Polin Studies in Polish Jewry Volume 25: Jews in the Former Grand Duchy of Lithuania Since 1772

Edited by ChaeRan Freeze, Sarunas Liekis, and Antony Polonsky

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ISBN: 9781904113942

Publication: November 22, 2012

Series: Polin Studies in Polish Jewry 25

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This volume of Polin, based on scholarship that has emerged since the fall of communism, is a wide-ranging contribution to the complex history of the Jews in Lithuania. Focusing on the specific character of Lithuanian Jewry, the volume opens by examining how their relationship with the surrounding society developed after 1772, both under tsarist rule and then in independent Lithuania. Moving to more recent times, the devastating impact on the Jewish community of the Soviet and Nazi occupations during the Second World War is discussed, as are the further negative consequences on Jewish life of the reoccupation of the country by the Soviets between 1944 and 1990. The volume concludes with material on the slow revival of Jewish life since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the re-emergence of an independent Lithuania, which was accompanied by the revival of many disciplines, such as the study of Jewish history, repressed by Soviet censorship.

This revived interest in the country's Jewish past is now playing a key role in the broader transformation of historical memory of the post-Soviet era and the problem of coming to terms with the widespread local collaboration in Lithuania during the Holocaust - a process which has led to important scholarly advances but also to bitter controversy. Collectively, the studies in this volume contribute to a better understanding of the complex history of the Jews in Lithuania and of Lithuanian - Jewish relations and constitute a part of the necessary process of creating a more rounded and inclusive history of the country.

CONTRIBUTORS Aelita Ambruleviciute, Marta Aleksandra Balinska, Egle Bendikaite, Michael Casper, Ellen Cassedy, Immanuel Etkes, David E. Fishman, Jack Jacobs, Grigory Kanovich, Saulius Suziedelis, Andrey Krotau, Larisa Lempertiene, Aearunas Liekis, Miriam Offer, Avi Ohry, Karin Ohry-Kossoy, Ausra Pazeraite, Antony Polonsky, Anna P. Ronell, Vladas Sirutavicius, Darius Staliunas, Saulius SuA iedelis, Vytautas Toleikis, Anna Verschik, Theodore R. Weeks, Mordechai Zalkin.

Antony Polonsky was born in Johannesburg, and studied history and political science at the University of the Witwatersrand. He went to Oxford on a Rhodes Scholarship in 1961 and read modern history at Worcester College and St Antony's College. He taught at the London School of Economics and Political Science from 1970 to 1992. Since then he has been at Brandeis University, where in 1999 he was appointed Albert Abramson Professor of Holocaust Studies, an appointment held jointly at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and Brandeis University. He has also been a visiting professor at the University of Warsaw, the Institute for the Human Sciences, Vienna, and the University of Cape Town; Skirball visiting fellow at the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies; and Senior Associate Member of St Antony's College, Oxford.

ChaeRan Freeze is associate professor of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies at Brandeis University. She is the author of Jewish Marriage and Divorce in Imperial Russia (2001), which received the Koret Foundation Publication Award and the Salo Baron Award for the Best First Book in Jewish Studies. She is co-editor (with Jay Harris) of Everyday Jewish Life in Imperial Russia, 1825–1914: Select Documents (forthcoming) and is working on a book Sex and the Shtetl: Gender, Family, and Jewish Sexuality in Tsarist Russia.

Šarūnas Liekis is Dean and Professor of the Faculty of Political Science and Diplomacy at Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas. He studied and did postgraduate research at Vilnius University (habilitation procedure passed in 2005); Brandeis University (1993–98, Ph.D.); the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; and the University of Oxford. He publishes extensively on Jewish history, minority issues, and the international and political history of Lithuania and Poland. His latest book is 1939: The Year that Changed Everything in Lithuania’s History (2010).

Note on Place Names Note on Transliteration PART I: JEWS IN THE FORMER GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA SINCE 1772 Introduction ŠARŪNAS LIEKIS AND ANTONY POLONSKY Lithuanian Jewry and the Concept of ‘East European Jewry’ MORDECHAI ZALKIN Economic Relations between Jewish Traders and Christian Farmers in the Nineteenth-Century Lithuanian Provinces AELITA AMBRULEVIČIŪTĖ The War of Lyady Succession: R. Aaron Halevi versus R. Dov Baer IMMANUEL ETKES Lithuanian Antisemitism in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries DARIUS STALIŪNAS ‘I Have Chosen the Belarusian Word . . .’: On the Life and Creative Career of Zmitrok Byadulya ANDREY KROTAU Authentic and National: Some Lithuanian–Jewish Correlations in the Search for ‘Folk Culture’ in the First Half of the Twentieth Century LARISA LEMPERTIENĖ Jewish Prayer Halls and Synagogues in Vilna, 1914–1920 AUŠRA PAŽĖRAITĖ Walking a Thin Line: The Successes and Failures of Socialist Zionism in Lithuania EGLĖ BENDIKAITĖ Jewish Converts in Independent Lithuania, 1918–1940: An Attempt at a Case Analysis SAULIUS KAUBRYS ‘A Close, but Very Suspicious and Dangerous Neighbour’: Outbreaks of Antisemitism in Inter-War Lithuania VLADAS SIRUTAVIČIUS The Bund in Vilna, 1918–1939 JACK JACOBS The Lithuanian-Language Jewish Periodicals Mūsų garsas (1924–1925) and Apžvalga (1935–1940): A Sociolinguistic Evolution ANNA VERSCHIK ‘Listen, the Jews are Ruling Us Now’: Antisemitism and National Conflict during the First Soviet Occupation of Lithuania, 1940–1941 SAULIUS SUŽIEDĖLIS Soviet Resistance and Jewish Partisans in Lithuania ŠARŪNAS LIEKIS The Vilnius and Kaunas Ghettos and the Fate of Lithuanian Jewry, 1941–1945 THEODORE R. WEEKS ‘To Transform Ourselves’: Lithuania Looks at the Holocaust ELLEN CASSEDY The Problem of Jewish National Symbols in Vilnius DAVID E. FISHMAN Some Remarks on the History of the New Lithuanian Jewish Community: The Road Travelled in Establishing a Litvak Identity VYTAUTAS TOLEIKIS The Recent Works of Grigory Kanovich ANNA P. RONELL The Dream of a Vanished Jerusalem GRIGORY KANOVICH REVIEWS Aušra Paulauskienė, Lost and Found: The Discovery of Lithuania in American Fiction MICHAEL CASPER Tomas Venclova, Vilnius: A Personal History MICHAEL CASPER PART II JEWS IN POLISH MEDICINE Dr Gershon Lewin (1868–1940): Pioneer of Public Health and Promoter of Jewish Culture in Poland KARIN OHRY-KOSSOY AND AVI OHRY Dedicated Physicians in the Face of Adversity: The Association of Jewish Physicians (ZLRP) and the Jewish Health Organization (TOZ) in Poland, 1921–1942 KARIN OHRY-KOSSOY AND AVI OHRY The Medical School in the Warsaw Ghetto, 1941–1942 MARTA ALEKSANDRA BALINSKA Ethical Dilemmas in the Work of Doctors and Nurses in the Warsaw Ghetto MIRIAM OFFER Notes on the Contributors Index

Format: Paperback

Size: 235 x 160 x 41 mm

509 Pages

11 tables and 9 Unspecifieds

ISBN: 9781904113942

Publication: November 22, 2012

Series: Polin Studies in Polish Jewry 25

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