Town Planning Review

Car sharing and socio-spatial justice: evidences from three Italian cities

Town Planning Review (2021), 92, (4), 479–505.

Abstract

Car sharing is often celebrated as a new opportunity for a more sustainable mobility. One of its potential social benefits is the possibility for low-income, carless households to gain or maintain vehicle access without bearing the full costs of car ownership. However, poor attention has so far been paid to the effective potential of car sharing to improve the mobility options for disadvantaged people. In this paper a socio-spatial-justice approach is adopted to verify this potential in three Italian cities (Rome, Milan and Turin), where private transport plays a key role in mobility choices of citizens. The results reveal that car sharing increases accessibility levels for everybody in absolute terms, but in relative terms the spatial availability of this service is greater for car-owning households than for carless ones. A few speculations are proposed to explain these results, with reference to spatial strategies adopted by car-sharing operators.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

References

ACHEAMPONG, R. A. and SIIBA, A. (2019), ‘Modelling the determinants of car-sharing adoption intentions among young adults: the role of attitude, perceived benefits, travel expectations and socio-demographic factors’, Transportation, 47, 2557-80. Google Scholar

BARDHI, F. and ECKHARDT, G. M. (2012), ‘Access-based consumption: the case of car sharing’, Journal of Consumer Research, 39, 881-98. Google Scholar

BAUM, C. L. (2009), ‘The effects of vehicle ownership on employment’, Journal of Urban Economics, 66, 151-63. Google Scholar

BAYLISS, D. (2009), Low Income Motoring in Great Britain, London, RAC Foundation Report. Google Scholar

BHAT, C. R., SEN, S. and ELURU, N. (2009), ‘The impact of demographics, built environment attributes, vehicle characteristics, and gasoline prices on household vehicle holdings and use’, Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 43, 1-18. Google Scholar

BLUMENBERG, E., TAYLOR, B. D, SMART, M., RALPH, K., WANDER, M. and BRUMBAGH, S. (2012), What’s Youth Got to Do with It? Exploring the Travel Behavior of Teens and Young Adults, UC Berkeley, University of California Transportation Center, https://escholarship.org/uc/item/9c14p6d5 (accessed 16 July 2019). Google Scholar

BROWN, A. E. (2017), ‘Car-less or car-free? Socioeconomic and mobility differences among zero-car households’, Transport Policy, 60, 152-59. Google Scholar

CELSOR, C. and MILLARD-BALL, A. (2007), ‘Where does carsharing work? Using geographic information systems to assess market potential’, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1992, 61-69. Google Scholar

CLARK, J. and CURL, A. (2016), ‘Bicycle and car share schemes as inclusive modes of travel? A socio-spatial analysis in Glasgow, UK’, Social Inclusion, 4, 83-99. Google Scholar

CLARK, S. D. (2009), ‘The determinants of car ownership in England and Wales from anonymous 2001 census data’, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 17, 526-40. Google Scholar

CUCCA, R. and RANCI, C. (eds) (2016), Unequal Cities: The Challenge of Post-industrial Transition in Times of Austerity, New York, Routledge. Google Scholar

CURRIE, G., RICHARDSON, T., SMYTH, P., VELLA-BRODRICK, D., HINE, J., LUCAS, K., … and STANLEY, J. (2009), ‘Investigating links between transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being in Melbourne: preliminary results’, Transport Policy, 16, 97-105. Google Scholar

DARGAY, J. M. (2001), ‘The effect of income on car ownership: evidence of asymmetry’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 35, 807-21. Google Scholar

DARGAY, J. M. (2002), ‘Determinants of car ownership in rural and urban areas: a pseudo-panel analysis’, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 38, 351-66. Google Scholar

DEAS, I., ROBSON, B., WONG, C. and BRADFORD, M. (2003), ‘Measuring neighbourhood deprivation: a critique of the index of multiple deprivation’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 21, 883-903. Google Scholar

DOWLING, R. and KENT, J. (2015), ‘Practice and public-private partnerships in sustainable transport governance: the case of car sharing in Sydney, Australia’, Transport Policy, 40, 58-64 Google Scholar

EFTHYMIOU, D., ANTONIOU, C. and WADDELL, P. (2013), ‘Factors affecting the adoption of vehicle sharing systems by young drivers’, Transport Policy, 29, 64-73. Google Scholar

ELIASSON, J. (2016), ‘Is congestion pricing fair? Consumer and citizen perspectives on equity effects’, Transport Policy, 52, 1-15. Google Scholar

FERRERO, F., PERBOLI, G., ROSANO, M. and VESCO, A. (2018), ‘Car-sharing services: an annotated review’, Sustainable Cities and Society, 37, 501-18. Google Scholar

FIRNKORN, J. (2012), ‘Triangulation of two methods measuring the impacts of a free-floating carsharing system in Germany’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 46, 1654-72. Google Scholar

FIRNKORN, J. and MÜLLER, M. (2015), ‘Free-floating electric carsharing-fleets in smart cities: the dawning of a post-private car era in urban environments?’, Environmental Science & Policy, 45, 30-40. Google Scholar

FISTOLA, R. (2007), ‘Gestione e innovazione della mobilità urbana: car sharing e ICT’, Tema: Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 0, 51-59. Google Scholar

FLETCHER, C. N., GARASKY, S. B. and NIELSEN, R. B. (2005), ‘Transportation hardship: are you better off with a car?’, Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 26, 323-43. Google Scholar

FREI, A., AXHAUSEN, K. W. and OHNMACHT, T. (2009), ‘Mobilities and social network geography: size and spatial dispersion - the Zurich case study’, in T. Ohnmacht, H. Maksim and M. M. Bergman (eds), Mobilities and Inequality, Farnham, Ashgate, 99-120. Google Scholar

GIESEL, F. and NOBIS, C. (2016), ‘The impact of carsharing on car ownership in German cities’, Transportation Research Procedia, 19, 215-24. Google Scholar

GIULIANO, G. and DARGAY, J. (2006), ‘Car ownership, travel and land use: a comparison of the US and Great Britain’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 40, 106-24. Google Scholar

GOODWIN, P. (2012), ‘Peak travel, peak car and the future of mobility: evidence, unresolved issues, policy implications, and a research agenda’ (International Transport Forum Discussion Paper, 2012-13), http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k4c1s3l876d-en. Google Scholar

GÖSSLING, S. (2016), ‘Urban transport justice’, Journal of Transport Geography, 54, 1-9. Google Scholar

HABIB, K. M. N., MORENCY, C., ISLAM, M. T. and GRASSET, V. (2012), ‘Modelling users’ behaviour of a carsharing program: application of a joint hazard and zero inflated dynamic ordered probability model’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 46, 241-54. Google Scholar

HARMS, S. and TRUFFER, B. (1998), The Emergence of a Nation-Wide Carsharing Co-operative in Switzerland, Zurich, EAWAG, http://www.communauto.com/images/Nation%20wide%20CS%20org%20Suisse.pdf (accessed 16 July 2019). Google Scholar

ISFORT (2018), 15° Rapporto sulla mobilità degli italiani, http://www.isfort.it/AllegatiNotizie/181126_RapportoMobilit%C3%A02018.pdf (accessed 16 July 2019). Google Scholar

JENKS, G. F. (1977), Optimal Data Classification for Choropleth Maps, University of Kansas. Google Scholar

JONG, G. D., FOX, J., DALY, A., PIETERS, M. and SMIT, R. (2004), ‘Comparison of car ownership models’, Transport Reviews, 24, 379-408. Google Scholar

KATZEV, R. (2003), ‘Car sharing: a new approach to urban transportation problems’, Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 3, 65-86. Google Scholar

KIM, K. (2015), ‘Can carsharing meet the mobility needs for the low-income neighborhoods? Lessons from carsharing usage patterns in New York City’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 77, 249-60. Google Scholar

KLEIN, N. J. and SMART, M. J. (2017), ‘Millennials and car ownership: less money, fewer cars’, Transport Policy, 53, 20-29. Google Scholar

KODRANSKY, M. and LEWENSTEIN, G. (2014), Connecting Low-Income People to Opportunity with Shared Mobility, New York, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy and Living Cities. Google Scholar

KOPP, J., GERIKE, R. and AXHAUSEN, K. W. (2015), ‘Do sharing people behave differently? An empirical evaluation of the distinctive mobility patterns of free-floating car-sharing members’, Transportation, 42, 449-69. Google Scholar

KUHNIMHOF, T., BUEHLER, R. and DARGAY, J. (2011), ‘A new generation: travel trends for young Germans and Britons’, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2230, 58-67. Google Scholar

LEE, R. J., SENER, I. N. and JONES, S. N. (2017), ‘Understanding the role of equity in active transportation planning in the United States’, Transport Reviews, 37, 211-26. Google Scholar

LITMAN, T. (2000), ‘Evaluating carsharing benefits’, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1702, 31-35. Google Scholar

LUCAS, K. (2012), ‘Transport and social exclusion: where are we now?’, Transport Policy, 20, 105-13. Google Scholar

LUCAS, K., MATTIOLI, G., VERLINGHIERI, E. and GUZMAN, A. (2016), ‘Transport poverty and its adverse social consequences’, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Transport, 169, 353-65. Google Scholar

LUCAS, K., VAN WEE, B. and MAAT, K. (2016), ‘A method to evaluate equitable accessibility: combining ethical theories and accessibility-based approaches’, Transportation, 43, 473-90. Google Scholar

MA, L., KENT, J. and MULLEY, C. (2018), ‘Transport disadvantage, social exclusion, and subjective well-being: the role of the neighborhood environment. Evidence from Sydney, Australia’, Journal of Transport and Land Use, 11, 31-47. Google Scholar

MARSDEN, G., MULLEN, C., BACHE, I., BARTLE, I. and FLINDERS, M. (2014), ‘Carbon reduction and travel behaviour: discourses, disputes and contradictions in governance’, Transport Policy, 35, 71-78. Google Scholar

MARTENS, K. (2006), ‘Basing transport planning on principles of social justice’, Berkeley Planning Journal, 19, 1-17. Google Scholar

MARTENS, K. (2016), Transport Justice: Designing Fair Transportation Systems, New York, Routledge. Google Scholar

MARTENS, K., GOLUB, A. and ROBINSON, G. (2012), ‘A justice-theoretic approach to the distribution of transportation benefits: implications for transportation planning practice in the United States’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 46, 684-95. Google Scholar

MARTENS, K., AND LUCAS, K. (2018), ‘Perspectives on transport and social justice’, in G. Craig (ed.), Handbook on Global Social Justice, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing, 351-70. Google Scholar

MESSER, L. C., LARAIA, B. A., KAUFMAN, J. S., EYSTER, J., HOLZMAN, C., CULHANE, J. … and O’CAMPO, P. (2006), ‘The development of a standardized neighborhood deprivation index’, Journal of Urban Health, 83, 1041-62. Google Scholar

MILLARD-BALL, A. (2005), Car-Sharing: Where and How It Succeeds, Washington, DC, Transportation Research Board. Google Scholar

NANTULYA, V. M., SLEET, D. A., REICH, M. R., ROSENBERG, M., PEDEN, M. and WAXWEILER, R. (2003), ‘Introduction. The global challenge of road traffic injuries: can we achieve equity in safety?’, Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 10, 3-7. Google Scholar

NOLAN, A. (2010), ‘A dynamic analysis of household car ownership’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 44, 446-55. Google Scholar

NOURINEJAD, M., ZHU, S., BAHRAMI, S. and ROORDA, M. J. (2015), ‘Vehicle relocation and staff rebalancing in one-way carsharing systems’, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 81, 98-113. Google Scholar

OSSERVATORIO NAZIONALE SHARING MOBILITY (2016), 1° rapporto nazionale 2016. La sharing mobility in Italia: numeri, fatti e potenzialità, Rome, Fondazione per lo sviluppo sostenibile, http://osservatoriosharingmobility.it/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Rapporto-Nazionale-SM_DEF_23_11_2016.pdf (accessed 11 November 2019). Google Scholar

PARKES, S. D., MARSDEN, G., SHAHEEN, S. A. and COHEN, A. P. (2013), ‘Understanding the diffusion of public bikesharing systems: evidence from Europe and North America’, Journal of Transport Geography, 31, 94-103. Google Scholar

PAUNDRA, J., ROOK, L., VAN DALEN, J. and KETTER, W. (2017), ‘Preferences for car sharing services: effects of instrumental attributes and psychological ownership’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 53, 121-30. Google Scholar

PEREIRA, R. H. M., SCHWANEN, T. and BANISTER, D. (2017), ‘Distributive justice and equity in transportation’, Transport Reviews, 37, 170-91. Google Scholar

PRETTENTHALER, F. E. and STEININGER, K. W. (1999), ‘From ownership to service use lifestyle: the potential of car sharing’, Ecological Economics, 28, 443-53. Google Scholar

PRIETO, M., BALTAS, G. and STAN, V. (2017), ‘Car sharing adoption intention in urban areas: what are the key sociodemographic drivers?’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 101, 218-27. Google Scholar

RABBITT, N. and GHOSH, B. (2016), ‘Economic and environmental impacts of organised car sharing services: a case study of Ireland’, Research in Transportation Economics, 57, 3-12. Google Scholar

RAPHAEL, S. and RICE, L. (2002), ‘Car ownership, employment, and earnings’, Journal of Urban Economics, 52, 109-30. Google Scholar

SCHAEFERS, T. (2013), ‘Exploring carsharing usage motives: a hierarchical means-end chain analysis’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 47, 69-77. Google Scholar

SCHMÖLLER, S., WEIKL, S., MÜLLER, J. and BOGENBERGER, K. (2015), ‘Empirical analysis of free-floating carsharing usage: the Munich and Berlin case’, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 56, 34-51. Google Scholar

SCHWANEN, T. (2016), ‘Rethinking resilience as capacity to endure: automobility and the city’, City, 20, 152-60. Google Scholar

SCHWANEN, T., LUCAS, K., AKYELKEN, N., CISTERNAS SOLSONA, D., CARRASCO, J. A. and NEUTENS, T. (2015), ‘Rethinking the links between social exclusion and transport disadvantage through the lens of social capital’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 74, 123-35. Google Scholar

SHAHEEN, S. and COHEN, A. (2007), ‘Growth in worldwide carsharing: an international comparison’, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1992, 81-89. Google Scholar

SHAHEEN, S., COHEN, A. and MARTIN, E. (2010) ‘Carsharing parking policy: review of North American practices and San Francisco, California, Bay Area case study’, Transportation Research Record, 2187, 146-56. Google Scholar

SHAHEEN, S., SCHWARTZ, A. and WIPYEWSKI, K. (2004), ‘Policy considerations for carsharing and station cars: monitoring growth, trends, and overall impacts’, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1887, 128-36. Google Scholar

SIDER, T., HATZOPOULOU, M., ELURU, N., GOULET-LANGLOIS, G. and MANAUGH, K. (2015), ‘Smog and socioeconomics: an evaluation of equity in traffic-related air pollution generation and exposure’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 42, 870-87. Google Scholar

SIOUI, L., MORENCY, C. and TRÉPANIER, M. (2013), ‘How carsharing affects the travel behavior of households: a case study of Montréal, Canada’, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 7, 52-69. Google Scholar

SMITH, R. M. (1986), ‘Comparing traditional methods for selecting class intervals on choropleth maps’, Professional Geographer, 38, 62-67. Google Scholar

SOCIAL EXCLUSION UNIT (2003), Making the Connections: Final Report on Transport and Social Exclusion, London, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. Google Scholar

SOJA, E. W. (2013), Seeking Spatial Justice, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. Google Scholar

SOLTANI, A. (2017), ‘Social and urban form determinants of vehicle ownership: evidence from a developing country’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 96, 90-100. Google Scholar

TOWNSEND, P., PHILLIMORE, P. and BEATTIE, A. (1988), Health and Deprivation: Inequality and the North, London, Croom Helm. Google Scholar

TSOU, K. W., HUNG, Y. T. and CHANG, Y. L. (2005), ‘An accessibility-based integrated measure of relative spatial equity in urban public facilities’, Cities, 22, 424-35. Google Scholar

VIRY, G., KAUFMANN, V. and WIDMER, E. D. (2009), ‘Social integration faced with commuting: more widespread and less dense support networks’, in T. Ohnmacht, H. Maksim and M. M. Bergman (eds), Mobilities and Inequality, Farnham, Ashgate, 121-44. Google Scholar

WAGNER, S., BRANDT, T. and NEUMANN, D. (2016), ‘In free float: developing business analytics support for carsharing providers’, Omega, 59, 4-14. Google Scholar

WELCH, T. F. and MISHRA, S. (2013), ‘A measure of equity for public transit connectivity’, Journal of Transport Geography, 33, 29-41. Google Scholar

WHELAN, G. (2007), ‘Modelling car ownership in Great Britain’, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 41, 205-19. Google Scholar

WILHELMS, M. P., HENKEL, S. and FALK, T. (2017), ‘To earn is not enough: a means-end analysis to uncover peer-providers’ participation motives in peer-to-peer carsharing’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 125, 38-47. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Pede, Elena

Staricco, Luca