International Development Planning Review

The making and unmaking of Tarlabasi, Istanbul: an account of territorial stigmatisation

International Development Planning Review (2021), 43, (4), 435–460.

Abstract

Territorial stigmatisation has been drawing attention in the past decade as an important concept in analysing the bad reputation of run-down neighbourhoods and how this bad reputation is used and produced by state agencies. Especially, the links between territorial stigmatisation and urban policies that are followed by state-led gentrification processes have been an emerging discussion in this analysis of understanding the phenomenon of stigmatised places.

This paper aims to examine the links and relationships between the concepts of territorial stigmatisation, state-led gentrification and state power in the neighbourhood of Tarlabasi in historic Istanbul. The questions this paper responds to through the analysis of Tarlabasi are: What were the motivations of agencies of power to mobilise stigmatisation of Tarlabasi during urban renewal projects? Why did territorial stigmatisation increase during processes of state-led gentrification? How did the inhabitants of Tarlabasi behave in the face of increased stigma? The paper concludes with reflections on the use of territorial stigmatisation as a tool and accelerator for urban renewal/regeneration/transformation projects as well as its use as a mechanism by which to procure consent from the public.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

References

Aybek, E. (2018) ‘Tarlabasi’nda Birlikte Yasama Kulturu Yok Oldu, Yok Edildi’, in R. Dogan (ed.), Tarlabasi Bir Kent Mucadelesi, Istanbul, TMMOB Mimarlar Odasi ıstanbul Buyukkent Subesi, 171-180. Google Scholar

Basturk, O. (2020) ‘Tarlabaşı’nın orta yerinde farkli bir step’, 20 November, Hürriyet, https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/yazarlar/onur-basturk/tarlabasinin-orta-yerinde-farkli-bir-step-41666898 (accessed 10 December 2020). Google Scholar

Birand, M. A. (2005) ‘The shame of September 6-7 is always with us’, 7 September, Hürriyet Daily News. Google Scholar

Can, A. (2013) ‘Neo-liberal urban politics in the historical environment of Istanbul: the issue of gentrification’, Journal of Planning, 23(2), 95-104. Google Scholar

Can, A. (2016) ‘The relationship between neighbourhood renovation and gentrification in historic environment: example of Istanbul’ (unpublished PhD thesis), Sheffield, University of Sheffield. Google Scholar

Can, A. (2020) ‘A recipe for conflict in the historic environment of Istanbul’, ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 19(1), 131-162. Google Scholar

CoA (2008-2010) Chamber of Architects Archive, Court Files, Istanbul, Chamber of Architects. Google Scholar

Cohen, N. (2013) ‘Territorial stigma formation in the Israeli city of Bat Yam, 1950-1983: planning, people and practice’, Journal of Historical Geography, 39(1), 113-124. Google Scholar

Crookes, L. (2017) ‘The “not so good”, the “bad” and the “ugly”: scripting the “badlands” of housing market renewal’, in P. Kirkness and A. Tijé-Dra (eds), Negative Neighbourhood Reputation and Place Attachment: The Production and Contestation of Territorial Stigma, London, Routledge, 81-101. Google Scholar

Dikeç, M. (2002) ‘Police, politics, and the right to the city’, GeoJournal, 58(2/3), 91-98. Google Scholar

Diker, N., Dincer, I. and Enlil, Z. (2008) ‘Conservation of Bosphorus’ spirit in spite of the spatial conflicts and threats’ (paper delivered to the 16th ICOMOS General Assembly and International Symposium: ‘Finding the spirit of place: between the tangible and the intangible’, Quebec, Canada, 29 September-4 October 2008). Google Scholar

Eizenberg, E. and Cohen, N. (2015) ‘Reconstructing urban image through cultural flagship events: the case of Bat-Yam’, Cities, 42(1), 54-62. Google Scholar

Garbin, D. and Millington, G. (2012) ‘Territorial stigma and the politics of resistance in a Parisian banlieue: La Courneuve and beyond’, Urban Studies, 49(10), 2067-2083. Google Scholar

Goffman, E. (1963) Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Spectrum. Google Scholar

Gray, N. and Porter, L. (2015) ‘By any means necessary: urban regeneration and the “state of exception” in Glasgow’s Commonwealth Games 2014’, Antipode, 47, 380-400. Google Scholar

Haberturk (2012) ‘Tarlabasi will be a rose garden in three and a half years’, 16 June, Haberturk. Google Scholar

Haberturk (2014) ‘We are having a revolution in Tarkabasi not just a renovation’, 1 December, Haberturk, https://www.haberturk.com/gundem/haber/1014582-tarlabasinda-restora-syon-degil-devrim-yapiyoruz (accessed 9 July 2020). Google Scholar

Harvey, D. (1992) The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change, Malden, MA, Wiley. Google Scholar

Islam, T. (2006) ‘Merkezin Dişında: İstanbul’da Soylaştırma’ [Outside the core: gentrification in Istanbul], in D. Behar and T. Islam (eds), Istanbul’da Soylulastirma: Eski Kentin Yeni Sahipleri [Gentrification in Istanbul: new owners of the old city], Istanbul, Bilgi Universitesi Yayinlari. Google Scholar

Islam, T. (2010) ‘Current urban discourse, urban transformation and gentrification in Istanbul’, Architectural Design, 80(1), 58-63. Google Scholar

Islam, T. and Sakizlioglu, B. (2015) ‘The making of, and resistance to, state-led gentrification in Istanbul, Turkey’, in L. Lees, H. B. Shin and E. Lopez-Morales (eds), Global Gentrifications: Uneven Development and Displacement, Bristol, Policy Press, 245-254. Google Scholar

Jacobs, K., Kemeny, J. and Manzi, T. (2003) ‘Power, discursive space and institutional practices in the construction of housing problems’, Housing Studies, 18(4), 429-446. Google Scholar

Jansson, A. (2005) ‘Re-encoding the spectacle: urban fatefulness and mediated stigmatisation in the “city of tomorrow”’, Urban Studies, 42, 1671-1691. Google Scholar

Kallin, H. (2017) ‘Opening the reputational gap’, in P. Kirkness and A. Tijé-Dra (eds), 102-118. Google Scholar

Kallin, H. and Slater, T. (2014) ‘Activating territorial stigma: gentrifying marginality on Edinburgh’s periphery’, Environment and Planning A, 46(6), 1351-1368. Google Scholar

Kirkness, P. (2014) ‘The cités strike back: restive responses to territorial taint in the French banlieues’, Environment and Planning A, 46(6), 1281-1296. Google Scholar

Kirkness, P. and Tijé-Dra, A. (2017) ‘Introduction’, in P. Kirkness and A. Tijé-Dra (eds), 1-8. Google Scholar

Kornberg, D. (2016) ‘The structural origins of territorial stigma: water and racial politics in metropolitan Detroit, 1950s-2010s’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 40, 263-283. Google Scholar

Kuyucu, T. and Unsal, O. (2010) ‘“Urban transformation” as state-led property transfer: an analysis of two cases of urban renewal in Istanbul’, Urban Studies, 47(7), 1479-1499. Google Scholar

Larsen, T. S. and Delica, K. N. (2019) ‘The production of territorial stigmatisation’, City, 23(4-5), 540-563. Google Scholar

Nowill, S. E. P. (2011) Constantinople and Istanbul: 72 Years of Life in Turkey, Leicester, Matador. Google Scholar

Purdy, S. (2005) ‘Framing Regent Park: the National Film Board of Canada and the Construction of “outcast spaces” in the inner city, 1953 and 1994’, Media, Culture & Society, 27, 523-549. Google Scholar

Rancière, J. (2000) ‘Xénophobie et politique. Entretien avec Jacques Rancière’, in F. Haegel, H. Rey and Y. Sintomer (eds), La xénophobie en banlieue: Effets et expressions, Paris, L’Harmattan, 215-227. Google Scholar

Sabah (2012) ‘Tarlabasi will be complete in three years’, 11 May, Sabah. Google Scholar

Sabah (2012) ‘Half of Beyoglu will be transformed’, 3 July, Sabah. Google Scholar

Sakizlioglu, N. B. and Uitermark, J. (2014) ‘The symbolic politics of gentrification: the restructuring of stigmatized neighborhoods in Amsterdam and Istanbul’, Environment and Planning A, 46(6), 1369-1385. Google Scholar

Schultz Larsen, T. (2014) ‘Copenhagen’s West End a “Paradise Lost”: the political production of territorial stigmatization in Denmark’, Environment and Planning A, 46, 1386-1402. Google Scholar

Sisson, A. (2020) ‘Territory and territorial stigmatisation: on the production, consequences and contestation of spatial disrepute’, Progress in Human Geography, 45(4), 659-681. Google Scholar

Slater, T. (2014) ‘The myth of “Broken Britain”: welfare reform and the production of ignorance’, Antipode, 46(4), 948-969. Google Scholar

Slater, T. and Anderson, N. (2012) ‘The reputational ghetto: territorial stigmatisation in St Paul’s, Bristol’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 37(4), 530-546. Google Scholar

Smith, N. (1979) ‘Toward a theory of gentrification a back to the city movement by capital, not people’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 45(4), 538-548. Google Scholar

Star (2012) ‘Tarlabasi is a poisoned princess. We are healing her’, Star, 17 August. Google Scholar

Tsavdaroglou, C. (2020) ‘The refugees’ right to the center of the city and spatial justice: gentrification vs commoning practices in Tarlabaşı-Istanbul’, Urban Planning, 5(3), 230-240. Google Scholar

Turkun, A. (2009) ‘The manifestations of voluntary and involuntary migration in Turkish cities: from “spaces of hope” to “spaces of hopelessness”’, in R. S. Sandhu, S. Sandhu, and B. Arora (eds), Urban Poverty in Developing Countries: Issues and Strategies for Sustainable Cities, New Delhi, Bookwell, 57-100. Google Scholar

Turkun, A. (2011) ‘Urban regeneration and hegemonic power relations’, International Planning Studies, 16(1), 61-72. Google Scholar

Uzun, N. (2013) ‘Urban space and gentrification in Istanbul in the twentieth century’, in D. Reuchke, M. Salzbrunn and K. Schonharl (eds), The Economies of Urban Diversity, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 235-254. Google Scholar

Vale, L. (1995) ‘The imaging of the city public housing and communication’, Communication Research, 22, 646-663. Google Scholar

Vatan (2012) ‘Tarlabasi will create a domino effect’, 26 August, Vatan. Google Scholar

Vryonis, S. (2005) The Mechanism of Catastrophe: The Turkish Pogrom of September 6-7, 1955, and the Destruction of the Greek Community of Istanbul, New York, Greekworks. Google Scholar

Wacquant, L. (2007) ‘Territorial stigmatization in the age of advanced marginality’, Thesis Eleven, 91(1), 66-77. Google Scholar

Wacquant, L. (2008) ‘Relocating gentrification: the working class, science and the state in recent urban research’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 32(1), 198-205. Google Scholar

Wacquant, L. (2012) ‘Three steps to a historical anthropology of actually existing neoliberalism’, Social Anthropology, 20(1), 66-79. Google Scholar

Wacquant, L., Slater, T. and Pereira, V. B. (2014) ‘Territorial stigmatization in action’, Environment and Planning A, 46(6), 1270-1280. Google Scholar

Watt, P. (2020) ‘Territorial stigmatisation and poor housing at a london “sink estate”’, Social Inclusion, 8(1), doi.org.10.17645/si.v8i1.2395. Google Scholar

Weber, R., (2002) ‘Extracting value from the city: neoliberalism and urban redevelopment’, Antipode, 34(3), 519-540. Google Scholar

Yeni Safak (2012) ‘A safe environment will be created in Tarlabasi’, 31 December, Yeni Safak. Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Can, Aysegul