Town Planning Review

‘The exception to the rule’: exploring the exception and the exceptional in planning policy

Town Planning Review (2021), 92, (5), 517–536.

Abstract

This article explores exceptions to planning ‘rules’ as a specific form of discretion exercised by planners and decision makers. Theoretical and conceptual ideas on rules and exceptions to rules, drawing principally on administrative and political decision making, are used to examine the role of exceptions and exceptional circumstances in planning. This analysis addresses the interdependency between exceptions and ‘rules’, the circumstances in which planning decision makers are invited to consider exceptions to rules or exceptional circumstances, and the distinct forms of planning regulation created using exceptions. The conclusions call for systematic analysis of the role that exceptions play in different contexts and planning systems.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

References

AGAMBEN, G. (2005), State of Exception. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. (1995), ‘Zoning or discretionary action: certainty and responsiveness in implementing planning policy’, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 14, 103-12. Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. (1996), Controlling Development: Certainty and Discretion in Europe, the USA and Hong Kong, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. (2003), Planning by Consent: The Origins and Nature of British Development Control, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

BOOTH, P. (2007), ‘The control of discretion: planning and the common-law tradition’, Planning Theory, 6, 127-45. Google Scholar

BRADY, F.N. (1987), ‘Rules for making exceptions to rules’, Academy of Management Review, 12, 436-44. Google Scholar

BRÄNNMARK, J. (1999), ‘Rules and exceptions’, Theoria, 65, 127-43. Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, H. and MARSHALL, R. (2002), ‘Utilitarianism’s bad breath? A re-evaluation of the public interest justification for planning’, Planning Theory, 1, 163-87. Google Scholar

CHILDS, S., GINIGE, T. and PATEMAN, H. (2017), ‘Deliberate concealment’, International Journal of Law in the Built Environment, 9, 32-62. Google Scholar

DAVIES, W. (2013), ‘When is a market not a market? “Exemption”, “externality” and “exception” in the case of European state aid rules’, Theory, Culture and Society, 30, 32-59. Google Scholar

ELSTER, J. (1979), Ulysses and the Sirens: Studies in Rationality and Irrationality, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

HARRIS, N. (2019), ‘Exceptional spaces for sustainable living: the regulation of One Planet Developments in the open countryside’, Planning Theory and Practice, 20, 11-36. Google Scholar

KERTZER, J. (2015), ‘Flouting and scouting: rules and heroic exceptions’, Law and Literature, 27, 417-40. Google Scholar

MILLS, A. (2018), Interpreting the NPPF: The New National Planning Policy Framework, Bath, Bath Publishing. Google Scholar

MINISTRY OF HOUSING, COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (2019), National Planning Policy Framework, London, MHCLG. Google Scholar

NEEDHAM, B., BUITELAAR, E. and HARTMANN, T. (2019), Planning, Law and Economics: The Rules We Make for Using Land, 2nd edn, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

RADOYNOVSKA, N.M. (2018), ‘Working within discretionary boundaries: allocative rules, exceptions, and the micro-foundations of inequ(al)ity’, Organization Studies, 39, 1277-98. Google Scholar

RANA, P. and CHHATRE, A. (2015), ‘Rules and exceptions: regulatory challenges to private tree felling in northern India’, World Development, 77, 143-53. Google Scholar

SAASTAMOINEN, H. and WHITE, G.M. (1995), ‘On handling exceptions’, proceedings of the Conference on Organisational Computing Systems, Milpitas, California, USA, 13-16 August 1995. Google Scholar

SCHAUER, F. (1991), ‘Exceptions’, University of Chicago Law Review, 58, 871-99. Google Scholar

SCHMITT, C. (2005), Political Theology, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar

STURZAKER, J. and MELL, I. (2016), Green Belts: Past, Present, Future?, London, Routledge. Google Scholar

TASAN-KOK, T. (2008), ‘Changing interpretations of “flexibility” in the planning literature: from opportunism to creativity?’, International Planning Studies, 13, 183-95. Google Scholar

TWINING, W. and MEIERS, D. (2010), How to Do Things with Rules, 5th edn, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar

WEBB, B., HARRIS, N. and SMITH, R. (2019), Rural Housing Delivery in Wales: How Effective Is Rural Exception Site Policy?, Cardiff, Royal Town Planning Institute Cymru. Google Scholar

WINDEMER, R. 2019. ‘Considering time in land use planning: an assessment of end-of-life decision making for commercially managed onshore wind schemes’, Land Use Policy 87, article number: 104024. (10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.104024). Google Scholar

WORTHINGTON, S. (2006), Equity, 2nd edn, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Harris, Neil