European Journal of Language Policy

Between internationalising science and multilingualising knowledge

The case of research evaluation

European Journal of Language Policy (2021), 13, (1), 75–101.

Abstract

This article raises the question of the conditions for the internationalisation of universities, its links with linguistic practices and its impact on the dynamics of scientific knowledge. First, it questions the notion of internationalisation, defined in a variable manner and affecting both institutions and knowledge. The links between internationalisation and language (non-)choices (monolingual or plurilingual) have been established. They challenge both the governance of universities and the implementation of curricula. Secondly, this article proposes a reflection on three major functions of language and discourse: communication, representation and contextualisation. It shows that policies in favour of monolingualism in science generally favour the function of communication. The importance of these functions varies, moreover, according to the nature of the scientific practices considered, more or less contextualised and more or less central for the development of knowledge. Third, the article looks at a study carried out within the framework of a national research funding agency in a multilingual country. It describes language practices in research evaluation across a variety of disciplines but focuses in particular on the representations of research advisers regarding the links between science and language(s). In conclusion, this article emphasises the importance, for academic institutions, to develop an explicit, socially responsible language policy that is aware of the consequences of decisions made along the entire educational chain.

Cet article pose la question des conditions de l’internationalisation des universités, de ses liens avec les pratiques linguistiques et de son impact sur la dynamique des savoirs scientifiques. Dans un premier temps, il interroge la notion d’internationalisation, définie de manière variable et touchant aussi bien les institutions que les savoirs. Les liens entre internationalisation et (non-)choix linguistiques (monolingues ou plurilingues) sont posés. Ils interpellent aussi bien la gouvernance des universités que la mise en place des curriculums. Dans un deuxième temps, cet article propose une réflexion sur trois fonctions majeures des langues et des discours : communication, représentation et contextualisation. Il montre que les politiques en faveur du monolinguisme dans la science privilégient en général la fonction de communication. L’importance de ces fonctions varie, par ailleurs, selon la nature des pratiques scientifiques considérées, plus ou moins contextualisées et plus ou moins centrales pour l’élaboration des savoirs. Dans un troisième temps, l’article se penche sur une étude menée dans le cadre d’une agence nationale de financement de la recherche dans un pays multilingue. Il décrit les pratiques linguistiques dans l’évaluation de la recherche à travers une diversité de disciplines, mais se focalise en particulier sur les représentations des conseillers à la recherche quant aux liens entre science et langue(s). En conclusion, cet article insiste sur l’importance, pour les institutions académiques, de développer une politique linguistique explicite, socialement responsable et consciente des conséquences des décisions prises sur toute la chaine éducative.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

References

Airey, J. (2012) ‘“I Don’t Teach Language”: the Linguistic Attitudes of Physics Lectures in Sweden’, AILA Review 25: 64-79. Google Scholar

Altbach, P.G. (2007) ‘The Imperial Tongue: English As the Dominating Academic Language’, Economic and Political Weekly 42(36): 3608-11. Google Scholar

Amano, T., González-Varo, J.P. and Sutherland, W.J. (2016) ‘Languages Are Still a Major Barrier to Global Science’, PliS Biol 14(12): e2000933. Google Scholar

Ammon, U. (2007) ‘Global Scientific Communication. Open Questions and Policy Suggestions’, AILA Review 20: 123-33. Google Scholar

Berthoud, A.-C. (2016) ‘Une communication scientifique plurilingue au service de la qualité des savoirs’, in S. Borg, M. Cheggour, N. Desrochers, L. Gajo, V. Larivière and M. Vlad (eds), L’Université en contexte plurilingue dans la dynamique numérique. Paris: Editions des Archives Contemporaines, 167-74. Google Scholar

Berthoud, A.-C. and Gajo, L. (2020) The Multilingual Challenge for the Construction and Transmission of Scientific Knowledge. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Google Scholar

Bialystok E., Craik, F. and Luk, G. (2012) ‘Bilingualism: Consequences for Mind and Brain’, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16(4): 240-50. Google Scholar

Bordons, M. and Gómez, I. (2004) ‘Towards a Single Language in Science? A Spanish View’, Serials 17(2), 189-95. Google Scholar

Bortolus, A. (2012) ‘Running Like Alice and Losing Good Ideas: On the Quasi-Compulsive Use of English by Non-Native English Speaking Scientists’, Ambio 41(7):769-72. Google Scholar

Bruchhagen, V. (2008) ‘Managing Gender and Diversity: Eine kritische Gestaltungperspektive für den Profit- und Non-Profit-Bereich’, in K. Iber and B. Virtbauer (eds), Diversity Management: Eine transdisziplinäre Herausforderung. Göttingen: V&R unipress, 83-92. Google Scholar

Callan, H. (1998) ‘Internationalisation in Europe’, in P. Scott (ed.), The Globalisation of Higher Education. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 44-57. Google Scholar

Chan, W. and C. Dimmock (2008) ‘The Internationalization of Universities: Globalist, Internationalist and Translocalist Models’, Journal of Research in International Education 7(2): 184-204. Google Scholar

Charle, C. (2018) ‘L’internationalisation des universités XIXe-XXIe siècles’, in F. Le Lièvre et al. (eds), Langues et cultures dans l’internationalisation de l’enseignement supérieur au XXe siècle. (Re)penser les politiques linguistiques: anglais et plurilinguisme. Bern: Peter Lang, 5-40. Google Scholar

Codo, E. and Pérez-Milans, M. (2014) ‘Multilingual Discursive Practices and Processes of Change in Globalising Spaces: A Critical Ethnographic Perspective’, International Journal of Multilingualism 11(4): 1-8. Google Scholar

Coleman, J.A. (2006) ‘English-Medium Teaching in European Higher Education’, Language Teaching 39(1): 1-14. Google Scholar

Curry, J. and Lillis, T. (2018) ‘The Dangers of English as Lingua Franca of Journals’, Inside Higher Ed, 13 March, Available at: https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2018/03/13/domination-english-language-journal-publishing-hurting-scholarship-many-countries (accessed 10 June 2020). Google Scholar

Di Bitetti, M.S. and Ferreras, J.A. (2017) ‘Publish (in English) or Perish: The Effect on Citation Rate of Using Languages Other Than English in Scientific Publications’, Ambio 46(1): 121-7. Google Scholar

Dimova, A.K., Hultgren, K. and Jensen, C. (2015) English-medium Instruction in European Higher Education. Boston/Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. Google Scholar

Donohue, J. and Erling, E. (2012) ‘Investigating the Relationship Between the Use of English for Academic Purposes and Academic Attainment’, Journal of English for Academic Purposes 11(3): 201-19. Google Scholar

Escudé, P. and Gajo, L. (2016) ‘Langue unique ou modélisation du contact des langues dans l’université mondiale?’, in S. Borg, M. Cheggour, N. Desrochers, L. Gajo, V. Larivière and M. Vlad (eds), L’Université en contexte plurilingue dans la dynamique numérique. Paris: Editions des archives contemporaines, 161-6. Google Scholar

Fabricius, A.H. (2017) ‘The “Internationalised” Academic: Negotiating Boundaries between the Local, the Regional and the “International” at the University’, in J. Angouri, M. Marra and J. Holmes (eds), Negotiating Boundaries at Work: Talking and Transitions. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 155-77. Google Scholar

Fabricius, A.H. and Preisler, B. (eds) (2015) Transcultural Interaction and Linguistic Diversity in Higher Education: The Student Experience. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Google Scholar

Frath, P. (2014) ‘Anthropologie de l’anglicisation de l’université et de la recherche’, Philologica Jassyensia, Anul X 1(19): 251-64. Google Scholar

Fürst, G. and Grin, F. (2017) ‘Multilingualism and Creativity: A Multivariate Approach’, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 39(4): 341-55. Google Scholar

Gajo, L., Grobet, A., Serra, C., Steffen, G., Müller, G. and Berthoud, A.-C. (2013) ‘Plurilingualisms and Knowledge Construction in Higher Education’, in A.-C. Berthoud, F. Grin and G. Lüdi (eds), Exploring the Dynamics of Multilingualism. The DYLAN Research Project. Multilingualism and Diversity Management. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: Benjamins, 287-308. Google Scholar

Gajo, L. and Steffen G. (2014) ‘Science et plurilinguisme : savoirs et perspectives en tension’, in A.-C. Berthoud and M. Burger (eds), Repenser le rôle des pratiques langagières dans la constitution des espaces sociaux contemporains. Paris, Bruxelles: DeBoeck. 107-24. Google Scholar

Gazzola, M. (2010) ‘La valutazione della ricerca e l’internazionalizzazione dell’unversità: quali effetti sulla diversità lingustica?’, Plurilinguismo. Contatti di lingue e culture 15: 43-58. Google Scholar

Gohard-Radenkovic, A., Gremion, M., Veillette, J. and Yanaprasart, P. (2012) ‘Une introduction: Stratégies de (re)médiation dans des situations plurilingues’, Alterstice - Revue Internationale de la Recherche Interculturelle 2(1): 3-8. Google Scholar

Graddol, D. (2006) English Next. London: British Council. Google Scholar

Haberland, H. (2009) ‘English: The Language of Globalism?’, RASK: Internationalttidsskrift for sprog og kommunikation 30: 17-45. Google Scholar

Hamel, R.-E. (2007) ‘The Dominance of English in the International Scientific Periodical Literature and the Future of Language use in Science’, AILA Review 20: 53-71. Google Scholar

Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (HRK) (2011) Sprachenpolitik an deutschen Hochschulen. Empfehlung der 11. Mitgliederversammlung der HRK am 22.11.2011. - Bonn. Available at: https://www.hrk.de/fileadmin/_migrated/content_uploads/Empfehlung_Sprachenpolitik_MV_22112011.pdf (accessed 10 June 2020). Google Scholar

House, J. and Lévy-Tödter, M. (2010) ‘Linguistic Competence and Professional Identity in English Medium Instruction’, in B. Meyer and B. Apfelbaum (eds), Multilingualism at Work: From Policies to Practices in Public, Medical and Business Settings. Hamburg Studies on Multilingualism 9. Hamburg: John Benjamins, 13-45. Google Scholar

Huang, C. and Schneider-Mizony, O. (2014) ‘L’anglicisation universitaire de l’Allemagne, vue de Chine’, Les Langues Modernes 1: 50-9. Google Scholar

Hughes, R. (2008) ‘Internationalisation of Higher Education and Language Policy: Questions of Quality and Equity’, Higher Education Management and Policy 20(1): 50-9. Google Scholar

Jackson, J. (2010) Intercultural Journeys from Study to Residence Abroad. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Google Scholar

Knight, J. (1997) ‘Internationalisation of Higher Education: A Conceptual Framework’, in J. Knight and H. de Wit (eds), Internationalisation of Higher Education in Asia-Pacific Countries. Amsterdam: European Association for International Education. Google Scholar

Kushner, E. (2003) ‘English As Global Language: Problems, Dangers, Opportunities’, Diogenes 50: 17-23. Google Scholar

Le Liève, F., Anquetil, M., Derivry-Plard, M., Fäcke, C. and Verstraete-Hansen, L. (eds) (2018) Langues et cultures dans l’internationalisation de l’enseignement supérieur au XXIe siècle. (Re)penser les politiques linguistiques: anglais et plurilinguisme. Berne: Transversales 46. Google Scholar

Leresche, J.-Ph., Larédo, P. and Weber, K. (2009) Introduction. Recherche et enseignement supérieur face à l’internationalisation. France, Suisse et Union européenne. Lausanne: Presse polytechniques et universitaires romandes, 3-24. Google Scholar

Lüdi, G., Höchle Meier, K. and Yanaprasart, P. (eds) (2016) Managing Plurilingual and Intercultural Practices in the Workplace. The Case of Multilingual Switzerland. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Google Scholar

Macaro, E. (2018) English Medium Instruction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

Macaro, E., Curle, V., Pun, J., Na, J. and Dearden, J. (2018) ‘A Systematic Review of English Medium Instruction in Higher Education’, Language Teaching 51(1): 36-76. Google Scholar

Maringe, F. (2010) ‘The Meanings of Globalisation and Internationalisation in HE: Findings From a World Survey’, in F. Maringe and N. Foskett (eds), Globalisation and Internationalisation in Higher Education. Theoretical, Strategic and Management Perspectives. London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 17-34. Google Scholar

Meisel, J. (2004) ‘The Bilingual Child’, in T.K. Bhatia and W.C. Ritchie (eds), The Handbook of Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 91-113. Google Scholar

Meneghini, R. and Packer, A.L. (2007) ‘Is There Science Beyond English? Initiative to Increase the Quality and Visibility of Non-English Publications Might Help to Break Down Language Barriers in Scientific Communication’, EMBO 8(2): 112-6. Google Scholar

Ofori-Adjei, D., Antes, G., Tharyan, P., Slade, E. and Tamber, P.S. (2006) ‘Have Online International Medical Journals Made Local Journals Obsolete?’, PLoS Med 3: e359. Google Scholar

Phillipson, R. (2016) ‘Additive University Multilingualism in English-Dominant Empire: the Language Policy Challenges’, in M. Langner and V. Jovanovic (eds), Facetten der Mehrsprachigkeit / Reflets du plurilinguisme: Die Wahl der Sprachen: Luxemburg in Europa / Le choix des langues: Le Luxembourg à L’heure Européenne. Bern: Peter Lang, 139-61. Google Scholar

Preisler, B., Klitgard, I. and Fabricius, A.H. (eds) (2011) Language and Learning in the International University. From English Uniformity to Diversity and Hybridity. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Google Scholar

Salomone, R. (2015) ‘The Rise of Global English: Challenges for English-Medium Instruction and Language Rights’, Language Problems and Language Planning 39(3): 245-68. Google Scholar

Sercombe, P. and Young, T. (2015) ‘Student Adjustment: Diversity and Uniformity of Experience’, in A.H. Fabricius and B. Presiler (eds), Transcultural Interaction and Linguistic Diversity in Higher Education. the Student Experience. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 34-55. Google Scholar

Snow, C.P. (1959) The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

Steffen, G., Darbellay, F. and Gajo, L. (2017) Les pratiques d’évaluation des projets de recherche à l’épreuve de la diversité des langues. Rapport court du Mandat de recherche du FNS. Juin 2017. Google Scholar

Steffen, G., Gajo, L. and Darbellay, F. (2019) ‘Les langues dans la recherche scientifique et son évaluation: quelques regards’, Bulletin suisse de linguistique appliquée 109: 93-110. Google Scholar

Sunderland, T.C.H., Sunderland-Groves, J., Shanley, P. and Campbell, B.M. (2009) ‘Bridging the Gap: How Can Information Access and Exchange Between Conservation Biologists and Field Practitioners Be Improved for Better Conservation Outcomes?’, Biotropica 41: 549-54. Google Scholar

Tange, H. (2012) ‘Wars of Words. Management Policy and Employee Practice at the International University’, Tamara 10(4): 1-24. Google Scholar

Truchot, C. (2018) ‘Internationalisation, Anglicisation et Politique Publique De L’enseignement Supérieur’, in F. Le Lièvre, M. Anquetil, M. Derivry-Plard, C. Fäcke and L. Verstraete-Hansen (eds), Langues et Cultures dans L’internationalisation de L’enseignement Supérieur au Xxe Siècle. (Re)Penser les Politiques Linguistiques: Anglais et Plurilinguisme. Bern: Peter Lang, 41-58. Google Scholar

Van der Walt, C. (2013) Multilingual Higher Education. Beyond English Medium Orientations. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Google Scholar

van Weijen, D. (2012) ‘The Language of (Future) Scientific Communication’, November, Research Trends 31. Available at: https://www.researchtrends.com/issue-31-november-2012/the-language-of-future-scientific-communication/ (accessed 10 June 2020). Google Scholar

Veronesi, D. and Nickenig, C. (eds) (2009) Bi- and Multilingual Universities: European Perspectives and Beyond. Bolzano: Bozen-Bolzano University Press. Google Scholar

Vygotsky, L. (1997) Pensée et langage. Paris: La Dispute. Google Scholar

Wächter, B. and Maiworm, F. (eds) (2014) English-taught Programmes in European Higher Education: The State of Play in 2014. Bonn: Lemmens. Google Scholar

Wilkinson, R. (2010) ‘English-Medium Instruction at a Dutch University: What have we Learned from a Quarter of a Century Experience?’ Paper presented at the Norwegian Forum for English for Academic Purposes (NFEAP), Oslo. Google Scholar

Wilkinson, R. (2013) ‘English-Medium Instruction at a Dutch University: Challenges and Pitfalls’, in A. Doiz, D. Lasagabaster and J.M. Sierra (eds), English-Medium Instruction at Universities. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 1-24. Google Scholar

Wright, S. and Rabo, A. (2010) ‘Introduction: Anthropologies of University Reform’, Social Anthropology 18(1): 1-14. Google Scholar

Yanaprasart, P. (2012) ‘La diversité linguistique comme chance ou comme obstacle’, European Journal of Language Policy 4(1): 45-50. Google Scholar

Yanaprasart, P. (2018a) ‘Enjeux de la double médiation du plurilinguisme dans le milieu académique multilingue. Internationalisation ou diversité dans l’enseignement supérieur?’, Cahier de l’Acedle 15-2/2018. Google Scholar

Yanaprasart, P. (2018b) ‘Des enjeux linguistiques de la diversité académique aux défis didactiques d’enseignants non-natifs de la langue d’enseignement. Regards des étudiants’, in D.T. Razafindratsimba and L.N. Razafindralambo (eds), Interculturalité, circulation et globalisation. Nouveaux contextes et nouvelles pratiques, Paris: L’Harmattan, 307-22. Google Scholar

Yanaprasart, P. (2018c) ‘Transcending Borders: Spanning Language Boundaries between Monolinguals and Multilinguals’, Journal of Language & Intercultural Communication 18(1): 9-27. Google Scholar

Yanaprasart, P. (2019) ‘Défis de la diversité des langues dans la gestion des disciplines et des cultures académiques’, in A. Bolat, N. Noriyuki and R. Jourdan-Ôtsuka (eds), De la diversité Culturelle à L’interculturel dans L’enseignement des Langues - de la Classe de Langues à L’espace interculturel, Éditions Lambert-Lucas, 51-67. Google Scholar

Yanaprasart, P. (2020) ‘Language of Knowledge and Knowledge of Language. Towards Plurilingual Sciences?’, European Journal of Higher Education 10(3), 257-75. Google Scholar

Yanaprasart, P. and Lüdi, G. (2018) ‘Diversity and Multilingual Challenges in Academic Settings’, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 21(7): 825-40. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Gajo, Laurent

Steffen, Gabriela

Yanaprasart, Patchareerat