Modern Believing

Panentheism and Open and Relational Theology

Modern Believing (2022), 63, (2), 134–140.


Open and relational theologies have a particular affinity for panentheism. But what does it mean to say that ‘all’ (pan) is ‘in’ (en) God? How one answers this question will be determined by a number of factors, including one’s metaphysic (understanding what constitutes the ‘all’ that is in God), one’s concept of God, and then one’s understanding of the God-world relation. This essay describes open and relational theology. It also describes panentheism, broadly understood. It concludes with an analysis of how an open and relational view of God and the world can often entail a particular type of panentheism.

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Author details

Oord, Thomas J.

Schwartz, W. Andrew