso Internazionale di Linguistica e Filologia Romanza (Palermo, 1995) (Tübingen: Niemeyer), I, pp. 421-33. Google Scholar

Benincà, Paola, and Cecilia Poletto, 2004. ‘Topic, Focus, and V2’, in The Structure of CP and IP, 2, ed. Luigi Rizzi (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 52-75. Google Scholar

Dagnac, Anne, 2018. ‘SyMiLa and the Atlas Linguistique de la France: A Tool for the Study of Gallo-Romance Syntax’, Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics 3: 1-23. Google Scholar

De Cuba, Carlos, and Jonathan E. MacDonald, 2013. ‘Referentiality in Spanish CPs’, in Information Structure and Agreement, ed. Victoria Camacho-Taboada, Ángel L. Jiménez-Fernández and Javier Martín-González (Amsterdam: John Benjamins). Google Scholar

De Cuba, Carlos, and Barbara Ürögdi, 2009. ‘Eliminating Factivity from Syntax: Sentential Complements in Hungarian’, in Approaches to Hungarian, ed. Marcel den Dikken and Robert M. Vago (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), pp. 29-64. Google Scholar

De Cuba, Carlos, and Barbara Ürögdi, 2010. ‘Clearing up the “Facts” on Complementation’, UPenn Working Papers in Linguistics 16.1: 40-50. Google Scholar

Demonte, Violeta, and Olga Fernández-Soriano, 2014. ‘Evidentiality and Illocutionary Force: Spanish Matrix que at the Syntax-pragmatics Interface’, in Left Sentence Peripheries in Spanish, ed. Andreas Dufter and Álvaro S. Octavio de Toledo (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), pp. 217-51. Google Scholar

Erteschik-Shir, Nomi, 1997. The Dynamics of Focus Structure (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Google Scholar

Fontana, Josep, 1993. ‘Phrase Structure and the Syntax of Clitics in the History of Spanish’, IRCS Technical Reports Series (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, Institute for Research in Cognitive Science). Google Scholar

Frascarelli, Mara, and Roland Hinterhölzl, 2007. ‘Types of Topics in German and Italian’, in On Information Structure, Meaning and Form, ed. Kerstin Schwabe and Susanne Winkler (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), pp. 87-116. Google Scholar

González i Planas, Francesc, 2010. ‘Cartografia de la recomplementación les llengües romàniques’, Master’s Thesis, Universitat de Girona. Google Scholar

González i Planas, Francesc, 2014. ‘On Quotative Recomplementation: Between Pragmatics and Syntax’, Lingua 146 (July): 39-74. Google Scholar

Gundel, Jeanette K., 1988. The Role of Topic and Comment in Linguistic Theory (New York: Garland Publishing). Google Scholar

Haegeman, Liliane, 2004. ‘The Syntax of Adverbial Clauses and its Consequences for Topicalisation’, Antwerp Paper in Linguistics 107: 61-91. Google Scholar

Haegeman, Liliane, 2006. ‘Conditionals, Factives and the Left Periphery’, Lingua 116: 1651-69. Google Scholar

Hagemann, Kristin, and Signe Laake (in press), ‘Deconstructing Stylistic Fronting in Old Norwegian and Old Spanish’, in Continuity and Variation in Germanic and Romance, ed. Christine Meklenborg and Sam Wolfe (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Google Scholar

Hooper, Joan B., and Sandra A. Thompson, 1973, ‘On the Applicability of Root Transformations’, Linguistic Inquiry 4.4: 465-97. Google Scholar

Jacobs, Joachim, 2001. ‘The Dimensions of Topic-comment’, Linguistics 39.4: 641-81. Google Scholar

Johansen, Janne Bondi, 2008. ‘The Pronominal Psychological Demonstrative in Scandinavian: Its Syntax, Semantics and Pragmatics’, Nordic Journal of Linguistics 31.2: 161-92. Google Scholar

Jøhndal, Marius L., Dag Haug and Anders Nøklestad, 2007-2016. Parallel Corpus from the Project Pragmatic Resources in Old Indo-European Languages (Oslo: University of Oslo). Google Scholar

Ledgeway, Adam, 2005. ‘Moving Through the Left Periphery: The Dual Complementiser System in the Dialects of Southern Italy’, Transactions of the Philological Society 10.3: 339-96. Google Scholar

Magaña, Elsie, 2005. ‘El paso de dice que a dizque, de la referencia a la evidencialidad’, Contribuciones desde Coatepec 8: 59-70. Google Scholar

Nelson, Michael, and Thomas McKay, 2014. ‘Propositional Attitude Reports’, in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta. Spring Edition (Stanford, CA: Stanford University). Google Scholar

Paoli, Sandra, 2003. ‘COMP and the Left-periphery: Comparative Evidence from Romance’, Ph.D Thesis, The University of Manchester. Google Scholar

Paoli, Sandra, 2007. ‘The Fine Structure of the Left Periphery: COMPs and Subjects Evidence from Romance’, Lingua 117: 1057-79. Google Scholar

Pitz, Anneliese, and Solfjeld, Kåre, 2019. ‘Redewiedergabe in Online-Pressetexten - kontrastiv’, Zeitschrift für germanistische Linguistik 47.1: 137-76. Google Scholar

Reinhart, Tanya, 1981. ‘Pragmatics and Linguistics: An Analysis of Sentence Topics’, Philosophica 27.1: 53-94. Google Scholar

Rizzi, Luigi, 1997. ‘The Fine Structure of the Left Periphery’, in Elements of Grammar, ed. Liliane Haegeman. Kluwer International Handbooks of Linguistics (The Netherlands: Springer), pp. 281-337. Google Scholar

Rizzi, Luigi, 2005. ‘On Some Properties of Subjects and Topics’, in Contributions to the Thirtieth Incontro di Grammatica Generativa, Venice, 26-28 February 2004, ed. Laura Brugé, Giuliana Giusti, Nicola Munaro, Walter Schweikert and Giuseppina Turano (Venice: Università Ca’ Foscari). Google Scholar

Roehrs, Dorian, and Marie Labelle, 2003. ‘The Left Periphery in Child French’, in Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory 2001, ed. Josep Quer, Jan Schroten, Mauro Scorretti, Petra Sleeman and Els Verheugd-Daatzelaar (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), pp. 279-94. Google Scholar

Salvesen, Christine Meklenborg, 2014. ‘Le Complémenteur que et la périphérie gauche: analyse diachronique’, Syntaxe & Sémantique 15: 47-80. Google Scholar

Uriagereka, Juan, 1995, ‘An F position in Western Romance’, in Discourse Configurational Languages, ed. Katalin É. Kiss (Oxford University Press), pp. 153-75. Google Scholar

Villa-García, Julio, 2012a. ‘Recomplementation and Locality of Movement in Spanish’, Probus 24.2: 257-314. Google Scholar

Villa-García, Julio, 2012b. ‘Characterizing Medial and Low Complementizers in Spanish: Recomplementation que and “Jussive/ Optative” que’, in Current Formal Aspects of Spanish Syntax and Semantics, ed. Melvin González-Rivera and Sandro Sessarego (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing), pp. 198-228. Google Scholar

Villa-García, Julio, 2015. The Syntax of Multiple-que Sentences in Spanish (Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins). Google Scholar

Villa-García, Julio, 2019. ‘Recomplementation in English and Spanish: Delineating the CP Space’, Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics 4: 1-44. Google Scholar

Wanner, Dieter, 1998. ‘Les Subordonnées à double complémentateur en roman médiéval’, Atti del XXI Congresso Internazionale di Linguistica e Filologia Romanza (Palermo, 1995) (Tübingen: Niemeyer), I, pp. 421-33. Google Scholar

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HAGEMANN, KRISTIN